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One foggy morning in 1884,
the British steamer "Rumney" crashed into the French ship "Frigorifique."
Seeing their ship filling with water,
the French crew climbed aboard the "Rumney."
But as they sailed towards the nearest port,
a silent form suddenly emerged from the fog:
the abandoned "Frigorifique."
It was too late to turn,
and the impact was enough to sink the "Rumney."
As the sailors scrambled into the lifeboats,
the empty "Frigorifique" sailed back into the fog,
having seemingly taken its revenge.
In reality, the French sailors had left the engines running,
and the "Frigorifique" sailed in a circle
before striking the "Rumney" and finally sinking.
But its story became one of the many tales of ghost ships,
unmanned vessels that apparently sail themselves.
And although they've influenced works like "Dracula"
and "Pirates of the Caribbean,"
crewless ships aren't the product of ghostly spirits,
just physics at work.
One of the most famous ghost ships was the "Mary Celeste",
found sailing the Atlantic in 1872 with no one aboard,
water in its hold,
and lifeboats missing.
The discovery of its intact cargo and a captain's log that ended abruptly
led to wild rumors and speculation.
But the real culprits were two scientific phenomena:
buoyancy
and fluid dynamics.
Here's how buoyancy works.
An object placed in a liquid displaces a certain volume of fluid.
The liquid in turn exerts an upward buoyant force
equal to the weight of the fluid that's been displaced.
This phenomenon is called Archimedes's Principle.
Objects that are less dense than water,
such as balsa wood,
icebergs,
and inflatable rafts always float.
That's because the upward buoyant force
is always stronger than the downward force of gravity.
But for objects or ships to float when they're made of materials, like steel,
that are denser than water,
they must displace a volume of water larger than their weight.
Normally, the water filling a ship's hull would increase its weight and cause it to sink -
just what the "Mary Celeste's" crew feared when they abandoned ship.
But the sailors didn't account for fluid dynamics.
The water stopped flowing at the point of equilibrium,
when it reached the same level as the hole.
As it turned out, the weight of the water wasn't enough to sink the ship
and the "Mary Celeste" was found a few days later
while the unfortunate crew never made it to shore.
Far stranger is the tale of "A. Ernest Mills,"
a schooner transporting salt,
whose crew watched it sink to the sea floor following a collision.
Yet four days later, it was spotted floating on the surface.
The key to the mystery lay in the ship's heavy cargo of salt.
The added weight of the water in the hull made the vessel sink,
but as the salt dissolved in the water,
the weight decreased enough
that the force of gravity became less than the buoyant force
and the ship floated back to the surface.
But how do we explain the most enduring aspect of ghost ship legends:
multiple sightings of the same ships hundreds of miles and several years apart?
The answer lies in ocean currents,
which are like invisible rivers flowing through the ocean.
Factors, like temperature,
salinity,
wind,
gravity,
and the Coriolis effect from the Earth's rotation
create a complex system of water movement.
That applies both at the ocean's surface and deep below.
Sailors have always known about currents,
but their patterns weren't well known until recently.
In fact, tracking abandoned ships was how scientists determined the shape
and speed of the Atlantic Gyre,
the Gulf Stream,
and related currents in the first place.
Beginning in 1883, the U.S. Hydrographic Office
began collecting monthly data that included navigation hazards,
like derelict ships, whose locations were reported by passing vessels.
So abandoned ships may not be moved by ghost crews or supernatural curses,
but they are a real and fascinating phenomenon
born through the ocean
and kept afloat by powerful, invisible, scientifically studied forces.
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【TED-Ed】真的有幽靈船嗎? (Are ghost ships real? - Peter B. Campbell)

10417 分類 收藏
Jenny 發佈於 2017 年 5 月 20 日   Jamie 榕 翻譯   Kristi Yang 審核

影片簡介

相信大家應該都看過或聽過神鬼奇航系列電影,近期第五部曲又要上映了哦!其實小編一直都覺得超自然現象非常的有趣,像是麥田圈啦,或是幽靈船這種帶有神秘色彩,甚至有點靈異的傳說。不過,我們並不能只滿足於知道現象的表面,現在就讓我們來用科學的角度來破解這些謎團吧!

1scramble0:36
scramble 可以做動詞「搞混;倉促行動;搶奪」,也可以做名詞的「混亂;倉促行動;搶奪」。
When his boss appeared, Josh scrambled to his feet and tried to hide the cigarette behind his back.
當他的老闆出現時,Josh 倉促的站起身並且試著把菸藏在背後。

All the fans scrambled for the T-shirt that the singer tossed toward the audiences.
所有歌迷混亂的強奪著那個歌手丟向觀眾的T恤。

There was quite a scramble among all the single ladies for that bridal bouquet.
當時為了那束新娘捧花,所有在場的單身女士們之間發生了一陣混亂。


scramble 還有一個很常見也很實用的意思,給大家一點提示 ─ 它跟「混亂」這個解釋很有關係,常常在飯店自助餐或是美式餐廳的時候也會看到這個字 ─ 沒錯!就是「炒蛋」的意思啦!
How do you want your egg? Scrambled or fried?
你想要怎麼料理你的蛋呢?炒蛋還是煎蛋?

There are many ways to cook an egg, and my favorite is scramble.
料理蛋的方式有很多種,而我最喜歡的是炒蛋。


*同場加映:
教你做出三種完美炒蛋! (How To Make Perfect Scrambled Eggs - 3 ways | Jamie Oliver)


2tale0:55
相信很多人都認得這個字是「故事;傳說」的意思,不過所指的範圍比較大,若是要再區分 tale 的種類,比較常聽到得有兩種:fairy tale「童話故事」和 folktale「民間故事」,前者通常是那種有奇幻生物或情節的故事,像是《傑克與巨人》和《長髮公主》等;後者刻劃的比較會是市井小民的日常生活,像是《虎姑婆》和《林投姐》。

其它和 tale 意思很相近、容易搞不清楚的字詞還有:

fable 的意思是「寓言」,其實它的內容和 folktale 很像,大多都是以小人物或動物做為故事的主人翁,但是民間故事的娛樂性比較高,寓言則多了一些道德、判斷是非善惡的教誨要傳達,像是《龜兔賽跑》和《放羊的孩子》。

第二個是 legend「傳奇」,裡面的角色通常都是真實的歷史人物,但在以訛傳訛和過度渲染之下,其中的故事情節卻不一定真的有發生過,像是《亞瑟王與圓桌武士》和《廖添丁》。

最後一個則是 myth「神話」, 通常是在解釋某種自然現象或是事件源起,所以很多和宗教或是神明有關,像是我們耳熟能詳的《黃帝大戰蚩尤》和《女媧補天》等。

3abruptly1:28
abrupt 是形容詞「突然的;唐突的;陡峭的」,而 abruptly 就是它的副詞變形啦。這個字解釋不複雜,但是並不是很好發音,abruptlyKK 音標是 [əˋbrʌptlɪ],重音在 brupt- 這個音節上,要注意把裡面的 bpt 的音都準確的發出來,但不能太重,要輕輕的帶過之餘發音也要夠清楚。第一次無法到達完美別氣餒,多聽幾次影片中的發音,慢慢訓練和加強吧!
Seeing her boyfriend holding other girl, she stopped abruptly and just froze in the middle of the street.
當她看到男朋友摟著其他女孩,她突然停住腳步然後在路中央動彈不得。

The cliff ended abruptly; it looks dangerous but I love standing on the edge of it, just like I am floating in the sky.
這個懸崖非常的陡峭 ─ 雖然這樣做看起來很危險,但我喜歡站在它的邊緣上,有種漂浮在半空中的感覺。


4force1:49
force 這個字可以做動詞或是名詞解釋,影片中的意思是名詞「力;力量;軍隊」,最有名的例句就是出自星際大戰的 May the force be with you.「願原力與你同在」!
I felt an unexplainable force pushing my back when I entered that abandoned house.
當我踏進那間廢棄的屋子時,感受到一股不可解釋的力量在推著我的背。

My brother has always wanted to join the military since my dad is an officer in air force.
我哥一直都很想從軍,因為我爸是空軍的軍官。


動詞的解釋則是「強迫;勉強」。
This pair of Dior shoes cost me $3000. I have to force my foot into them no matter what!
這雙 Dior 的鞋子花了我三千美元,無論如何我一定要把腳給擠進去!

Those paparazzi are crazy! We have to force our way through the lobby!
那些狗仔隊真的很誇張!我們必須硬擠才能通過大廳欸!


*同場加映:
《星際大戰:原力覺醒》結局應該長這樣! (How Star Wars The Force Awakens Should Have Ended)


5current3:38
影片中的 sea current 意思是「洋流」,current 本身作為名詞時就有各種「...流」的解釋,除了洋流外,還有「氣流;電流;潮流」等等。
I had experienced an electric shock once when I was little. I could literally feel the current running through my arm.
我小時候不小心觸電過一次,我那時真的可以感覺到電流流過我的手臂。

There's a current of checking-in as many places on Facebook as possible right now, just like some kind of competition.
現在有股在 Facebook 上盡可能在不同地方打卡的潮流,就像是某種比賽一樣。


另外 current 還有形容詞「流行的;現在的」意思,所謂跟流行就是某種程度的隨波逐流囉!
I like listening and watching indie-artworks; basically, I dislike everything in the current fashion.
我喜歡聽和看獨立音樂及電影,基本上,我就是不喜歡所有當代潮流的東西。

She is the current employee of Morgan Stanley.
她是摩根士丹利的現任員工。


*同場加映:
TED-Ed:數學家的無限旅館謬論 (The Infinite Hotel Paradox - Jeff Dekofsky)


6hazard4:23
hazard 的意思是「危險;危害物」,形容詞為 hazardous「危險的」。
His private life was at hazard since he chose to be fully concentrated on his career.
因為他決定全神貫注在事業上,現在私人生活已經搖搖欲墜了。

Drugs are hazardous to your health. Remember that curiosity kills a cat.
毒品對你的健康有害,記得好奇心殺死一隻貓啊。


也可以做為動詞「冒險;暴露於可能的危險中」。
She hazarded a guess that the burglar had gone away and decided to stop hiding.
她大膽的假設那名竊賊已經離開了,決定不再躲藏。


*同場加映:
打擊忌妒心DEALING WITH JEALOUSY


看完了這支影片之後有沒有對幽靈船的這個故事幻滅了呢?會不會覺得原來這一切只是無聊的物理造成的騙局呢?雖然物理和科學解釋了很多事,但是小編依然對很多事情保持著開放同時懷疑的態度,畢竟大海深不可測、廣闊無垠,搞不好還是存在著某些目前還無法解釋的神秘力量喔!


In 1884, the British steamer “Rumney” crashed into the French ship “Frigorifique.” Seeing their ship filling with water, the French crew climbed aboard the “Rumney.” But as they sailed towards port, a silent form emerged from the fog – the abandoned “Frigorifique,” seemingly back for revenge. So what happened? Peter B. Campbell investigates the fascinating phenomenon of ghost ships.\n\nLesson by Peter B. Campbell, animation by Zedem Media.

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