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In the late 17th century,
a medical student named Johannes Hofer noticed a strange illness
affecting Swiss mercenaries serving abroad.
Its symptoms,
including fatigue,
insomnia,
irregular heartbeat,
indigestion,
and fever were so strong,
the soldiers often had to be discharged.
As Hofer discovered, the cause was not some physical disturbance,
but an intense yearning for their mountain homeland.
He dubbed the condition nostalgia,
from the Greek "nostos" for homecoming
and "algos" for pain or longing.
At first, nostalgia was considered a particularly Swiss affliction.
Some doctors proposed that the constant sound of cowbells in the Alps
caused trauma to the ear drums and brain.
Commanders even forbade their soldiers from singing traditional Swiss songs
for fear that they'd lead to desertion or suicide.
But as migration increased worldwide, nostalgia was observed in various groups.
It turned out that anyone separated from their native place for a long time
was vulnerable to nostalgia.
And by the early 20th century,
professionals no longer viewed it as a neurological disease,
but as a mental condition similar to depression.
Psychologists of the time speculated
that it represented difficulties letting go of childhood,
or even a longing to return to one's fetal state.
But over the next few decades,
the understanding of nostalgia changed in two important ways.
Its meaning expanded from indicating homesickness
to a general longing for the past.
And rather than an awful disease,
it began to be seen as a poignant and pleasant experience.
Perhaps the most famous example of this
was captured by French author Marcel Proust.
He described how tasting a madeleine cake he had not eaten since childhood
triggered a cascade of warm and powerful sensory associations.
So what caused such a major reversal in our view of nostalgia?
Part of it has to do with science.
Psychology shifted away from pure theory and towards more careful and systematic empirical observation.
So professionals realized that many of the negative symptoms
may have been simply correlated with nostalgia
rather than caused by it.
And, in fact, despite being a complex emotional state
that can include feelings of loss and sadness,
nostalgia doesn't generally put people in a negative mood.
Instead, by allowing individuals to remember personally meaningful and rewarding experiences they shared with others,
nostalgia can boost psychological well-being.
Studies have shown that inducing nostalgia in people
can help increase their feelings of self-esteem and social belonging,
encourage psychological growth,
and even make them act more charitably.
So rather than being a cause of mental distress,
nostalgia can be a restorative way of coping with it.
For instance, when people experience negative emotional states,
they tend to naturally use nostalgia to reduce distress
and restore well-being.
Today, it seems that nostalgia is everywhere,
partially because advertisers have discovered how powerful it is
as a marketing technique.
It's tempting to think of this as a sign of us being stuck in the past,
but that's not really how nostalgia works.
Instead, nostalgia helps us remember that our lives can have meaning and value,
helping us find the confidence and motivation
to face the challenges of the future.
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【TED-ed】往事只能回味,無法回位?!為何人常懷舊呢? (Why do we feel nostalgia? - Clay Routledge)

47829 分類 收藏
Erica Lin 發佈於 2016 年 12 月 21 日   Erica Lin 翻譯   Sabrina Hsu 審核

影片簡介

不知道有沒有人跟小編一樣,最喜歡做的事情就是沒事上 Facebook 或 Instagram 滑著以前的照片,或者是看著電腦、手機裡的每本相簿呢?即使這些照片看過了好多好多次,但每一看過一次,好像照片裡抓住的每個無論是好是壞的當下又重新再腦海中上演一遍。今天的 TED-ed 影片要帶大家來認識「懷舊 nostalgia」的歷史,以及它是如何影響我們,為我們的生活帶來美麗的色彩。

1affliction0:45
我們很常在重金屬音樂與衣服上看到以 affliction 為圖騰的商品。而 affliction 指的是「痛苦、折磨」、「令人苦惱的事情」。最常被使用於宗教、理念、精神上所受到的苦難。
The family has suffered from the affliction of heart disease throughout generations.
這個家族世世代代以來遭受心臟疾病的折磨。

Seeing news of those who live in sorrow and affliction always saddens me.
看到生活於痛苦和憂傷中的人們的新聞總是讓我難過。


afflictaffliction 的動詞,意思為「使...折磨、使...受苦難」。
Politics and wars are still afflicting millions of people at every corner of the world.
在這世界上的許多角落仍有數百萬人受政治與戰爭折磨。


*同場加映:
【Ted-Ed】我們為什麼會相愛?讓哲學告訴你 (Why do we love? A philosophical inquiry - Skye C. Cleary)


2trauma0:51
trauma 指的是「創傷」,口語化一點就是我們日常生活中所說的:「我對xxx有陰影」。而這個單字只能用在「心理上、精神上」所造成的傷害,而非生理上的傷害唷!
Given the trauma he has had since his parents' divorce, I wouldn't be surprised if he couldn't commit in a serious relationship.
有鑒於父母離婚時所帶給他的創傷,我並不會因為他沒辦法忠於一段感情而感到驚訝。


trauma 的動詞為 traumatize,意思也就是「造成創傷、產生陰影」。
She was fortunately enough to survive the severe car accident, but she's deeply traumatized by the death of her boyfriend.
她很幸運地在這場嚴重的車禍中倖存,但她男朋友的死卻深深地重創了她。


*同場加映:
我們為什麼會做惡夢? (Why Do We Get Nightmares?)


3poignant1:51
poignant 是一個形容詞,在這裏的意思為「深刻的」,它也有著心境上、心理上「慘痛的、難受的」的意思。 poignant 是從法文借過來的字,發音為 /ˈpɔɪnənt/。
These pictures are the poignant reminder of the days I spent in Europe.
這些照片讓我想起在歐洲深刻的日子。

The memory, though heartbreaking and poignant, still deeply inspires Dave.
儘管這份回憶令人心痛與難受,依然深深地激勵 Dave。


*同場加映:
什麼是存在主義危機? (What is an Existential Crisis?)


4correlated with2:29
correlate 本身可當動詞也可以當名詞,意思為「關聯、互相有關係」。而 correlate with 的意思為 「與...有關」。
The study has shown that height correlates highly with the amount of sleep.
一項研究顯示身高與睡眠有高度關聯性。

The professor always correlates success with hard work. He believes that students shouldn't fail exams unless they didn't study hard.
這位教授總是將成功與認真的程度劃上等號。他相信學生不應該被當掉除非他們不夠用功。


*同場加映:
為什麼要當心反式脂肪? (What Are Trans Fats & Why Are They Bad?)


5charitably3:06
charitably 為副詞,意思是「有善心地、慈善地、仁慈地」等等。
Amy is a charitably disposed person that she always participates in many voluntary works in remote areas.
Amy 樂於助人,她總是投身於偏遠地區的志工服務。


名詞為 charity,有「慈善機構」、「行善心、做善事」等意思。
To help the poor, there's a wide variety of charities where you can donate either money or time to.
有很多慈善機構可以讓你捐獻或是付出時間去幫助窮苦的人。


形容詞為 charitable,意思為「慈善的、慷慨的」。
My mom has made many charitable donations to people in need ever since she graduated from university and started working.
自從我媽媽大學畢業開始工作後,她一直都會慷慨地捐錢給需要的人。


*同場加映:
【The School of Life】慈善到底是什麼? (What Charity Really Means)


6stuck in3:37
be stuck in 是個非常好用的片語唷!它的意思為「被...困住」,可以是實質上被某個東西困住,也可以是遇到了某個困境、某個挑戰但不知道如何突破.....等等。
Brian was stuck in solving one of the physics problems that he didn't have enough time to finish rest of the exam.
Brian 被其中一道物理題目難倒了以至於他沒有時間完成剩下的考試。


另外,如果是 get stuck in/into,則是正面的「對某件事情的投入」,是完全相反的用法唷!
I always get stuck into decorating my house and the christmas tree every December.
每年的 12 月我總是會廢寢忘食地佈置家裡和聖誕樹。


在看這部影片之前,小編只知道人類其實還蠻愛自找麻煩,明明知道「觸景會傷情」,卻依然很愛透過照片、看訊息等去「回憶」過去發生的事然後再來陷入無比難過的深淵之中。但是這部影片帶給我們不一樣的體悟,原來「懷舊」可以帶給人這麼大的力量。即便有些往事曾帶來傷害不愉快,但它們卻也是讓我們繼續堅強、勇敢的動力唷!

文/ Sabrina Hsu

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