中級 美國腔 16462 分類 收藏
What if you could make your sleep more efficient?
As a sleep scientist,
this is the question that has captivated me
for the past 10 years.
Because while the lightbulb and technology have brought about a world
of 24-hour work and productivity,
it has come at the cost
of our naturally occurring circadian rhythm
and our body's need for sleep.
The circadian rhythm dictates our energy level throughout the day,
and only recently we've been conducting a global experiment on this rhythm,
which is putting our sleep health
and ultimately our life quality in jeopardy .
Because of this,
we aren't getting the sleep we need,
with the average American sleeping a whole hour less
than they did in the 1940s.
For some reason,
we decided to wear it as a badge of honor
that we can get by on not enough sleep.
This all adds up to a real health crisis.
Most of us know that poor sleep is linked to diseases
like Alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease,
stroke and diabetes.
And if you go untreated with a sleep disorder like sleep apnea,
you're more likely to get many of these illnesses.
But did you know about sleep's impact on your mental states?
Poor sleep makes us make risky, rash decisions
and is a drain on our capacity for empathy.
When sleep deprivation literally makes us more sensitive to our own pain,
it's not so surprising that we have a hard time relating to others
and just generally being a good and healthy person
when we're sleep-deprived.
Scientists are now starting to understand
how not only the quantity
but also the quality of sleep impacts our health and well-being.
My research focuses
on what many scientists believe is the most regenerative stage of sleep:
deep sleep.
We now know that generally speaking,
there are three stages of sleep:
light sleep,
rapid eye movement or REM
and deep sleep.
We measure these stages by connecting electrodes to the scalp, chin and chest.
In light sleep and REM,
our brain waves are very similar to our brain waves in waking life.
But our brain waves in deep sleep have these long-burst brain waves
that are very different from our waking life brain waves.
These long-burst brain waves are called delta waves.
When we don't get the deep sleep we need,
it inhibits our ability to learn
and for our cells and bodies to recover.
Deep sleep is how we convert all those interactions that we make during the day
into our long-term memory and personalities.
As we get older,
we're more likely to lose these regenerative delta waves.
So in way, deep sleep and delta waves
are actually a marker for biological youth.
So naturally, I wanted to get more deep sleep for myself
and I literally tried almost every gadget, gizmo, device and hack out there --
consumer-grade, clinical-grade,
what have you.
I learned a lot, and I found I really do need, like most people,
eight hours of sleep.
I even shifted my circadian component
by changing my meals, exercise and light exposure,
but I still couldn't find a way to get a deeper night of sleep ...
that is until I met Dr. Dmitry Gerashchenko
from Harvard Medical School.
Dmitry told me about a new finding in the literature,
where a lab out of Germany showed that if you could play certain sounds
at the right time in people's sleep,
you could actually make sleep deeper and more efficient.
And what's more, is that this lab showed
that you actually could improve next-day memory performance with this sound.
Dmitry and I teamed up,
and we began working on a way to build this technology.
With our research lab collaborators at Penn State,
we designed experiments in order to validate our system.
And we've since received grant funding from the National Science Foundation
and the National Institute of Health
to develop this deep-sleep stimulating technology.
Here's how it works.
People came into the lab
and we hooked them up to a number of devices,
two of which I have on right here --
not a fashion statement.
When we detected that people were in deep sleep,
we played the deep-sleep stimulating sounds that were shown to make them have deeper sleep.
I'm going to demo this sound for you right now.
(Repeating sound waves)
Pretty weird, right?
So that sound is actually at the same burst frequency as your brain waves
when your brain is in deep sleep.
That sound pattern actually primes your mind
to have more of these regenerative delta waves.
When we asked participants the next day about the sounds,
they were completely unaware that we played the sounds,
yet their brains responded with more of these delta waves.
Here's an image of someone's brain waves from the study that we conducted.
See the bottom panel?
This shows the sound being played at that burst frequency.
Now look at the brain waves in the upper part of the graph.
You can see from the graph
that the sound is actually producing more of these regenerative delta waves.
We learned that we could accurately track sleep
without hooking people up to electrodes
and make people sleep deeper.
We're continuing to develop
the right sound environment and sleep habitat
to improve people's sleep health.
Our sleep isn't as regenerative as it could be,
but maybe one day soon,
we could wear a small device
and get more out of our sleep.
Thank you.


【TED】丹.加登堡: 深睡對大腦有益,以及如何睡得更沉 (The brain benefits of deep sleep -- and how to get more of it | Dan Gartenberg)

16462 分類 收藏
Di Yan 發佈於 2018 年 2 月 5 日


現代生活雖然方便,但卻也節奏緊張,常常讓人深陷壓力、過度工作等困境而不自知,讓睡眠品質大幅地下降,一起來聽聽睡眠專家 Dan Gartenberg 的新發現!對自己的身體好一點吧!

1captivated 0:20
captivated 這個字的中文解釋是「使著迷、吸引」,這個字的字首 cap 有 hold 和 take 的含義,因此有種抓住的感覺,其他同樣也是這個字首的有 capture (捕獲)、captive (被活捉的) 等等。
A confident one can always captivate others. It isn't always about appearance.

Jill Bolte Taylor:你腦內的兩個世界 How it feels to have a stroke

rhythm 是個有很多意思的字詞,它的解釋有「詩歌、音樂、舞蹈等的節奏或者韻律、規律的運動、自然界的變化 (四季、日夜) 」。

In the reading competition, I was so nervous that I mangled the rhythm. I'm really disappointed with myself now.

Sandy really enjoys the rhythm of the song "Thinking Out Loud" by Ed Sheeran.
Sandy 非常喜歡紅髮艾德《自言自語》的流暢節奏。

自然界的變化 (四季、日夜) :
The Four Seasons by Italian composer Vivaldi presented the rhythm of the seasons perfectly. What a true masterpiece!
義大利作曲家韋瓦第的 《四季小提琴協奏曲》 完美地呈現了四季交替的節律,實為一大傑作!

3jeopardy 0:53
jeopardy 的意思是「危險、風險」,常見的形式 in jeopardy 是「處於危難之中」的意思。
It is not worthy of putting yourself in jeopardy for her. She's not the one for you.

跟它很相似的字是 jeopardize 當作動詞使用,意思也是「危及、損害」。
My parents always told me and my sister to be aware of our surroundings to prevent us from jeopardizing our personal safety.

【TED-Ed】:美國總統制的發明 (Inventing the American presidency - Kenneth C. Davis)

4literally 1:48
literally 意思是「確實地、名副其實地;逐字地 (翻譯) ;只是、就」,它常常用來強調「就是這樣」、「就是字面上的意思」的感覺。
My grandma made the turkey for Thanksgiving, which was lit. Literally!

5hack 3:33
hack 的中文解釋有「劈、砍;駭客」,前面兩個大家可能都知道,但是常常出現在 YouTube 影片標題的 hack 是什麼意思呢?其實是「妙方、小撇步」的意思,一開始也出自程式設計師,Lifehack 用來描述撰寫程式的人所用的一些比較不正統、但更快速的方式,而後引申爲提高效率的捷徑、方法。
You can now find tons of life hacks on the Internet.

小 V 聽到專家播的聲音差點睡死!絕對不是因為上班的關係喔!大家看到睡眠品質的重要性,以及缺乏睡眠可能導致的後果後,有沒有嚇到啊?所以,一定要多睡覺,還有睡前不要再滑手機了 (不可能的任務)!

文/ Primrose Huang




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