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Hey there! Welcome to Life Noggin!
Have you ever wondered if it was possible for humans to regrow body parts?
Why is it that when a person loses an arm,
only the wound is healed rather than the body regrowing their lost limb?
In the spirit of Dr. Connors, let's find out.
I just hope we don't all turn into Spider-Man villains.
So humans can't regrow their own limbs, correct?
Well, that might not be entirely true.
As an embryo, long before your birth,
you may have had the ability to replace your developing limbs.
Through scientific surgery, researchers have shown that at the embryonic stage of development,
frogs can regenerate their developing limbs.
This has even been shown in mice, which like humans, are mammals.
It is yet to be proven the same with human embryos, but with this evidence,
the theory is that vertebrate embryos, including humans,
can regenerate their limbs if they are damaged or amputated.
However, other than a few special and small cases like the regeneration of fingertips,
humans don't really have this ability after birth.
But do any other animals?
It just so happens that salamanders have this super awesome superpower!
They are the only vertebrate that can regrow their limbs and many other body parts throughout their lifetime.
In fact, the axolotl, a Mexican salamander, can regenerate almost anything,
from their eyes, to their spinal cord, to even parts of their brain.
These adorable little guys are amazing!
And I want 20 of them.
So how do salamanders do it?
Well, when a human loses a limb, their cells close the wound and a blood clot forms.
This leads to a scab over the wound and an eventual scar in the place of where the limb was.
But for a salamander, scar tissue never forms—
a striking difference between their regeneration and a human wound healing.
A salamander's wound closes more rapidly and cells rush to the amputation site.
These cells revert back to a less specialized state and begin creating the blastema,
which is the bud of a new limb.
As the blastema grows, it begins to form the outline of a new limb and the foot.
The cells begin creating new tissue by proliferating and differentiating into things like muscle and bone.
The new leg lengthens, filling out the missing segments between the amputation site and the toes.
The whole process usually lasts around two months,
and then the salamander has a fully regenerated limb.
It's perfect for a cute little high five! Go science!
But in humans, the blastema never grows.
Some scientists think that's because humans don't have
all the genes necessary to facilitate such a level of regeneration.
But others think that humans don't have this regenerative ability because
it might make them more likely to develop cancers.
But even if humans could regrow their limbs, there still might be an issue.
Let's take a look back at that adorable little axolotl with the findings of two recent studies.
The researchers found that, like biological wrecking balls,
certain jumping genes need to be shackled in the axolotl's cells
or they might disrupt their process of regeneration.
They discovered that proteins found within the little water monsters allow them to prevent
these jumping genes from causing havoc.
So, regeneration is really complicated and maybe for right now, humans can't regrow their limbs.
But these studies at least give scientists hope
that we could learn better methods for treating human conditions,
like wound healing and regenerating simple tissues.
Hey, even becoming just a little bit more like Wolverine would be awesome!
I'm Blocko, and I'm the best at science communication.
And I have claws. Eat your heart out, Hugh Jackman!
So what do you think?
What limitations of humanity would you like science to be able to overcome?
Let me know in the comment section below!
Have you ever wondered why winter doesn't kill all the plants and fish? Check it out here!
As always, I'm Blocko and this has been Life Noggin.
Don't forget to keep on thinking!
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為什麼四肢斷了卻再也長不回來? (Why Can't Humans Regrow Body Parts?)

9014 分類 收藏
Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2017 年 4 月 19 日   Cloudy Wu 翻譯   Mii Wei 審核

影片簡介

是不是有點羨慕蠑螈、海星的再生能力呢?為什麼小小的生物可以擁有人類一輩子都妄想卻無法擁有的功能呢?再生能力這麼重要,到底為什麼上天要偏心呢?就讓我們來看看影片怎麼說吧!

1wonder0:03
wonder 在此表達「思考、想一想」的意思,想要問對方「你有想過...嗎?」來開啓一個話題,"Have you ever wondered…?" 是很常見的表達方式。
Have you ever wondered why we spend years learning calculus, when most of us won't ever use it in the future?
你有想過為什麼我們要花好幾年學微積分,即使我們大部份的人以後都不會用到它?


要表達「我在想...」,可以說 "I wonder..." 或 "I'm wondering…",可直接用於提出一個問題;或是用於不好意思直接問問題,想要委婉帶入話題的時候,例如:欲尋求對方幫忙或談及比較尷尬的話題之時。
I wonder if she will show up later.
不知道她等等會不會出現?

I'm wondering if you have any plans for tonight. If not, maybe we can grab dinner together.
我在想,不知道你今晚有沒有事,如果沒有個話,也許我們可以一起吃晚餐。
(不好意思直接在開頭就問對方要不要一起吃晚餐)


wonder 作為名詞用時為「奇景」、「驚奇」的意思。
As a little girl, I always dreamt of taking a magic carpet ride and exploring the wonders of the world.
以前還是小女生的時候,我總是夢想著乘坐魔毯到處發掘這世界的種種奇景。


另一個與這個字的念法幾乎一模一樣的字是 wander,意思是「徘徊、漫步」,不要搞混了喔!
I'm going to write an article on my blog about everything I saw while wandering the streets of Italy.
我要在我的部落格上寫一篇關於我穿梭於義大利的大街小巷所見識到的一切的文章。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】莎士比亞的侮辱 (Insults by Shakespeare - April Gudenrath)


2yet0:37
yet 這個字的用途很多元。影片中 "It is yet to be proven the same with human embryos." 的意思是「還沒被證明人類的胚胎也有相同的功能」,yet 在這裡的意思是「還沒」。
I have yet to figure this out.
我還沒釐清這個問題/想到解決方法。


yet 也可以接在否定句後面,表達「還」的意思。
I haven't finished my project yet.
我的專案還沒完成。


yet 亦可表達 but(但是)。
You have disappointed me time after time, yet I still believe in you. Please do not let me down this time.
你(們)屢次讓我失望,我卻依舊相信你(們),這次請不要再辜負我的期望了。

He is incredibly smart yet humble.
他非常聰明但很謙虛。


yet again 表示「又再次地」。
Yet again, you have broken your promise. Aren't you tired of it?
你又再一次打破你的承諾了,你不累嗎?


*同場加映:
【TED】花形遮星板能幫助我們探測到類似地球的行星 Jeremy Kasdin: The flower-shaped starshade that might help us detect Earth-like planets


3striking1:31
striking 指「顯著的、引人注目的」。
The company's new product bears a striking resemblance to that of its main competitor.
那家公司的新產品很明顯地與主要競爭者的產品相似。


striking 原本的動詞形式為 strike,可以表達「以...打、撞」,或直接表達「打、攻擊」的動作。此字的過去式為 struck
He accidentally struck his head against the stone and passed out.
他不小心把頭撞在石頭上就昏倒了。

The police were trying to figure out what weapon was used to strike the victim.
警察正在想辦法釐清受害者是被什麼武器所攻擊的。


這個字也延伸為「...讓我突然驚覺」的意思,就好像被某個東西打到一樣。
It struck me that he was hiding something from me.
我突然驚覺到他對我有所隱瞞。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】顏色是什麼? (What is color? - Colm Kelleher)


4outline1:48
outline 依字面可分解為 out(外)+ line(線),不難推論 outline 就是「輪廓」的意思。
Can you guess what I'm drawing from the outline?
你可以從我畫的輪廓猜出我在畫什麼嗎?


outline 也延伸為「大綱」的意思,就像是一段文字或是一個文件大概的輪廓。
Can you give me an update on your project tonight? I don't need the details, just the outline.
你今天晚上可以跟我報告一下你的專案現在的狀況嗎?我不需要細節,只需要一個大綱就好。


5necessary2:14
necessary 為形容詞,指「必要的」。
Defining the target market is a necessary step in developing a good marketing plan.
界定目標市場是發展出一個好的行銷計劃的必要步驟。


副詞形式為 necessarily,表達「一定、絕對」的意思。
Being rejected doesn't necessarily mean you're not good enough. It could be that you're not a perfect fit for the company's culture.
被拒絕未必代表你不夠好,可能只是因為你不完全適合公司的文化。


真的好希望有朝一日科學家可以研究出讓人類再生肢體的技術!科技上似乎沒有什麼是不可能的,只是不知道我們能不能活到那一天來共睹這項改變歷史的新技術了...

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