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  • We are in a race. The race is against

    我們正在與時間賽跑

  • time. We have to build cities. We need

    我們必須建造城市

  • them, but we have to make them in a

    我們需要城市,但我們必須以不同的方式建造

  • different way. We need a wave of

    我們需要創新

  • innovation, not only for our way of life,

    不僅是為了我們未來的生活

  • but also the planet. The consequences

    也為了這個星球

  • would be enormous if we lose this battle.

    如果我們輸了這場比賽,對地球造成的後果將不堪設想

  • I'm Thomas Goetz, executive editor at

    我是湯瑪斯·傑茲,Wired 雜誌的執行編輯

  • Wired magazine. At Wired, we look at the

    Wired 雜誌專注於

  • innovators and innovations that are changing

    改變世界的創新者及創新的事物

  • our world. In the next hour we'll see

    接下來一個小時

  • three stories from acclaimed film makers

    我們將看到著名電影製作人

  • about the future of energy. We'll explore

    三個關於能源的未來的故事

  • cutting-edge innovations in how we drive,

    我們將探索尖端科技如何改變我們駕駛

  • how we live, and in our first story, how

    及生活的方式,而第一個故事

  • we fuel our cars. They're all ideas

    則是關於我們怎麼驅動汽車

  • that promise to shape the path to the

    這些構想都有助於形塑通往 2050 年的道路

  • world of 2050. The world has right

    現在全世界

  • now close to a billion cars, and we will by

    已經有接近十億輛汽車

  • double the number of cars of the planet

    至 2050 年,汽車的數量將變成雙倍

  • by 2050, so we doubled our vehicles, we

    當車輛數量變成雙倍時

  • really increase the amount of fuel they

    燃料的消耗量也就隨之增加

  • consume, and that's gonna have a big big

    從我們要驅動這些交通工具

  • footprint in terms of our demand for

    並產生對資源的大量需求來看

  • resources to move all those vehicles

    這將會產生非常大量的碳足跡

  • around. We're pulling up carbon that has been

    我們正在使用原本儲存於地底下的碳

  • stored underground and burning in our

    於汽車中燃燒

  • automobiles and putting all that carbon

    並排放大量的二氧化碳至大氣中

  • dioxide in the atmosphere. If we don't

    如果我們無法減少碳排放

  • reduce that, it could have changes in the

    就可能會造成

  • climate that we could never recover from.

    我們無法挽救的氣候變遷

  • There's a number of forecasts for what

    對於未來運輸經濟的願景

  • type of transportation economy we could

    有許多預測

  • move into. One vision is that we will use

    我們預測未來將會使用

  • more and more liquid fuels. Another one

    越來越多的液體燃料

  • is we'll use more electricity. Right now,

    或使用更多的電力

  • more of the industrial activity is

    現在,愈來愈多產業投注心力

  • focused around liquid biofuels. The thing

    研發生物液體燃料

  • about the fuel is it's really

    生物液體燃料的問題是

  • unparalleled on a weight basis how much

    我們很難去用相同的重量標準衡量

  • energy is in a gallon of fuel, and even

    一加侖燃料中有多少能量

  • if batteries develop as some of the

    即使電池如某些倡導者所願地

  • advocates hope they develop, we're not

    持續研發

  • going to see batteries running large

    我們也不會看到靠電池驅動的大型卡車

  • trucks, and we're certainly not going to

    更不會看到

  • see an electrified airplane.

    靠電池驅動的飛機

  • We're going to need transportation fuels

    我們需要一種運輸燃料

  • for those that will directly replace the

    能直接取代

  • petroleum-based fuels that we're using

    當前使用的石油燃料

  • today. This is kicked-off people looking

    這只是一個序幕

  • at a whole range of other alternatives to

    人們將持續尋找

  • petroleum in your tank.

    石油的各種替代品

  • Commercial production of ethanol as fuel

    用乙醇作為燃料的商業化生產

  • started in Brazilian 1975. When we

    始於 1975 年的巴西

  • started the ethanol program, nobody

    當我們開始使用乙醇燃料時

  • talking about reducing emissions. This

    沒有人談到要減少排放污染氣體

  • was not an issue at that time.

    這在當時還不是個議題

  • First and most important, we didn't have

    首先,也最重要的是

  • money to buy oil anymore after the first

    在第一次石油危機之後,我們就再也沒錢買石油了

  • oil shock. We were importers of oil. And

    我們曾經是石油的進口者

  • today more than fifty percent of all

    而現今有超過百分之五十的汽車

  • cars use ethanol set of gasoline. Brazil

    都使用乙醇汽油

  • made a very conscious choice to try to

    巴西有意識地做出了選擇

  • find a way to reduce their fossil fuel

    試圖找方法來減少對化石燃料的依賴

  • dependence and they didn't have to look

    而且他們能夠不假外求

  • very far because Brazil's climate is

    因為巴西的氣候

  • ideal for growing sugarcane. When you

    對於種植甘蔗來說很理想

  • have sugar cane plantation, you have only

    如果你有一座甘蔗園,你只需要生產兩種東西:

  • two things to make: sugar, ethanol. My

    糖、乙醇

  • family has been in sugarcane business

    我的家族自 1955 年開始

  • since 1955, and about 50

    種植甘蔗

  • years ago, I thought there is

    大約五十年前

  • opportunity to make more ethanol. Now, we

    我覺得會有製造更多乙醇的機會

  • are producing 120 thousand cubic meters

    現在我們正在生產 12 萬立方公尺的乙醇

  • of the ethanol. Brazil today has very

    巴西今日已經有

  • close to 400 sugar mills. The overall

    接近 400 家糖廠

  • sales is thirty billion US dollars. And this

    整體銷售額是三百億美元

  • number is increasing.

    而且這個數字正在持續上升

  • If you look at how they make ethanol and

    如果你去看他們如何生產乙醇

  • how efficient the process is, it's

    以及製作過程多有效率

  • really a model for all of us.

    這真的是燃料生產的典範

  • They grind the plant up. Extract the

    他們先把甘蔗壓碎

  • sugar from the cane. The sugar goes into

    將糖液與甘蔗渣分離

  • these large fermentation tanks which

    將糖液導入大型的發酵槽

  • combines sugars together with yeast that

    將蔗糖與酵母結合

  • naturally produces ethanol. They use the

    自然就能產出乙醇

  • rest of the cane to generate heat to

    剩下的甘蔗渣還可以燃燒生熱

  • distill the ethanol and turned into fuel.

    用來蒸餾乙醇、形成燃料

  • They also use that heat generate

    他們還會利用燃燒甘蔗渣的熱能

  • electricity renewably, not putting excess

    再生發電,而不會將超額的

  • carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

    二氧化碳排放至大氣中

  • Brazil has got to a point today where

    巴西現今的已經發展到了

  • they're using about forty percent less

    相較於過去來說

  • petroleum then they would be otherwise.

    能夠減少約百分之四十石油使用量的地步

  • But Brazil cannot supply the whole world

    但巴西也無法供應全世界的乙醇需求

  • of ethanol because they would have to

    因為這必須以

  • cut very strongly in the food production and

    減少食品生產作為代價

  • into critical natural areas like the

    還必須開發亞馬遜等重要的自然地區

  • Amazon to make that happen. And this

    才有可能實現供應全世界的目標

  • really boils down to the fact there's

    這歸結出了一個事實:

  • only so much arable land and growing

    可耕地是有限的

  • fuel for our gas tanks is yet another

    而生產燃料也是未來

  • demand on that landscape. We cannot get

    土地需求的一大來源

  • ourselves into thinking that we found a

    我們並不能因此認為這替世界

  • general solution for the world problem.

    找到了通用的解決辦法

  • I think, we will have to face the world

    我想我們現在應該抱持著這樣的心態面對世界:

  • in this way today, we have no oil and very

    我們再也不會有很多石油

  • large plenty of this anymore.

    或是其他替代燃料了

  • We have no coal transform in the clean way.

    我們沒有方法環保地轉換煤炭

  • In the meantime, we have to do the best we can.

    同時,我們必須盡最大的努力

  • The best at the moment is that they can

    目前最好的辦法就是做生物燃料

  • do biofuels. Sugarcane ethanol is an

    甘蔗轉換成乙醇

  • incredibly efficient process, you get out

    是極為有效率的一個過程

  • about seven times the energy you put

    比起種植甘蔗消耗的能量

  • into growing the sugarcane. In the US,

    在轉換成燃料後,能獲得大約七倍的能量

  • when we produce ethanol from corn, for

    在美國,在將玉米轉換成乙醇時

  • every unit of input of energy we get

    每消耗一單位的能量

  • about the same amount of energy out,

    將轉換成幾乎相同單位的能量

  • so we're really not gaining anything. We

    所以我們其實沒有獲得任何東西

  • need a better process, we don't have to

    我們需要更好的製程

  • take what nature has given us, we can

    我們不必採用自然界所提供的東西

  • actually engineer plants and yeast to be

    我們其實可以對植株和酵母進行生物工程

  • more efficient and that's the basis for

    來提高效率,這也是我們

  • a lot of the work that we're doing now. What

    現今許多工作的基礎

  • we need to look at though is which of

    我們需要注意的是

  • the pathways that come out of this are

    究竟哪個發展路徑

  • not only good financially, but those that

    不僅對經濟發展有利

  • are also good news sustainability, and

    更有利於永續發展

  • this equation is is really wide open right now.

    而這樣的平衡現在還有待發展

  • We are in a race to develop

    我們正處在開發燃料的競賽之中

  • fuels. The race isn't with other

    這場比賽不是與其他國家競爭

  • countries the race is against time.

    而是在跟時間賽跑

  • To meet their mediate and future demands,

    為了滿足當前和未來的需求

  • we made the energy solution spring from the ground.

    我們制定了能源解決方案

  • Brazilian sugar cane is currently the lowest cost, lowest-carbon fuel in the world available in commercial volumes.

    ##新補上的字幕,請補上翻譯##

  • Brazil is the most efficient ethanol

    巴西是世界上乙醇能源生產

  • producing country in the world.

    效率最高的國家

  • Sugarcane alcohol from Brazil can reduce

    來自巴西的甘蔗乙醇

  • the total carbon footprint right up to

    相較於石油,可以降低整體碳足跡

  • seventy percent compared with the gasoline.

    至高達百分之七十

  • The biggest challenge for field

    產業供應商和汽車製造商

  • providers and car manufacturers is to

    面臨的最大挑戰是

  • reduce CO2 emissions over the next 20

    在未來二十年內減少二氧化碳排放量

  • years. Demand for mobility will continue

    交通工具的燃料需求將會持續增長

  • to grow. We believe that biofuels are

    我們相信生物燃料非常重要

  • very important because they help in

    因為它們能帶來立即性的幫助

  • immediate way. All forms of fuels are

    所有形式的燃料如

  • going to be needed, hydrocarbons, natural

    碳氫化合物

  • gas, biofuels, all of them are going to be

    天然氣、生物燃料,這些都將成為

  • part of the energy means for the future of transportation.

    未來交通運輸能源的一部分

  • Brazil has been very successful at

    巴西在運用資源

  • taking a resource they had and finding

    以及尋找將天然資源

  • the process to make that into ethanol.

    轉化為乙醇的方法上非常地成功

  • And people call those first-generation

    人們稱之為第一代生物燃料

  • biofuels. We have lots of lab work around

    我們在世界各地有設很多實驗室

  • the world that are looking at the second

    正在研究第二代生物燃料

  • generation that's generally turning

    基本上就是將纖維素原料轉化為

  • cellulosic material from, for example, weeds

    舉例來說,大麻

  • into biofuels. And United States is

    轉化為生物燃料

  • very much at the forefront of the

    而美國在創新園區中

  • innovation park equation. For centuries,

    處於領先地位,幾個世紀以來

  • we have been using yeast to consume

    我們一直使用酵母菌消耗葡萄糖

  • glucose and produce wine and beer.

    產生葡萄酒和啤酒

  • We're trying to do something very

    我們正在嘗試做一些非常相似的事情

  • similar, only where engineering the yeast

    單純透過對酵母菌進行生物工程

  • to consume that glucose and turn it into

    來消耗葡萄糖,並把它變成

  • a fuel or a drug or a chemical. We call this

    燃料、藥品或化學物質

  • synthetic biology. And when I started in

    我們稱之為合成生物學,當我開始鑽研

  • this area, many of my colleagues said, "Oh, Jay,

    這個領域時,許多同事會說「哦,Jay

  • this is great work, but where's the

    這是一項偉大的工作

  • application? What are you gonna do with

    但能應用在哪裡?你使用這些工具做什麼?

  • these tools? Who cares?"

    有誰會在乎?」

  • Malaria is an enormous problem. In any

    瘧疾是一個極大的問題

  • one year, a million or so people die of

    每年約有一百萬人死於瘧疾

  • the disease, and most of them are

    其中大部分是

  • children under the age of five. So, we

    五歲以下的兒童

  • thought this was a great opportunity to

    所以我們認為這是個好機會

  • engineer yeast to produce an

    透過對酵母菌進行生物工程來生產

  • antimalarial drug called Artemisinin. This

    抗瘧疾藥物,我們稱之為「青蒿素」

  • drug is derived from plants right now,

    現階段這種藥物提取自植物

  • but it's too expensive for people in the

    但對發展中國家的人來說太貴了

  • developing world. So, my laboratory

    所以我的實驗室

  • engineered yeast to produce small

    透過生物工程過後的酵母菌來生產

  • quantities of Artemisinin. Now, that

    少量的青蒿素

  • process is being scaled up and we'll

    現在,這個生產方法正在擴大規模

  • have this drug on the market shortly, but

    我們很快就能在市場上買到這種藥物

  • at a substantially reduced cost.

    而實質上能以更低的成本取得

  • It turns out that antimalarial drug is

    事實證明,抗瘧疾藥物是一種

  • a hydrocarbon and it's very similar in

    碳氫化合物,並在許多方面

  • many ways to diesel fuel.

    與柴油非常相似

  • We thought, "Gosh, we can turn our

    我們認為:「天啊,我們能將

  • attention now to fuels. We could make a

    注意力轉向燃料了。我們

  • few changes in that microbe to turn it

    能將微生物做些改變

  • into a fuel producing microbe." If we

    將它轉換成能生產燃料的微生物

  • imagine that glucose is going to be our

    如果葡萄糖將成為一種新的石油

  • new petroleum, we need a source for that

    我們就會需要葡萄糖的來源

  • glucose, and so the crops that we're

    通常是從農作物中提取葡萄糖

  • looking at are crops like switchgrass.

    譬如用柳枝稷作為原料

  • This is a native grass that grows

    柳枝稷是一種原生草種

  • without a lot of water and our marginal

    能生長在缺乏水源的土地

  • lands, we could turn it into energy farms.

    所以我們可以將這些貧瘠的土地變成能源農場

  • The challenge though is that unlike

    但這會出現一個問題,

  • sugar cane, it is very difficult to get the

    與甘蔗不同,柳枝稷非常不容易

  • sugar out of that biomass. So we use what

    從中提取糖分,所以我們使用

  • we call pretreatment process to extract

    預先處理的方式

  • the glucose from the plant and then we

    從植物中提取葡萄糖

  • feed that glucose to a yeast that we've

    我們將葡萄糖放入我們

  • engineered to produce hydrocarbons and

    設計為生產碳氫化合物的酵母中

  • that yeast takes in the sugar and it

    酵母吸收葡萄糖

  • changes its composition that gives us

    改變了它的組成,因而產生

  • this high energy molecule. They float to the

    高能量分子,他們漂浮在試管上層

  • top. You skim them off. You put them in

    再將那一部分挑起,放進

  • your tank.

    儲存槽中

  • But it takes a lot of work to get from

    但從小試管實驗到能生產

  • that small test tube all the way up into

    高達上百萬加侖的儲存槽的規模

  • the million gallon tank, so we have to

    需要花費很多心力,所以這還需要

  • give it time, but i think that some of

    時間改善,但我認為某些發現

  • the discoveries that are happening might

    可能會在十年後

  • be applied by the end of the decade.

    應用於現實生活中

  • In terms of a sustainable equation for the

    就地球的永續平衡而言

  • planet, raw biofuels is quite tricky.

    原料生物燃料可說是相當棘手

  • There are a variety of crops that do not

    許多作物並沒有那麼適合

  • compete directly with food and finding

    直接當成食物,找到

  • ways to utilize those types of crops

    方法利用這些類型的作物

  • first that's very attractive, so solving

    非常有吸引力,所以解開

  • the science is part of the story, but

    背後的科學是其中一部分,但是

  • then evaluating all of the new fuels

    評估新燃料

  • in terms of the land use impacts that they

    對土地可能的影響

  • could have, that is even harder story than doing the good science.

    這比研究科學還要難

  • Imagine that you could have one process

    設想如果有一個方法

  • that could take in sunlight and carbon

    可以將陽光和二氧化碳

  • dioxide and turn it into fuel. And

    變成燃料

  • imagine if that didn't involve growing

    想像這個過程不需要種植

  • anything at all. The synthetic biologists

    任何原料。合成生物學家

  • are trying to take plants and make them

    試圖採集植物,將之合成

  • do things that they wouldn't normally do.

    產生植物本身不會有的反應

  • On the other hand, materials chemists,

    像我這種材料化學家則不同

  • like myself, want to do artificial

    我們想做人工光合作用

  • photosynthesis to improve on the process

    以改善自然過程中

  • that nature does in real photosynthesis.

    真正的光合作用

  • We should follow the blueprint of plants

    我們應該照著植物

  • converting sunlight into fuel, but take

    將太陽光轉化為燃料的方法

  • the approach that it could be much

    但把這個過程更加簡化

  • simpler. All we really need is a light

    我們真正需要的是

  • absorber that absorbs sunlight. We also

    吸收陽光的光吸收器

  • need a catalyst, like iron or nickel. So

    我們也需像鐵或鎳這樣的催化劑

  • when you see the hydrogen coming off of

    當你看到氫氣從

  • a photoactive material, that's an example

    光敏物質中分離出來時

  • of a semiconductor breaking the chemical

    即是半導體斷開

  • bonds of water make hydrogen and oxygen.

    水中氫和氧之間化學鍵的一個例子

  • Ultimately our pieces are going to be

    最後我們分離出來的物質將

  • contained in something that is easy to

    儲存在某個方便平鋪的物品裡