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  • So there are a few things

    有幾件事 So there are a few things

  • that bring us humans together in the way that an election does.

    是選舉期間大家都會做的事 that bring us humans together in the way that an election does.

  • We stand in elections, we vote in elections,

    我們選舉時發表立場、投票、 We stand in elections, we vote in elections,

  • we observe elections.

    觀察選情 we observe elections.

  • Our democracies rely on elections.

    我們的民主仰賴選舉 Our democracies rely on elections.

  • We all understand why we have elections,

    我們都明白為何需要選舉 We all understand why we have elections,

  • and we all leave the house on the same day

    我們都會在選舉當天出門 and we all leave the house on the same day

  • to go and vote.

    投出神聖的一票 to go and vote.

  • We cherish the opportunity to have our say,

    我們珍惜自己發聲的機會、 We cherish the opportunity to have our say,

  • to help decide the future of the country.

    決定自己國家未來的機會 to help decide the future of the country.

  • The fundamental idea is that politicians

    最基本的概念就是,政治家 The fundamental idea is that politicians

  • are given mandate to speak for us,

    被賦予任務,替我們發聲、 are given mandate to speak for us,

  • to make decisions on our behalf

    為我們作出 to make decisions on our behalf

  • that affect us all.

    會影響我們的決定 that affect us all.

  • Without that mandate, they would be corrupt.

    如果沒有任務的交付,就會腐敗 Without that mandate, they would be corrupt.

  • Well unfortunately, power corrupts,

    但不幸的是,權力會產生腐敗 Well unfortunately, power corrupts,

  • and so people will do lots of things

    所以人們做出一些事 and so people will do lots of things

  • to get power and to stay in power,

    來獲得權力、持續保有權力 to get power and to stay in power,

  • including doing bad things to elections.

    包括選舉時做些卑鄙手段 including doing bad things to elections.

  • You see, even if the idea

    所以,即使選舉這概念 You see, even if the idea

  • of the election is perfect,

    非常完美 of the election is perfect,

  • running a countrywide election is a big project,

    一個全國的選舉規模龐大 running a countrywide election is a big project,

  • and big projects are messy.

    規模大就亂 and big projects are messy.

  • Whenever there is an election,

    只要有選舉 Whenever there is an election,

  • it seems like something always goes wrong,

    好像一定會出差錯一樣 it seems like something always goes wrong,

  • someone tries to cheat,

    有人作弊、 someone tries to cheat,

  • or something goes accidentally awry --

    總有事情不符預期-- or something goes accidentally awry --

  • a ballot box goes missing here,

    票箱遺失、 a ballot box goes missing here,

  • chads are left hanging over here.

    候選人畫記不清楚等等 chads are left hanging over here.

  • To make sure as few things as possible go wrong,

    為儘可能確保事情不出錯 To make sure as few things as possible go wrong,

  • we have all these procedures around the election.

    我們選舉有很多過程 we have all these procedures around the election.

  • So for example, you come to the polling station,

    比方說,你來到投票所 So for example, you come to the polling station,

  • and a poll station worker asks for your ID

    選舉工作人員檢查你的身份證 and a poll station worker asks for your ID

  • before giving you a ballot form

    才會給你選票 before giving you a ballot form

  • and asking you to go into a voting booth

    然後要你走進投票間 and asking you to go into a voting booth

  • to fill out your vote.

    填寫你的選票 to fill out your vote.

  • When you come back out, you get to drop your vote

    當你走出投票間,將選票 When you come back out, you get to drop your vote

  • into the ballot box

    投入票箱 into the ballot box

  • where it mixes with all the other votes,

    和其他人的選票混在一起 where it mixes with all the other votes,

  • so that no one knows how you voted.

    藉此就沒人知道你投了誰 so that no one knows how you voted.

  • Well, what I want us to think about for a moment

    那我要各位想一下 Well, what I want us to think about for a moment

  • is what happens after that,

    接下來會發生什麼事 is what happens after that,

  • after you drop your vote into the ballot box.

    在選票投進票箱後 after you drop your vote into the ballot box.

  • And most people would go home

    很多人就回家 And most people would go home

  • and feel sure that their vote has been counted,

    確信他們的選票會被計算 and feel sure that their vote has been counted,

  • because they trust

    因為他們信任 because they trust

  • that the election system works.

    選舉制度 that the election system works.

  • They trust that election workers and election observers

    他們信任選舉工作人員、監票員 They trust that election workers and election observers

  • do their jobs and do their jobs correctly.

    有正確做好他們的工作 do their jobs and do their jobs correctly.

  • The ballot boxes go to counting places.

    票箱會送到指定地點 The ballot boxes go to counting places.

  • They're unsealed and the votes are poured out

    清算拆封後倒出 They're unsealed and the votes are poured out

  • and laboriously counted.

    之後人工計算 and laboriously counted.

  • Most of us have to trust

    我們大多數人都信任 Most of us have to trust

  • that that happens correctly for our own vote,

    自己的選票正確無誤被算入 that that happens correctly for our own vote,

  • and we all have to trust that that happens correctly

    我們必須相信過程會正確無誤 and we all have to trust that that happens correctly

  • for all the votes in the election.

    所有選票都正確計算 for all the votes in the election.

  • So we have to trust a lot of people.

    我們得相信很多人哪 So we have to trust a lot of people.

  • We have to trust a lot of procedures.

    我們得相信這些過程 We have to trust a lot of procedures.

  • And sometimes we even have to trust computers.

    有時候還得相信電腦 And sometimes we even have to trust computers.

  • So imagine hundreds of millions of voters

    所以,想像成千上萬的選民 So imagine hundreds of millions of voters

  • casting hundreds of millions of votes,

    投出成千上萬的選票 casting hundreds of millions of votes,

  • all to be counted correctly

    都必須正確計算 all to be counted correctly

  • and all the things that can possibly go wrong

    這麼多事都可能出錯 and all the things that can possibly go wrong

  • causing all these bad headlines.

    導致這些頭條的出現 causing all these bad headlines.

  • And you cannot help but feel exhausted at the idea

    你一定會覺得,讓選舉過程更完善 And you cannot help but feel exhausted at the idea

  • of trying to make elections better.

    這過程很難達成 of trying to make elections better.

  • Well in the face of all these bad headlines,

    看到這些糟糕的頭條新聞 Well in the face of all these bad headlines,

  • researchers have taken a step back

    已經有人重新研究、 researchers have taken a step back

  • and thought about how we can do elections differently.

    思考要如何規劃選舉 and thought about how we can do elections differently.

  • They've zoomed out and looked at the big picture.

    他們往後退一步,重審大局 They've zoomed out and looked at the big picture.

  • And the big picture is this:

    大局就是: And the big picture is this:

  • elections should be verifiable.

    選舉應該要能核對 elections should be verifiable.

  • Voters should be able to check

    選民應該要能檢查 Voters should be able to check

  • that their votes are counted correctly,

    自己的選票是否以正確算入 that their votes are counted correctly,

  • without breaking election secrecy,

    卻又不打破不記名原則 without breaking election secrecy,

  • which is so very important.

    因為這原則很重要 which is so very important.

  • And that's the tough part.

    而且很難達成 And that's the tough part.

  • How do we make an election system completely verifiable,

    我們要如何讓整個選舉系統能夠核對 How do we make an election system completely verifiable,

  • while keeping the votes

    同時不破壞 while keeping the votes

  • absolutely secret?

    保密原則? absolutely secret?

  • Well, the way we've come up with

    我們想到的方法就是 Well, the way we've come up with

  • uses computers,

    使用電腦 uses computers,

  • but doesn't depend on them.

    但不依賴它們 but doesn't depend on them.

  • And the secret is the ballot form.

    秘密就是選票設計 And the secret is the ballot form.

  • And if you look closely at these ballot forms,

    你看看這些選票 And if you look closely at these ballot forms,

  • you'll notice that the candidate list

    你會注意到候選人名單 you'll notice that the candidate list

  • is in a different order on each one.

    每張顯示的都不一樣 is in a different order on each one.

  • And that means, if you mark your choices on one of them

    這表示,你選好心中的候選人後 And that means, if you mark your choices on one of them

  • and then remove the candidate list,

    私下候選人名單 and then remove the candidate list,

  • I won't be able to tell from the bit remaining

    其他人將完全看不出 I won't be able to tell from the bit remaining

  • what your vote is for.

    你選了誰 what your vote is for.

  • And on each ballot form there is this encrypted value

    每張選票都有加密 And on each ballot form there is this encrypted value

  • in the form of this 2D barcode

    用這個二維條碼 in the form of this 2D barcode

  • on the right.

    右邊這裡 on the right.

  • And there's some complicated cryptography

    條碼中隱含了 And there's some complicated cryptography

  • going on in there,

    複雜的密碼學 going on in there,

  • but what's not complicated

    唯一不複雜的 but what's not complicated

  • is voting with one of these forms.

    就是使用選票的方法 is voting with one of these forms.

  • So we can let computers do all the complicated cryptography for us,

    我們可以讓電腦幫我們用複雜的密碼學 So we can let computers do all the complicated cryptography for us,

  • and then we'll use the paper for verification.

    但用紙張做為核對 and then we'll use the paper for verification.

  • So this is how you vote.

    這就是投票方式 So this is how you vote.

  • You get one of these ballot forms at random,

    你隨機拿了選票 You get one of these ballot forms at random,

  • and then you go into the voting booth,

    進入投票間 and then you go into the voting booth,

  • and you mark your choices,

    畫下你的候選人 and you mark your choices,

  • and you tear along a perforation.

    撕下另一半 and you tear along a perforation.

  • And you shred the candidate list.

    將候選人名單撕碎 And you shred the candidate list.

  • And the bit that remains, the one with your marks,

    剩下的部份,你填寫的部份 And the bit that remains, the one with your marks,

  • this is your encrypted vote.

    就是已經加密的票 this is your encrypted vote.

  • So you let a poll station worker

    之後交給工作人員 So you let a poll station worker

  • scan your encrypted vote.

    掃描你那加密的票 scan your encrypted vote.

  • And because it's encrypted,

    因為已經加密 And because it's encrypted,

  • it can be submitted, stored

    選票可以送出、儲存、 it can be submitted, stored

  • and counted centrally

    中央計算選票 and counted centrally

  • and displayed on a website

    並公告於網路上 and displayed on a website

  • for anyone to see, including you.

    讓人人都可以觀看 for anyone to see, including you.

  • So you take this encrypted vote

    你可以帶走這張加密的選票 So you take this encrypted vote

  • home as your receipt.

    作為收據 home as your receipt.

  • And after the close of the election,

    選舉結束後 And after the close of the election,

  • you can check that your vote was counted

    你可以檢查選票是否被算入了 you can check that your vote was counted

  • by comparing your receipt

    只要用手上的收據 by comparing your receipt

  • to the vote on the website.

    比對網站上的選票即可 to the vote on the website.

  • And remember, the vote is encrypted

    記得,選票是加密的 And remember, the vote is encrypted

  • from the moment you leave the voting booth,

    從你離開投票間那刻 from the moment you leave the voting booth,

  • so if, in fact, and election official wants to find out how you voted,

    所以,如果選舉工作人員想知道你投誰 so if, in fact, and election official wants to find out how you voted,

  • they will not be able to.

    是不可能的 they will not be able to.

  • If the government wants to find out how you voted,

    如果政府想知道你投給誰 If the government wants to find out how you voted,

  • they won't be able to.

    是不可能的 they won't be able to.

  • No hacker can break in

    連駭客也無法 No hacker can break in

  • and find out how you voted.

    查出你投給誰 and find out how you voted.

  • No hacker can break in and change your vote,

    駭客無法駭進系統竄改選票 No hacker can break in and change your vote,

  • because then it won't match your receipt.

    因為如此的話就與收據不符 because then it won't match your receipt.

  • Votes can't go missing,

    選票不會不見 Votes can't go missing,

  • because then you won't find yours when you look for it.

    因為到時候若找不到就能發現了 because then you won't find yours when you look for it.

  • But the election magic doesn't stop there.

    但選舉的魔法不止於此 But the election magic doesn't stop there.

  • Instead, we want to make the whole process

    我門希望能做的整個選舉過程的 Instead, we want to make the whole process

  • so transparent

    透明化 so transparent

  • that news media and international observers

    及是新聞媒體、全世界觀望的 that news media and international observers

  • and anyone who wants to

    所有人都能 and anyone who wants to

  • can download all the election data

    下載選舉數據 can download all the election data

  • and do the count themselves.

    然後自己做計算 and do the count themselves.

  • They can check that all the votes were counted correctly.

    可以自己檢查選票是否正確計算 They can check that all the votes were counted correctly.

  • They can check

    可以檢查 They can check

  • that the announced result of the election

    選舉結果的宣布 that the announced result of the election

  • is the correct one.

    是否正確 is the correct one.

  • And these are elections

    這樣的選舉才是 And these are elections

  • by the people, for the people,

    由人民而選、為人民而選 by the people, for the people,

  • so the next step for our democracies

    所以民主的下一步就是 so the next step for our democracies

  • are transparent

    透明化、 are transparent

  • and verifiable elections.

    可驗證的選舉 and verifiable elections.

  • Thank you.

    謝謝 Thank you.

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲) (Applause)

So there are a few things

有幾件事 So there are a few things

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 選票 選舉 候選人 計算 正確 收據

David Bismark:電子投票 (David Bismark:electronic voting)

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    Chan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字