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  • The Ottoman Empire was one of the longest lasting empires in modern history, spanning

  • from 1299 to 1922.

  • But after its meteoric rise throughout Europe, spreading Islam and bridging the Eastern and

  • Western worlds, the Empire slowly deflated and collapsed.

  • Ultimately, some of the worst geopolitical situations weve seen in the past century

  • can all be linked to the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

  • So, what contributed this steady collapse?

  • Well, at its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries, the empire covered more than 15 million people,

  • and about 2 million square miles throughout the Mediterranean Sea, as well as Southeast

  • Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, and North Africa.

  • But the spread of the Empire upset neighboring Western European powers, which saw the Islamic

  • empire as encroaching on their own conquests.

  • In particular, the House of Habsburg was one of their most aggressive rivals, and the two

  • fought a series of wars in the 16th through 18th century.

  • The most important was the second siege of Vienna in 1683.

  • The Ottomans attacked the Austrian city for a period of two months, while Poland and the

  • remaining Western Holy Roman Empire cooperated to fend off the invaders.

  • Eventually, Austrian and neighboring forces overwhelmed the Ottoman army, finally stopping

  • their advances through Europe.

  • The defeat was so great that within years, the Ottomans were also pushed out of Hungary

  • and Transylvania and forced the empire to stop expanding through Central Europe with

  • the Treaty of Karlowitz.

  • This first major concession marked the beginning of the end.

  • After being forced into peace, throughout the 18th century, the Ottoman military lost

  • ground, both geographically and morally against their European counterparts.

  • Seeing their power waning, the Ottomans instituted strict reforms known as Tanzimat, which encouraged

  • empire-based nationalism, and equality among the vast diversity of Ottoman citizens.

  • Although the remaining regions became stronger and more unified, the empire as a whole continued

  • to shrink.

  • In the early 20th century, the First World War provided an opportunity for the Ottomans

  • to reclaim their lost territory.

  • So in 1914 they joined with the European Central Powers against the Allies consisting of Britain,

  • France, and Russia.

  • Although the Central Powers had some early victories, including the collapse of the Russian

  • government in 1917, by the following year the Allies had overwhelmed their opponents,

  • and won the war.

  • British troops occupied the Ottoman capital of Constantinople, and the entire empire was

  • ceded to the Allies, who partitioned it away so it would no longer threaten Western power

  • in the region.

  • This geographical carving significantly increased the participation of countries like Britain

  • and France in colonizing and occupying regions of the middle east, and gave rise to what

  • we now know as the modern Arab world.

  • What little was left of the Ottoman Empire was ultimately consolidated as the Republic

  • of Turkey.

  • The effort to split a once-unified empire along almost arbitrary borders created significant

  • conflict between the new states and regions.

  • One example was the British government’s support of a Jewish homeland to be established

  • in Britain’s recently acquired territory of Palestine, a move which today has created

  • a considerable amount of strife.

  • Another example saw France acquiring the region of Syria and Lebanon, which created a number

  • of smaller states with arguably incompatible populations, such as Sunni and Shia faiths.

  • Today, the long term result of Western Powers taking over the former Ottoman Empire have

  • led to a huge number of unexpected consequences.

  • Although it was extremely long-lasting, and fell less than a century ago, today its former

  • glory is more of a memory.

  • And if you want to know how the empire grew to be so large, and how it maintained its

  • hold for so long, you can watch the first part of this series: The rise of the Ottoman

  • Empire.

  • Check it out here.

  • Thanks for watching Seeker Daily!

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The Ottoman Empire was one of the longest lasting empires in modern history, spanning

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奧斯曼帝國的衰落 (The Fall Of The Ottoman Empire)

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    BH 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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