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  • There are lots of ways to think.

  • And what you want is you want a toolkit of ways to think and you want ways to think to

  • be aligned with the problems you're thinking about.

  • So we talk about sort of four examples of ways of thinking.

  • There's engineering thinking, which is very prevalent in modern society because we're

  • a technical society and engineers solve pain problems to which there are clear repeatable

  • solutions.

  • Once I figure out how to build the Brooklyn Bridge I can build it again and again; it

  • will work every time.

  • That's a hard problem but it's a tame problem.

  • It's well behaved.

  • It will act tomorrow just like it acted today.

  • Business problems you use optimization thinking.

  • There's no right answer to your branding, no right answer to your market share, but

  • you can optimize and that's a different kind of thinking.

  • Researchers do analytic thinking.

  • They thought with a premise.

  • They think thin slice it down.

  • They've got a questioning the process.

  • Those are ways of thinking.

  • What we call wicked problems, that's a technical term developed by some urban planners at Berkeley

  • back in the '70s, a wicked problem is one where the criteria for success are unclear,

  • constantly changing; you won't know you got the right answer until you find it; and once

  • you found it you can't reuse it again.

  • You can't rebuild New York City somewhere else.

  • You can't be Dave Evans again.

  • You can't be somebody else again.

  • So wicked problems are inherently human problems and they're messy problems and they're trying

  • to intersect a future that none of us knows enough about.

  • So how do you do that?

  • You can't analyze that.

  • So you build your way for it.

  • In design we build our way forward.

  • And we build our way forward by sneaking up on the future through this iteration of prototypes;

  • get curious; ask a question; understand it; try something; learn something; do it again,

  • do it again until you get enough of an idea that you can implement and actually solve

  • the problem.

  • We have two kinds of prototyping: engineering prototypes and design prototypes.

  • I should also clarify every time I say the word design here I mean design as in designed

  • thinking or technically human centered design.

  • The design program at Stanford was formed in the '60s.

  • It's over 54 years old.

  • It's the eldest interdisciplinary program at the university, the marriage of art, human

  • factors and mechanical engineering.

  • It's actually located in the ME department it's where we technically work.

  • And that design was conceived as an innovation methodology, not as craft.

  • Most designers in the world were trained in the craft of design.

  • Graphic designers can draw and lay things out and industrial designers can shape things.

  • Even ergonomic designers can shape things in a particular kind of a way.

  • Stanford designers do design thinking and design thinking is a methodology, it's not

  • reliant upon craft and so it's highly transferable.

  • So when I talk about design prototype I mean a design thinking prototype.

  • Engineers prototype things to prove that that tame solution to that team problem they figured

  • out does in fact work correctly.

  • I actually have a masters in thermal sciences.

  • I haven't used it much but there you go.

  • I used to know how to calculate flame speed and design a turbine engine.

  • So if I'm going to design a turbine engine, I'm General Electric, I'm going to run prototypes

  • in a big soundproof cinder block box so when it blows up people don't get hurt and prototype

  • one and prototype two and prototype three are different variations on the turbine blades,

  • on this big fan that spends 100,000 RPM and we're going to make sure that it works under

  • stress conditions and if it breaks we're going to make a modification.

  • We're going to get that engineering done right.

  • That's engineering prototyping to prove that the idea I had works correctly.

  • Because I already think I know what the answer is.

  • A design prototype is not to prove my end solution right, it's to find out what I want

  • to do in the first place.

  • So an engineering prototype starts with a conclusion, a design prototype starts with

  • a curiosity.

  • So when we do prototyping in design like what do I want to know more about?

  • I can either think about that or I can try it.

  • So this is the empirical embodied experience of going out and trying things.

  • So, for instance, when I was the first mouse product manager at Apple many, many years

  • ago we prototyped the mouse.

  • Now the mouse was, of course, an electro mechanical device.

  • It had this little ball and it had Schmidt trigger LED detectors in it that were brand-new

  • technology and those things could be engineering prototyped.

  • But whether or not you like the way it felt in your hand or rolling this thing around

  • on the desk and then looking at the screen over there made sense to you, we had no idea

  • how that was going to go.

  • We had hundreds of prototypes.

  • One button or two?

  • I had long and religiously ideologically animated conversations with Larry Sessler and Steve

  • Jobs about one button or two and modelessness and double clicking.

  • There's no answer to those questions, you have to try them.

  • So we did lots and lots of prototypes of process or experience and lots of prototypes of shape

  • and we ended up with the mouse and the many mice we have today.

  • Couldn't have engineered that, we had to design that.

  • Example of a life prototype.

  • So there's a woman we know, actually an example who didn't do much prototyping.

  • We'll call her Ellen.

  • And she was an HR executive but loved Italian food and had always dreamed of having an Italian

  • deli.

  • And she decided to go for it.

  • So she went for it.

  • So she saw this old deli that was for sale.

  • She bought it.

  • She quit her job.

  • She refurbished the whole thing.

  • She redesigned it.

  • She laid it out.

  • She put in a little café because she wanted to replicate this experience she had living

  • in Tuscany briefly.

  • And then opened to great fanfare and was wonderfully successful.

  • Nobody's successful the first time in a restaurant.

  • It never happens, except she hated it.

  • She loved the idea of it.

  • She loved developing it but not running a retail establishment.

  • I have to hire people all the time.

  • Most of my employees are high school kids and they quit on you regular.

  • I have managing inventory lists.

  • None of the reality of running an Italian deli and café was really delightful to her.

  • Now the prototypes that she could have iterated, she could have started with visiting a lot

  • of different Italian cafés and talking to the owner.

  • She could have gotten a job as a bus girl actually waiting on tables, enough to be a

  • waiter because they sort of have to be trained, but I can clear the tables and overhear the

  • conversations and see if people are having as good as time as they think they will in

  • my place.

  • I can try catering on a weekend.

  • I could cater my friend's daughter's wedding, that's not a very big commitment.

  • No capital is outlaid.

  • Do I really want to cook that much?

  • Lots of ways to try, try, try, try, try before you jump off the cliff or buy the farm and

  • that will give you feedback about what the reality really is.

  • What prototypes and design do are they allow you to ask interesting questions, learn things,

  • expose your assumptions and let you sneak up on the future.

  • So prototyping is a great way to go through your life because nobody knows the answer.

There are lots of ways to think.

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想做出更好的決策?瞭解工程設計和設計思維的區別。 (Want to Make Better Decisions? Know the Difference between Engineering and Design Thinking)

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    xichunhua 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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