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  • Take a look at the back of any iPhone and you'll see a familiar phrase that's been printed

    若你將手邊任一支 iPhone 翻到背面的話,便能看見上面印有一行熟悉的小字

  • on almost one billion units of the iconic product.

    這行字已經被印在無數項蘋果商標的產品上

  • Designed by Apple in California.

    美國加州蘋果公司設計

  • Assembled in China

    中國製造

  • Like everything at Apple, that wording is deliberate.

    如同蘋果的一切,這行字的措辭也是經過深思熟慮的

  • Apple designs the exterior, writes the software, researches new technologies and develops its

    蘋果設計產品外型、寫軟體、研發新科技並

  • own chips in California, which allows it to to sell devices for 65 percent more than their cost

    在加州開發他們的晶片,讓他們得以用成本價的1.65倍銷售產品

  • But iPhones are assembled in China for a reason.

    然而 iPhone 會在中國製造是有原因的

  • It's easy to assume that reason is cheaper labor.

    我們可以簡單地假設這是因為中國勞工比較便宜

  • While wages are lower, this doesn't tell the whole story.

    但低廉的勞工並不能說明一切

  • In fact, assembly is only 2% of an iPhones hardware cost.

    事實上,製造成本只佔了 iPhone 硬體成本的百分之二

  • Today, most iPhones are made in two chinese cities: Shenzhen and Zhengzhou.

    如今大多數的 iPhone 都是在深圳及鄭州這兩個中國城市製造的

  • Favorable government policies helped Shenzhen become the electronics factory to the world

    透過有利的政策,深圳成為了世界性的電子工廠

  • with Taiwanese company Foxconn its biggest employer.

    台灣的鴻海科技則是其最主要的雇主

  • As a result, thousands of companies and millions of workers have moved to the southern Chinese

    最終,數千家公司及數百萬名員工皆搬到了中國的南部地區

  • city to be close to the action.

    只為了更加接近這項計畫

  • During peak iPhone season, Foxconn hires almost a million people, cutting its workforce to

    在 iPhone 的高峰期間,鴻海會雇用將近百萬名員工,並且於低峰期將勞工數

  • a few hundred thousand during low season.

    砍至數十萬左右

  • Such a cluster effect in Shenzhen means that most of the components needed to make a phone,

    深圳的群聚效應意味著大多數用來製造手機、

  • a laptop, or a drone are within a fifty mile radius.

    筆電及無人機的零件都能在半徑五十英里的範圍內取得

  • Attempts to recreate this cluster have so far failed.

    聚落再造的計畫目前已宣告失敗

  • Brazil is the perfect example.

    巴西即是一絕佳的例子

  • Apple was facing high import tariffs in Brazil and urged Foxconn to make iPhones there.

    蘋果在巴西面對了極高的進口關稅,並慫恿鴻海於巴西生產 iPhone

  • After securing local incentives, Foxconn built a factory.

    在確保了地方上的誘因後,鴻海蓋了一座工廠

  • But very little changed.

    但這幾乎沒有帶來任何改變

  • Rather than doing lots of high-level manufacturing in Brazil, Foxconn continued to do most of

    與其在巴西進行大量的高階生產,鴻海選擇繼續於

  • the work back in China where the supply chain was nearby and parts could be preassembled.

    擁有較近供應鏈且可以預先組裝零件的中國進行製造

  • This meant that most of an iPhone was made in China and merely shipped to Brazil for

    這代表 iPhone 主要仍然是在中國製造,並只會被運至巴西

  • local workers to slot together like lego.

    讓當地勞工像玩樂高積木一樣地拼組零件

  • In the end, the Brazil project failed on two levels - it hired a fraction of the workers

    最終,巴西的計畫在兩方面失敗了:他們雇用的勞工數量

  • the government had expected and it didn’t attract any of Apple’s hundreds of suppliers.

    並未達到政府預期,且沒能吸引到數百家蘋果供應商中的任何一間

  • If an iPhone is to be made in the U.S., it’s more likely to follow the Brazil model, not

    如果要在美國製造 iPhone ,則很有可能採用巴西的模式

  • the Shenzhen model, which means far few jobs and for those workers, making for Apple would

    而非深圳的模式,這代表職缺會大幅減少,且對員工來說,為蘋果製造產品會變成

  • be as seasonal as picking apples.

    像採蘋果一樣的季節性工作

  • So while the U.S. could one day boast an iPhone "Assembled in America."

    因此,美國大可在將來炫耀 iPhone 是「美國製造」的

  • the question is, does it really want to?

    問題是,他們真的有想這麼做嗎?

Take a look at the back of any iPhone and you'll see a familiar phrase that's been printed

若你將手邊任一支 iPhone 翻到背面的話,便能看見上面印有一行熟悉的小字

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 iphone 製造 巴西 蘋果 中國 勞工

為什麼iPhone不能在美國製造? (Why the iPhone Can't Be Made in the US)

  • 60 5
    Crystal Wu 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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