中級 美國腔 8580 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
In the years after World War II, Gross Domestic Product or GDP became the gold standard
for gauging a nation's overall health and productivity.
But while most countries focused on industrial output, a tiny Himalayan kingdom created
its own method to measure worth: Gross National Happiness or GNH.
The country behind this widely adored spiritual model is Bhutan, and for many years it was
considered one of the happiest and most authentic countries in the world.
But what exactly is the actual cost of happiness?
Bhutan's perception as an idyllic wonderland is owed in part to its location.
The small, mountainous country sits near India, Tibet and China with a population of 750,000
people.
Unspoiled nature and a peaceful citizenry is why Bhutan is often seen as “a magic
time machine,” and it has a long history of rejecting outside influence to preserve
its identity.
After defeating Tibetan forces and feuding warlords in the 16th century, Bhutan's leader
unified the country and cultivated a unique culture to differentiate itself from warring
powers.
A distinct Bhutanese identity emerged which emphasized a communal relationship with nature
and a lifestyle centered around Buddhism.
Bhutan avoided globalization and preserved its society in isolation for centuries.
As the rest of the world modernized, Bhutan still had no currency, telephones, hospitals,
or paved roads.
It wasn’t until the late 1960s that Bhutan cracked open its doors to the outside world
and started to focus on development.
But instead of hurriedly adopting western reforms, Bhutan's beloved Fourth King Jigme
Singye Wangchuck invented Gross National Happiness to guide his country's progress.
GNH measures spiritual growth instead of rising incomes, and relies on four key pillars: good
governance, economic development, culture, and environmental conservation.
Every policy proposal in Bhutan is screened by the GNH commission and children are taught
GNH in schools.
The Center of Bhutan Studies conducts a survey on various aspects of Bhutanese life.
Residents are asked questions like “How often do you experience calmness?”
and “How much do you trust your neighbors?.”
This happiness experiment is celebrated by the international community, and other countries
have even created their own ministries of happiness modeled after Bhutan.
But this model of state happiness didn’t extend to everyone living in Bhutan.
In the 1980s, King Wangchuck instituted a policy of “one nation, one people” forcing
all Bhutanese to dress the same and speak one language.
The King disregarded disparate ethnic groups, notably the Nepali-speaking “Lhotshampas”,
whom he exiled in large numbers.
To this day, the government claims the Lhotshampas left voluntarily.
Bhutan's isolationist policy saw more flaws in the 1990's.
Bhutanese residents got access to television, and cell phones and cars started to become
status symbols.
Divorce, crime and school dropout rates increased, perhaps as a result of access to western technology
and materialism.
As the country continued to develop, the concept of quote “I want more” took root in the
Buddhist Kingdom, shifting the country's perception of happiness.
Today, Bhutan is a developing economy with a GDP of just $2 billion.
Many Bhutanese still work as subsistence farmers and suffer from poverty.
There's also an uptick in mental health issues and alcoholism, but Bhutan doesn’t provide
basic services to address these issues.
It seems that the autocratic policy of gross national happiness is a cover for serious
failures of governance, poverty and human rights abuses at home.
And the King's remarkable public relations surrounding GNH protected him from international
condemnation.
In the latest shift towards modernity, Bhutan's centuries-old monarchy was replaced with a
parliamentary democracy.
As the government shifts, some at the top believe that GNH may not be the foundation
for perfect policy.
Bhutan's Prime Minister has even called the GNH a quote “distraction” if it doesn’t
address important social issues.
Nevertheless, in the most recent Gross National Happiness survey, over 90% of Bhutanese still
consider themselves happy.
But with Bhutan's semi-authoritarian government ignoring chronic social issues in the pursuit
of uniformity, it's hard to tell just how happy the Bhutanese are.
Modernization hasn't shifted Bhutan's moral center completely off balance, however, as
democratic institutions are put in place, there could be more consequences if the talk
of happiness persists over real progress.
For more interesting stories, check out this video from Seeker Stories on the powerful
student protests in Chile that are helping reform the country's education system.
Thanks for watching Seeker Daily, make sure to like and subscribe for new videos.
    您必須登入才有此功能
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

不丹:重視「幸福」甚於「經濟發展」的國家 (This Country Put Happiness Before Economy, But Did It Work?_

8580 分類 收藏
quirer 發佈於 2017 年 8 月 8 日   Ellen Hsiao 翻譯   林恩立 審核

影片學習單字重點

loading

影片討論

載入中…
  1. 1. 單字查詢佳句收藏

    選取單字或佳句,可即時查詢字典及收藏!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔