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  • Alright. So, today I'll talk about the Yin-Yang of dyslexia and creativity,

    好了,今天我就來談談閱讀障礙和創造力的陰陽問題。所以,今天我'就談談閱讀障礙和創造力的陰陽。

  • and the relationship between these two, from the neuroscientific perspective.

    以及這兩者之間的關係,從神經科學的角度。

  • But I want to start with a story,

    但我想從一個故事開始。

  • the story of Jack Horner, a boy who struggled in school.

    傑克-霍納的故事,一個在學校裡奮鬥的男孩。

  • He graduated from high school with a D-minus average

    他高中畢業時,平均成績是D-負。

  • and he failed college seven times.

    而他卻七次沒有考上大學。

  • He had a GPA 0.06, and he never graduated.

    他的GPA只有0.06,卻一直沒有畢業。

  • He was severely dyslexic.

    他有嚴重的閱讀障礙。

  • How is he like now?

    他現在怎麼樣?

  • He is one of the most influential paleontologists of all time.

    他是有史以來最有影響力的古生物學家之一。

  • He is a [technical] advisor of Jurassic Park movies,

    他是《侏羅紀公園》電影的【技術】顧問。

  • and also he is a winner of the MacArthur Genius Award.

    同時他也是麥克阿瑟天才獎的得主。

  • So, what does this tell us?

    那麼,這說明了什麼呢?

  • It tells us first that he is remarkably resilient and perseverant.

    這首先告訴我們,他是非常有韌性和毅力的。

  • And also, it tells us that he is probably extremely creative.

    而且,這也告訴我們,他可能是極具創造力的。

  • It also teaches us three possibilities of why there might be a link

    這也告訴我們為什麼會有聯繫的三種可能性。

  • between dyslexia and creativity.

    閱讀障礙和創造力之間。

  • 1) it could be that it is just a sheer coincidence,

    1)有可能是純粹的巧合。

  • that he was a lucky person that happened to be creative and had dyslexia;

    他是一個幸運的人 碰巧是創造性的 並有閱讀障礙。

  • 2) it could be that his long repeated failure of having dyslexia

    2)可能是他長期反覆失敗有閱讀障礙的原因

  • has led to this ultimate success;

    導致了這種最終的成功。

  • 3) it might be that there is a direct and causal link

    3)可能存在直接的因果關係

  • between dyslexia and creativity.

    閱讀障礙和創造力之間。

  • So, the first evidence that I want to present,

    所以,我想提出的第一個證據。

  • is a research study by Professor Julie Logan

    是Julie Logan教授的一項研究

  • from the Cass Business School in London.

    來自倫敦卡斯商學院。

  • And what she has found in her survey,

    而她在調查中發現。

  • is that over a third of the entrepreneurs

    是,超過三分之一的企業家

  • had dyslexic traits.

    有閱讀障礙的特點。

  • And this is particularly striking given that the prevalence of dyslexia

    鑑於閱讀障礙的普遍性,這一點尤其引人注目。

  • is about 5-10% in the general population.

    在一般人群中約為5-10%。

  • So, it seems like, statistically,

    所以,據統計,似乎。

  • there is a relationship between dyslexia and innovators.

    閱讀障礙和創新者之間有關係。

  • An example that we saw from Jack Horner;

    我們從傑克-霍納身上看到的一個例子。

  • it could be Chuck Schwab,

    可能是查克-施瓦布

  • it could be Richard Branson.

    可能是理查德-布蘭森

  • So there are a lot of these examples.

    所以有很多這樣的例子。

  • And I want to call this the Yin-Yang of dyslexia.

    而我想稱之為閱讀障礙的陰陽。

  • The Yin-Yang because the relationship

    陰陽因為關係

  • between dyslexia and increased incidence in entrepreneurs

    閱讀障礙與創業者發病率增加之間的關係

  • is not that obvious at first sight.

    並非一目瞭然。

  • But also, at the same time,

    但同時,也。

  • the relationship between dyslexia and creativity

    閱讀障礙與創造力的關係

  • may have complementary relationships.

    可能存在互補關係。

  • So we'll take a look at this next.

    所以我們'接下來就來看看這個。

  • The second evidence that we want to address

    我們要討論的第二個證據

  • is that individuals with dyslexia may have a unique brain organization.

    是有閱讀障礙的人可能有一個獨特的大腦組織。

  • When we typically look at damaged or dysfunctional brains,

    當我們通常看受損或功能障礙的大腦。

  • - in this case the example here is the reading network -

    - 在這種情況下,這裡的例子是閱讀網--。

  • typically what happens is that the region surrounding it,

    通常發生的情況是,它周圍的區域。

  • or the opposite hemisphere,

    或相反的半球。

  • - in this case it might be the right hemisphere -

    - 在這種情況下,它可能是右半球 -

  • will show some compensation.

    會出現一些補償。

  • And it might take over or rescue the function

    而且它可能會接管或拯救功能

  • that the dysfunctional brain was carrying.

    功能障礙的大腦所攜帶的。

  • For example, a good example is the stroke patient.

    例如,中風患者就是一個很好的例子。

  • And also what we might see is that skills that these regions host,

    而且我們還可能看到的是,這些地區舉辦的技能。

  • in the orange region, the compensatory regions,

    在橙色區域,補償區域。

  • might actually be enhanced.

    實際上可能會增強。

  • And we might see this case in dementia patients;

    而我們可能會在痴呆症患者身上看到這種情況。

  • we often see enhanced creativity.

    我們經常看到增強的創造力。

  • So, we might think that individuals with dyslexia,

    所以,我們可能會認為,有閱讀障礙的人。

  • also that there might be some kind of enhanced performance going on,

    也有可能是某種增強性能的事情。

  • and this is exactly what we see.

    而這正是我們所看到的。

  • In our study, we looked at...

    在我們的研究中,我們看了... ...

  • we had individuals who looked at these impossible figures,

    我們有個人看著這些不可能的數字。

  • and they had to judge whether they were possible and impossible figures.

    而他們必須判斷它們是否是可能和不可能的數字。

  • And while there is large individual variability,

    而雖然存在較大的個體差異性。

  • we see this strong correlation

    我們看到這種強烈的相關性

  • between reading abilities and visual-spatial abilities.

    閱讀能力和視覺空間能力之間。

  • In other words, the poorer the performance in reading,

    換句話說,閱讀成績越差。

  • or more dyslexic you were,

    或更多的閱讀障礙,你是。

  • the higher performance in visual-spatial abilities.

    視覺空間能力表現越高。

  • And interestingly, we saw a parallel pattern

    有趣的是,我們看到了一個平行的模式

  • in brain activation patterns as well.

    在大腦激活模式上也是如此。

  • So we see this Yin-Yang relationship

    所以我們看到這個陰陽關係

  • between reading and visual-spatial abilities,

    閱讀和視覺空間能力之間。

  • in behavior as well as brain patterns.

    在行為以及大腦模式。

  • This is also consistent with evolutionary advantage hypothesis of dyslexia,

    這也符合閱讀障礙的進化優勢假說。

  • which was proposed over 30 years ago by a neurologist called Norman Geschwind.

    這是30多年前一個叫諾曼-格施風的神經學家提出的。

  • He speculated that dyslexic individuals have remarkable abilities,

    他推測,閱讀障礙者具有非凡的能力。

  • despite difficulties in reading.

    儘管閱讀困難,但。

  • And it's also interesting

    而且它也很有趣

  • that reading is such a critical skill in the modern society,

    在現代社會中,閱讀是一項如此重要的技能。

  • but yet the dyslexics hadn't died out in human evolution.

    但是,閱讀障礙者卻沒有在人類進化中消亡。

  • So there must be some evolutionary advantage of having dyslexia.

    所以,有閱讀障礙一定是有一定的進化優勢的。

  • So now new emerging technologies,

    所以現在新的新興技術。

  • such as the one we use, will allow us to address

    如我們所使用的,將使我們能夠解決。

  • and examine the relationship between dyslexia and creativity.

    並研究閱讀障礙與創造力之間的關係。

  • So to conclude: is dyslexia a reading curse or a creative blessing?

    所以總結一下:閱讀障礙是閱讀的詛咒還是創作的祝福?

  • Until more research is done, we don't have an exact answer.

    在進行更多的研究之前,我們沒有確切的答案。

  • But based on the stories of Jake Horner, and others,

    但根據傑克-霍納等人的故事。

  • as well as the recent neuroimaging findings,

    以及最近的神經影像學發現。

  • we believe that the answer is "Yes" to both.

    我們相信,答案是"是"兩者都是。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常感謝你。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Alright. So, today I'll talk about the Yin-Yang of dyslexia and creativity,

好了,今天我就來談談閱讀障礙和創造力的陰陽問題。所以,今天我'就談談閱讀障礙和創造力的陰陽。

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B1 中級 中文 障礙 閱讀 創造力 關係 大腦 傑克

【TEDx】面對閱讀障礙,創新學習方式, (Dyslexia, Learning Differently, and Innovation | Fumiko Hoeft | TEDxSausalito)

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    Sam Yemen 發佈於 2017 年 07 月 25 日
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