字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 The Ottoman Empire was one of the longest lasting empires in modern history, spanning from 1299 to 1922. But after its meteoric rise throughout Europe, spreading Islam and bridging the Eastern and Western worlds, the Empire slowly deflated and collapsed. Ultimately, some of the worst geopolitical situations we’ve seen in the past century can all be linked to the fall of the Ottoman Empire. So, what contributed this steady collapse? Well, at its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries, the empire covered more than 15 million people, and about 2 million square miles throughout the Mediterranean Sea, as well as Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, and North Africa. But the spread of the Empire upset neighboring Western European powers, which saw the Islamic empire as encroaching on their own conquests. In particular, the House of Habsburg was one of their most aggressive rivals, and the two fought a series of wars in the 16th through 18th century. The most important was the second siege of Vienna in 1683. The Ottomans attacked the Austrian city for a period of two months, while Poland and the remaining Western Holy Roman Empire cooperated to fend off the invaders. Eventually, Austrian and neighboring forces overwhelmed the Ottoman army, finally stopping their advances through Europe. The defeat was so great that within years, the Ottomans were also pushed out of Hungary and Transylvania and forced the empire to stop expanding through Central Europe with the Treaty of Karlowitz. This first major concession marked the beginning of the end. After being forced into peace, throughout the 18th century, the Ottoman military lost ground, both geographically and morally against their European counterparts. Seeing their power waning, the Ottomans instituted strict reforms known as Tanzimat, which encouraged empire-based nationalism, and equality among the vast diversity of Ottoman citizens. Although the remaining regions became stronger and more unified, the empire as a whole continued to shrink. In the early 20th century, the First World War provided an opportunity for the Ottomans to reclaim their lost territory. So in 1914 they joined with the European Central Powers against the Allies consisting of Britain, France, and Russia. Although the Central Powers had some early victories, including the collapse of the Russian government in 1917, by the following year the Allies had overwhelmed their opponents, and won the war. British troops occupied the Ottoman capital of Constantinople, and the entire empire was ceded to the Allies, who partitioned it away so it would no longer threaten Western power in the region. This geographical carving significantly increased the participation of countries like Britain and France in colonizing and occupying regions of the middle east, and gave rise to what we now know as the modern Arab world. What little was left of the Ottoman Empire was ultimately consolidated as the Republic of Turkey. The effort to split a once-unified empire along almost arbitrary borders created significant conflict between the new states and regions. One example was the British government’s support of a Jewish homeland to be established in Britain’s recently acquired territory of Palestine, a move which today has created a considerable amount of strife. Another example saw France acquiring the region of Syria and Lebanon, which created a number of smaller states with arguably incompatible populations, such as Sunni and Shia faiths. Today, the long term result of Western Powers taking over the former Ottoman Empire have led to a huge number of unexpected consequences. Although it was extremely long-lasting, and fell less than a century ago, today its former glory is more of a memory. And if you want to know how the empire grew to be so large, and how it maintained its hold for so long, you can watch the first part of this series: The rise of the Ottoman Empire. Check it out here. Thanks for watching Seeker Daily! Don’t forget to like and subscribe for new videos every day.