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hello students this is mr. guy -- i'm going to talk to you about paraphrasing
remember paraphrasing just means putting other people's words into your own words
communicating something that you read or heard and putting into your own words
which shows understanding and also shows good academic honesty
ok so before I give you some specific examples i just want to go through some
very quick steps with you that are quite helpful
okay step one is read carefully and this is an important step because we cannot
paraphrase what we don't understand
so we need to read carefully and we need to make sure we understand step 2
so read carefully and make sure you understand because that's where the
ability to paraphrase comes from: it comes from our understanding
step 3 once you've read and understand
go away and take a break... let the information process...Let it become part
of your brain
this is the way I think of it: it becomes part of your knowledge base. it becomes
part of you, and then once it becomes part of you,
once you understand it, now you can put it into your own words
step 4, when you return from your nice break
rewrite it in your own words -- and here's the key: without
looking
don't have that text in front of you write it in your way from your memory
and this can be effective
Ok, now make sure to change grammar and vocabulary as necessary. And then once
you think you have rephrased, check to see the
differences. Compare the original with what you wrote
look at the difference in grammar and look at the difference in words
words and grammar
here's an interesting website it's called handyman online.com /paraphrasing- tool . HTML
i recommend you google this
just google handyman online com
google paraphrasing and I'm sure the website will come up
it's a great way to compare your original text with the one that you
wrote. for example it looks like this. you put the original text here
you know I like sports and then here you might say something like-- okay I enjoy
athletics and you get to check to see the differences. i won't go over all the
details now but you put the original phrase or sentence or paragraph
there in here
you put your version and you you look on the bottom to see some of the
differences
ok
so step six is site
the power praise text you still give the author credit and you cite it you don't
quote it but you just give it a citation
it says that you got the information somewhere else ok
and this is important when it's new information if it is common knowledge
then you don't need to cite for example you know breakfast is important
this is common knowledge everybody knows it there's no reason to
- cite that it's not an original idea for it
maybe it was at one point but it certainly is not in new information
these days
so there's no reason to cite ok now i'm going to go over an example sentence
level changes here as a sentence
new york city in engaging city with a vibrant ambiance and exhilarating pace
is one of the foremost tourist destinations in the world
now i need i find that to be interesting information and i'm going to paraphrase
it again I'm going to look at vocabulary and grammar
so here's my paraphrase version i wrote one of the most popular places in the
world to visit is New York
so this kind of takes the place of this new york is very popular for most
tourist destination means that it is one of the most popular places in the world
to visit see it's a tourist destination
so it's a popular place to visit to visit is taking the place of tourist
destination
people love to visit because it's an exciting and
interesting
so that takes the place of this part here where they're saying that it's
exhilarating and engaging
well, engaging basically means interesting and exhilarating
basically means exciting
so again simply changing words in changing grammatical structure and in
the end what you have is a paraphrase
now let's take a look at a paragraph level
it's a bit different at paragraph level. It requires a little bit more work
so here's the paragraph: BPA a toxin resin found in most plastics can be
detrimental to your health
the International Health Organization has done many studies that support this
hypothesis
many scientists believe that the molecules--
although in small amounts-- enter the body slowly over time after years of
consuming foods and drinks packaging plastic the amount of BPA can be
dangerous
now this can be tough but we need to do is notice which words
can we not live without -- in other words which words must stay
we cannot change these works and i chose these words as unable to change. can't
change BPA because that's so specific
You must have that in order to make set to communicate the author's
ideas, so BPA international Health Organization you can't there's no other
words for that in my view. I think molecules need not be changed because
it's so specific and it's such a scientific and specialist word and again
BPA can't be changed but words like detrimental can. Let's right-click
detrimental we see the synonyms are negative damaging harmful.
so these can be easily done in fact if you want you just say he just ok
detrimental synonym and i'm going to say damaging
so there you go damaging international Health Organization of studies now i
right clicked on studies but none of these words will be appropriate because
here
the computer thinks it's about lessons and training and education -- but it's not. But,
I do know a word and it could be
experiments...... or you may think that this word is not replaceable. You see, some words
may not be replaceable and there is some judgment that you can use
but what matters most is the paragraph feels and reads differently than the
original
so words like enter mean 'go into' a 'body' not really sure.....
let's take a look synonyms physique, build, bulk ,organization, group, figure
form
none of these-- even though they're synonyms-- would actually fit this sentence
so like I said in class we have to be very careful about just using synonyms
because we have to use the right synonym and in terms of this paragraph body is
probably necessary
you probably need it consuming foods all that
that was easy consuming foods means eating foods
ok - to consume means to eat so we can change that
so as you can see there's some words we can change and some we can't ....dangerous
we can look at synonyms of dangerous look at that hazardous, treacherous
perilous, precarious the one that I think is the best is a unsafe or hazardous you
know things can be hazardous or detrimental or hazardous ok so or
negative for your health there's lots of ways to do it
the point is that you identify those words that really can't be changed and
then identify those words that can and you're halfway home
the next part is changing the grammar so let's take a look at the paragraph that
i paraphrased ok here's my version
I said BPA is a dangerous chemical and according to studies by the
International Health Organization it can have negative impacts on our health
the scientific community has done many experiments and believe that the plastic
molecules from the food wrappings make it into our body slowly
so enter becomes 'make it into'
over time the amount of plastics increases which can be dangerous to our
bodies
now i'm going to bring up the old paragraph or the original paragraph and
let's see if we can look at some differences here
BPA is a dangerous chemical and according to the International Health
Organization can have negative impacts on health
ok so here it says BPA, a toxin resin found the most plastics, can be
detrimental to your health
so detrimental year to your health changes to negative impacts
ok many scientists believe that the molecules --although in small amounts-- enter
the body slowly over time. Hhere I said the scientific community has done many
experiments and believe that the plastic molecules from the food wrappings make it
into our body slowly. Over time, the amount of plastic increases which can be
dangerous to our bodies
so what you have here is a change of grammar and a change of vocabulary and
of course notice that some words can't be changedwhile some can
okay well that's it
this is a good start paraphrasing look at vocabulary
look at grammar know what you can change know what you can't change and over time
this will become natural it will become easy for you
ok thank you and if you have any questions please remember to ask mr. guy
and happy happy paraphrasing
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【雅思速成班】基本寫作技巧 (Paraphrasing: The Basic Steps)

2590 分類 收藏
ben 發佈於 2017 年 5 月 29 日
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