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CNN 10, a down the middle explanation of world
news events, is launching its third show of

the week.
Thanks for watching.
An international summit has begun in the French
capital.

It involves more than 50 leaders from around
the world and its focus is on climate change.

Two years ago, Paris hosted an event called
COP21, meaning Conference of Parties 21.

It brought together negotiators from 195 countries
and it had

the goal of reducing carbon emissions, where
greenhouse gas emissions.

Most climate scientists say these emissions
which are caused by human activity are contributing

to rising global temperatures.
And some critics
say the climate changes naturally and that
the earth can adjust to it.

In the 2015 summit, an agreement was reached.
The countries would set their
own goals for reducing their emissions.
It wasn’t binding, meaning countries didn’t
actually have to fulfill their commitments.

But U.S. President Barack Obama, who was in
office at that time, said the Paris agreement

established a framework to address climate
change and

called it the best chance to save the planet.
Not everyone agreed, but all except two countries
signed on to the deal and the two holdouts

joined
later.
But earlier this year, the U.S. said it would
withdraw.

Newly inaugurated President Donald Trump disadvantage
the U.S. and would cause millions of

jobs.
He added that America would push for a new
agreement that was more fair.

Still, the other countries stayed in.
And two years to the day after the initial
deal was made, a new summit kicked off in

Paris with the goal of
jumpstarting a transition that’s been lagging.
(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)
JIM BITTERMANN, CNN SENIOR CORRESPONDENT (voice-over):
You don’t have to look far to see how complicated

the climate change issue can become.
In
fact, right outside the Paris Conference Center’s
front door, there is a battle going on between

2 million Parisians and the 1 million suburbanites
who commuted to the city each day.
Four years ago, city officials began closing
down sections of express lanes along the River

Seine in Paris,
hoping to replace cars and trucks with bicycles
and pedestrians in order to limit pollutions.

But after a yearlong study, air pollution
officials found that roadway closings only

pushed the pollution from the river where
no one lives to

Paris neighborhoods where people do live.
CHARLOTTE SONGEUR, AIR QUALITY ENGINEER: If
you take out cars, you have better air quality.

It’s better because less emission.
But if you put
them in other places, in other routes, you
will have more pollution.

BITTERMANN: What’s more, it was expected
that an increase in traffic would encourage

commuters to use public transit, but it hasn’t
happened.

According to rail statistics, fewer people
are commuting using suburban trains because

service is deteriorating.
One in four trains on some lines
are delayed because of breakdowns and strikes.
Commuters are increasingly furious with their
lack of alternatives.

PIERRE CHASSERAY, ACTIVIST: To live in Paris,
it’s too expensive.

So, they have to go in the suburbs to live
and take the metro, the public

transport, but it’s not really sure.
It’s not really safe and you have many,
many delays.

BITTERMANN: As well, the increase in traffic
congestion on Paris streets adds time to commutes

and can delay emergency vehicles which may
get stuck

behind the idling cars.
City officials say it’s worth it for the
pleasure Parisians and tourists derive from

a leisurely walk or ride along the river.
CHRISTOPHE NAJDOVSKI, PARIS DEPUTY MAYOR FOR
TRANSPORT: There are thousands or tens of

thousands of people who are just using it
now with

biking, with walking or just enjoying this
new park in the center of the city of Paris.

BITTERMANN: That may be true in the summertime,
however, when the weather turns, the strollers

and riders disappear, but the cars do not.
What’s more, the city’s ambitious scheme
to encourage bike sharing has had its own

problems.
The company behind it is reporting that because
of

vandalism and theft, 15 to 20 percent of the
bikes were lost each year and maintenance

cost went through the roof.
ALBERT ASSERAF, STRATEGY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR,
JC DECAUX GROUP: We have to work on each bicycle

almost every 15 days.
BITTERMANN (on camera): The old bicycle rental
stations are now being ripped out to make

room for a three new higher tech bike-sharing
scheme,

something which may solve some of the problems.
But as city officials here have found out,
convincing people to abandon their cars and

go green is
proving more difficult than they first thought.
Jim Bittermann, CNN, Paris.
(END VIDEOTAPE)
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:
What is the largest country in the world without
a river?

Saudi Arabia, Greenland, Australia, or Iran?
Thought it’s situated between the Red Sea
and the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia does not

have a river running through it.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
AZUZ: It also doesn’t have any movie theaters,
or at least it won’t until next year when

commercial theaters will be granted licenses
to open up.

They’ve been banned for 35 years in the
conservative Muslim country.

But the change is part of a series of reforms
taking place in the kingdom.

The
nation’s crown prince has promised to destroy
what he calls extremist ideologies and return

Saudi Arabia to a, quote, more moderate Islam.
Part of the decision is economic, as Saudi
Arabia tries to reduce its dependence on oil.

Movie theaters could create jobs and encourage
Saudis

to spend more money at home rather than vacation
in nearby countries that have more entertainment

options.
Some Saudi religious leaders oppose this idea.
One cleric has called theaters a depravity
and suggested they could hurt the kingdom’s

morals.
The first cinemas are expected to open their
doors in March.

Moving west from Saudi Arabia to the African
country of Nigeria.

It’s had a number of success stories in
the Olympic Games, like when its soccer team

won gold in 1996.
But Nigeria has never won a medal or even
competed in the Winter Olympics.

Next February, three athletes representing
Nigeria are set to compete in bobsledding.

This is the first bobsled for any African
country.

The women
have already qualified and say they’re ecstatic.
Their driver, Seun Adigun, was born in the
U.S. to Nigerian parents.

She represented Nigeria in the 2012 Summer
Games and she spoke to CNN about the

transition from one type of track to another.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
SEUN ADIGUN, NIGERIAN WOMEN’S BOBSLED DRIVER:
This is beyond a dream come true, you know,

to be able to bring something back to not
only the country

of Nigeria, which has so gracefully given
me my family, you know, my culture and everything

that I stand by, but also, to the continent
of

Africa and the world.
You know, just kind of bring a gift for people
to know that resilience is something that

you can actually live to achieve and
that the fear of the unknown doesn’t need
to be something that limits your ability to

thrive in life.
I mean, I think that those qualities in itself
will really, really be important for everyone
to be able to take in.

RIHANNON JONES, CNN WORLD SPORT: Now, you
mentioned that the fear of unknown.

Let’s stay with that word "fear".
It’s a pretty scary sport by
all accounts, is it not?
ADIGUN: Fear is really just another opportunity
to learn.

Fear is it shouldn’t be something that handicaps
your idea of what it means to be

successful.
It should be a driving force to how you live
and take chances and do things that may not

have even thought were possible.
JONES: And I understand, it all begun in a
Texas garage just a few years ago, right?

You hammered together a makeshift sled out
of wood and scraps.

I mean, it’s quite remarkable what you’ve
achieved from what you’re making in that

garage, to (INAUDIBLE).
ADIGUN: Just the Mayflower, you know, really
helped to catapult my ability to learn how

to bobsled, as well as to help teach it.
And, I mean, look at
now, that was a learning tool before and now,
all of a sudden, I’m segued into being in

real bobsleds.
I mean, look at just the transition from
wooden sled to real sleds.
I mean, this is absolutely amazing.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
AZUZ: A man in an Arizona diner recently ordered
some bacon and eggs.

His bill was $17.
He left a tip of $2,000.
When going out to eat, 20 percent
is usually considered a good tip.
This was more than 11,600 percent.
He left a note that said, please split with
the whole staff, merry Christmas.

That meant more than 200 bucks per employee.
His server said you hear about this kind of
thing on the news, but you never think it

will happen to you.
I guess she thought it was un-bill-ievable.
Turned out, that was the tip of the iceberg.
It seemed to tip off other customers to do
the same thing.

Tip for tat with a tip of a hat.
Bills began to fill, tipping the scales for
hardworking employees whose tip jar runneth

over with the spirit of
giving.
I’m Carl Azuz for CNN 10.
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CNN 10 | CNN Student News | December 13, 2017 | World leaders gather in Paris (CNN 10 | CNN Student News | December 13, 2017 | World leaders gather in Paris)

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