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Do you ever get into an argument where you know you're right,
and yet even with your eloquent explanation and
all of the facts on your side, you just can't get through?
Is there a strategic way to successfully
convince somebody and change their opinion ?
The first and most disappointing thing that you have to come to terms with is this:
Facts don't convince people. Especially if they already have an opinion.
We all like to think that
information or indisputable studies would convince us in an argument,
but study after study shows that when certain facts don't conform to our beliefs,
our brains are happy to disregard or simply rationalize them away.
In one study, scientists asked people if they believed in man-made climate change,
and then categorized them as believers or deniers.
They then told some that scientists have reevaluated the data and concluded that
predictions for the future were much worse than before.
While some others were told the situation wasn't nearly as bad as once thought.
But these facts had an interesting result on their beliefs.
People who didn't believe in climate change and were told that things would be much worse
completely ignored this fact, and their opinions were unchanged.
But if they were told that things weren't nearly as bad,
their beliefs moved much farther in that direction.
And the same thing happened to those who believed strongly in climate change.
When told that things are now predicted to be worse,
they shifted their opinions more strongly in that direction,
whereas those told it wouldn't be so bad didn't change their opinions at all.
The facts only caused people to polarize.
It turns out that once formed, people's impressions and opinions are extremely perseverant.
And cognitive scientists say
much of this is actually linked to our ability as humans to cooperate.
A skill that no other animals have.
To the degree that humans do, from hunting and gathering to agriculture and modern computers,
our cooperation allows us to rely on one another's expertise instead of knowing everything.
As a result, we can hardly tell where our own understanding ends and another begins.
Ultimately, strong beliefs don't actually come from deep understanding.
This is known as the "Illusion of Explanatory Depth."
If I asked you to rate your understanding of something like a toilet, zippers, or computers,
chances are you believe you know way more than you actually do.
Go on and try to explain step by step how a toilet or a zipper functions in detail.
Sometimes this simple act can expose how baseless ours or others opinion is.
In one study, when participants were asked to rate their opinions of public policies
like healthcare, and then later asked to explain in as much detail as possible
the impact of implementing those policies.
They would quickly turn down the intensity of their beliefs
having been exposed to their own ignorance.
How else can we overcome these tendencies and convince people in an argument?
It turns out that we need to focus on the common motive
as per by Tali Sharot, a cognitive neural scientist,
that is, focus on the motives and things that you can agree on.
One study looking at parents afraid to vaccinate their children
because of the fear of autism
found that if they simply told them the facts,
that the science shows there is no link between the two, they wouldn't listen.
But when they focused on the common goal of protecting their children,
and explained what vaccines are meant to prevent,
things like measles, mumps, polio, tetanus, and
how those diseases impact children who get them without even mentioning autism,
they were more likely to have their kids vaccinated after.
Finally, humans are known to have something called an in-group and out-group bias.
We tend to be skeptical of outsiders or people who we see as different from us.
This can come in the form of race, religion, physical traits, gender,
but also in the form of ideas. So people who don't share your ideas
are part of your out-group. Studies have been done to show that
if you can find a way to relate to people and have them see you in a different light
to see you as a part of their in-group, they're much more likely to listen to you
than if they think you're nothing like them.
Find the group that you're both part of, and use that as a point of personal connection.
Now, if you ever wanna to challenge your own opinions, or become more aware of those opinions contrary to your own,
then you should definitely check out vubble.
A really awesome new company that I love which uses machine learning to
send you stuff you'll like, but with a twist of also sending stuff
that will nudge you outside of your filter bubble.
It's a cool tool that first analyzes you and your interests through questions, pictures, and videos,
and then helps you flex your mental muscles
with some stuff that wouldn't normally be in your feed.
It's a really nice way to expose yourself to a broader view of the world online
And it's completely free!
You can check out the chatbot on Facebook by clicking the link below,
and then click in the get started button to launch the chatbot.
Help mind your feed, and feed your mind.
And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.
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怎麼改變那些意見不同的人? (How Can You Change Somebody's Opinion?)

15728 分類 收藏
kiki 發佈於 2018 年 5 月 5 日   林恩立 翻譯   Lilian Chang 審核

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平常被溫暖的同溫層包圍,偶爾來到大家意見相左的亂流層,實在讓人不是很自在。但你有沒有想過為什麼你會有這樣的感覺?假如真的很想要改變別人的想法又該怎麼做呢?讓我們來了解吧!

1indisputable0:24
indisputable 的意思是「無庸置疑的」、「無法被推翻的」。
An indisputable advantage of e-commerce over brick-and-mortar stores is the lower startup cost.
電子商務相較於實體店面,有一樣無庸置疑的優點,是較低的開業成本。


而名詞 dispute 則有「爭端」的意思。
Territorial disputes are one of the leading causes of international conflicts.
領土爭端是導致國際衝突的主要原因之一。


*同場加映:
【愛上你的工作】你累了嗎?讓你的工作變得有意義吧!(Change the World Make Your Work Meaningful No Matter What You Do)


2categorize 0:40
categorize 的意思是「分類」。
Categorizing people into different personality types may help us better understand each other, but it is important to remember that our characters are fluid.
將人們分類至不同類型的人格可以增進彼此間的相互理解,但我們也要記得性格是會改變的。


categorize 的名詞則是 category,意思是「類別」。
Sorting your things into different categories is very helpful if you are trying to declutter.
如果你想要清理雜物,把你的東西分類是很有幫助的。


*同場加映:
古希臘的音樂與創造力 (Music and Creativity in Ancient Greece)


3degree 1:41
degree 在這裡是「程度」的意思。
Engineers are well-paid because their jobs require a high degree of skill.
工程師的待遇很好,因為他們的職業需要很高階的技能。


degree 的這層意思,同義詞有更常見的 extent
I guess I am to blame to a certain extent.
我想在一定程度上,我確實有錯。


4motive 2:45
motive 指的是「動機」,雖然可以是中性的,不過通常有負面的意涵。
It really hurts my feelings that you would question my motives.
你這樣質疑我的動機真的很傷人。


「正面的動機」則是 motivation
In some countries, it is customary to have to write a letter of motivation when applying for a job.
在有些國家,求職時撰寫動機信是慣例。


*同場加映:
最討厭塞車!到底塞車是從哪台車開始的呢?(The Simple Solution to Traffic)


5skeptical 3:24
skeptical 的意思是「有疑慮的」、「持保留的態度的」。
It is unbelievable how some people remain skeptical of indisputable facts.
有些人質疑無法被推翻的事實,是讓人無法理解的。


而「懷疑主義者」則是 skeptic
It is hard to remain an idealist when surrounded by skeptics.
當周遭都是懷疑主義者,要繼續保持理想是很困難的。


現在你知道該如何做了吧!其實說到底,真的就只是要有同理心,要有開闊的心胸。不過說的容易、做的難啊⋯⋯一起加油吧!

文/ Rachel Kung

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