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Hunger claws at your grumbling belly.
It tugs at your intestines, which begin to writhe, aching to be fed.
Being hungry generates a powerful, often unpleasant physical sensation
that's almost impossible to ignore.
After you've reacted by gorging on your morning pancakes,
you start to experience an opposing force, fullness,
but how does your body actually know when you're full?
The sensation of fullness is set in motion as food moves from your mouth
down your esophagus.
Once it hits your stomach, it gradually fills the space.
That causes the surrounding muscular wall to stretch,
expanding slowly like a balloon.
A multitude of nerves wrapped intricately around the stomach wall
sense the stretching.
They communicate with the vagus nerve up to the brainstem and hypothalamus,
the main parts of the brain that control food intake.
But that's just one input your brain uses to sense fullness.
After all, if you fill your stomach with water,
you won't feel full for long.
Your brain also takes into account chemical messengers
in the form of hormones produced by endocrine cells
throughout your digestive system.
These respond to the presence of specific nutrients in your gut and bloodstream,
which gradually increase as you digest your food.
As the hormones seep out, they're swept up by the blood
and eventually reach the hypothalamus in the brain.
Over 20 gastrointestinal hormones are involved in moderating our appetites.
One example is cholecystokinin,
which is produced in response to food by cells in the upper small bowel.
When it reached the hypothalamus,
it causes a reduction in the feeling of reward you get when you eat food.
When that occurs, the sense of being satiated starts to sink in
and you stop eating.
Cholecystokinin also slows down the movement of food
from the stomach into the intestines.
That makes your stomach stretch more over a period of time,
allowing your body to register that you're filling up.
This seems to be why when you eat slowly, you actually feel fuller
compared to when you consume your food at lightning speed.
When you eat quickly, your body doesn't have time to recognize the state it's in.
Once nutrients and gastrointestinal hormones are present in the blood,
they trigger the pancreas to release insulin.
Insulin stimulates the body's fat cells to make another hormone called leptin.
Leptin reacts with receptors on neuron populations in the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus has two sets of neurons important for our feeling of hunger.
One set produces the sensation of hunger by making and releasing certain proteins.
The other set inhibits hunger through its own set of compounds.
Leptin inhibits the hypothalamus neurons that drive food intake
and stimulates the neurons that suppress it.
By this point, your body has reached peak fullness.
Through the constant exchange of information between hormones,
the vagus nerve,
the brainstem,
and the different portions of hypothalamus,
your brain gets the signal that you've eaten enough.
Researchers have discovered
that some foods produce more long-lasting fullness than others.
For instance, boiled potatoes are ranked
as some of the most hunger-satisfying foods,
while croissants are particularly unsatisfying.
In general, foods with more protein, fiber, and water
tend to keep hunger at bay for longer.
But feeling full won't last forever.
After a few hours, your gut and brain begin their conversation again.
Your empty stomach produces other hormones, such as ghrelin,
that increase the activity of the hunger-causing nerve cells
in the hypothalamus.
Eventually, the growling beast of hunger is reawakened.
Luckily, there's a dependable antidote for that.
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【TED-Ed】你的身體如何知道你飽了? (How does your body know you're full? - Hilary Coller)

31313 分類 收藏
詹士緯 發佈於 2017 年 12 月 28 日    April Lu 翻譯    Jerry 審核

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你有想過我們為什麼會覺得餓,為什麼會覺得飽嗎?為什麼常常聽到有人說「吃慢一點會比較快飽」呢?為什麼有些食物吃了很快就會覺得飽,而其他的不會呢?一起藉由這篇主編精選一探究竟吧!

1gorge0:24
gorge 是「狼吞虎嚥」的意思。而在地形的詞彙中,gorge 是「峽谷」的意思,另外,「峽谷」也可以寫成 canyon 喔!
He gorged himself on two hamburgers after jogging for an hour.
他慢跑一小時後,吞下兩個漢堡。

Last summer, we visited the Taroko Gorge.
上個暑假,我們去了太魯閣峽谷。


小 V 來補充其他「吃相」的英文:

eat 一般的「吃」
pig out 吃過多的食物,或是吃很多不健康的食物
overeat 吃過多
nibble 像老鼠般「咬小小口」
munch 大聲地咀嚼,通常是吃餅乾或洋芋片的時候
gulp 吞下
wolf down 狼吞虎嚥

*同場加映:
提升你的詞彙!最常見的飲用水名詞,動詞和形容詞 (Improve Your Vocabulary! The most common drinking nouns, verbs, and adjectives)


2set in motion0:35
motion 是「動作」的意思, set in motion 或是 set something in motion 就是「啟動」、「讓某東西開始運作」的意思。
After our boss agrees to our new business plan, we can set it in motion.
當老闆同意我們新的商業計劃後,我們就可以開始動工了。


*同場加映:
全球人口大爆炸....然後呢? (Overpopulation - The Human Explosion Explained)


3take into account1:13
take into account 是「考慮、考量」的意思,take into consideration 也是一樣的意思喔!
I hope Mark takes into account that Sally is a vegetarian when he orders food for our party.
我希望馬克在訂派對食物的時候,會考慮到莎莉吃素。


*同場加映:
鄒奇奇 (Adora Svitak):大人能向小孩學到什麼 What adults can learn from kids


4digestive system1:19
digest 是「消化」的意思,除了平常我們說的「消化食物」之外,也可以用來指「消化某事」 (例如:知識或是道理之類的)。另外,digest 也有「摘要、文摘」的意思,所以月刊 Reader’s Digest 會翻譯成「讀者文摘」。
Generally, it takes about 24 to 72 hours for your body to digest the food you eat, and the exact time depends on the amount and types of food you’ve eaten.
一般來說,我們的身體需要花 24 到 72 小時消化我們所吃的食物,而實際所需要的時間端看我們吃的份量與種類。

Normally, it takes me a while to digest the metaphors that the author tries to hide in the book.
通常我需要花一些時間才能真正消化作者在書中隱藏的象徵意義。


digestive system 是「消化系統」的意思。小 V 也來跟大家介紹一下身體其他的系統:

muscular system 肌肉系統
nervous system 神經系統
respiratory system 呼吸系統
immune system 免疫系統
urinary system 泌尿系統
skeletal system 骨骼系統

5stimulate2:39
stimulate 是「刺激、促使」的意思,通常後面會接生理現象或某個發展狀況。另外,irritateprovoke 也有「刺激」的意思,但是 irritate 指的是「激怒」,而 provoke 有「挑釁、煽動、激怒」的意思。
The government is trying to come up with a new policy to stimulate the country's economic growth.
政府正在想新的政策以促進國家的經濟成長。

Aerobic exercise stimulates your blood circulation.
有氧運動可以促進你的血液循環。


*同場加映:
愛神來了我知道!愛的科學原理(The Science of Love)


看完這個影片是不是又覺得長知識了呢?原來我們在肚子餓;吃東西;覺得飽的時候,身體同時有著這麼多反應啊!真的是太神奇了!

文/ Tina Hsu

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