中級 美國腔 64873 分類 收藏
Some of us like to spend our weekend with a book in hand
While others prefer a night out being the center of attention
But from a scientific perspective, is there an advantage to being an introvert or an extrovert?
Which is better?
The idea of two polar personalities was first described by Swiss-German psychologist Carl Jung, who coined the terms introversion and extroversion
Jung's theory was further elaborated upon by Hans Eysenck, a German psychologist who defined introverts and extroverts by their baseline arousal
Extroverts, with their lower level of arousal, would need to do more exciting things that would physically and mentally exhaust an introvert in order to reach satisfaction
So while an introvert might be content with a leisurely bike ride through a quiet park,
an extrovert might need to hit the dirt roads in order to feel mentally satisfied
Brain scans show a thicker prefrontal cortex in introverts compared to extroverts,
which is associated with deeper thought and planning,
suggesting that extroverts may be more impulsive than introverts, who prefer to mull things over, instead of directly springing into action
But because of this tendency to ruminate in introverts, they're also more susceptible to developing anxiety and depression
Extroverts also respond more strongly to rewards, with brain scans showing a significantly more activated dopamine reward system than introverts when completing and winning a computerized gambling task
And given that we're social animals, dopamine is also released when interacting with other humans
This was especially important as hunter gatherers, who relied upon others for both food and protection from predators
However, human connection has a greater impact on extroverts than introverts
In fact, it's been shown that the brains of extroverts respond more strongly when shown photos of human faces compared to neutral photos of nature
But for introverts, the brain response is similarly between the two
Now that's not to say that introverts don't feel any excitement from winning or that they strongly dislike being around people,
but they simply don't feel as excited and don't require as much social interaction in order to feel good
In terms of genetics, there may be an evolutionary advantage to each trait
For instance, introverts might have stuck to the sidelines to avoid predators
while extroverts would roam and explore, giving them an advantage when food is scarce
A study involving 130 participants discovered that those who were more inclined to be adventurous had two copies of one particular allele,
reinforcing the idea that these personality traits are partially linked to genetics
In many ways, our society has an extroversion bias where qualities like putting yourself out there are highly valued
Our institutions are also often designed with the extrovert in mind where group work is a popular practice in most schools and workplaces with the idea that creativity comes from a sociable place
However as social animals, we instinctively mimic others' opinions without realizing it
suggesting that your brainstorming sessions with others may not always be productive
When we disagree with a group, neuroscientists have shown high activation in the amygdala, a part of the brain associated with the sting of rejection
When we think of introverts, shyness and the preference to be alone often come to mind
but in reality, introverts may simply prefer close conversations with one or a few people instead of dozens
Furthermore, introverts may even be better public speakers as they’re known to think through ideas thoroughly compared to extroverts, who may choose to make rash decisions instead
But perhaps you are an ambivert, right in the middle of the introvert-extrovert Venn diagram, combining the best of both worlds
A recent study involving 340 call center representatives had their sales record tracked for a period of three months
Those who were neither strong extroverts or introverts generated the most revenue averaging 208 dollars per hour, compared to the study average of 138 per hour
So what do you see yourself as? And do you think one is better than the other? Let us know in the comments below



你是內向還是外向的人?跟你解釋這兩者哪裡不同 (Introverts vs Extroverts)

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Chloe Tyan 發佈於 2016 年 12 月 20 日    Chloe Tyan 翻譯    Colleen Jao 審核



coin 作為動詞時,意思是「創造(新詞彙)」。
Shakespeare actually coined a lot of the words we use today, such as "addiction," "cold-blooded," and "uncomfortable."
許多我們現今用的詞彙其實是莎士比亞創造的,例如:addiction(癮)、cold-blooded (冷血)以及 uncomfortable(不舒服的)。

coinage 為名詞,意思是「新創詞語」。
The word, "yuppie," is a coinage that was popularized in the 1980s, which is short for "young urban professional."

相關的片語 two sides of the same coin 直譯是「同一枚硬幣的兩面」,意思是「兩件看似不一樣的事情其實關係非常密切」。
"Peace and justice are two sides of the same coin." - Dwight D. Eisenhower

【TED】約翰.伍登談贏得和成功的差異 (John Wooden on the difference between winning and success)

2mull sth. over0:58
mull 是「深思熟慮」的意思,而 mull sth. over 是「反覆思索或思考某事物」。
She's mulling over a job offer from a tech startup.

I've been mulling it over the past week and have come to the conclusion that it's best for the both of us if we separate.

【TED】什麼造成了決策錯誤? (Dan Gilbert: Why we make bad decisions)

3inclined to2:16
inclined to 的意思是「傾向於...」。
He's inclined to poke his nose into other people's business.

be inclined to agree/think/believe 則是「不是很強烈地認同/認為/相信某件事」。
He comes up with the weirdest ideas, but this time I'm inclined to agree with him.

artistically/musically/mathematically etc. inclined 是指「擁有藝術/音樂/數學等天份」。
Were Mozart's children musically inclined like he was?

brain 是「腦」,storm 是風暴,組合起來 brainstorm (v.) 這個動詞的意思是「集體研討;集思廣益」。
The employees gathered together to brainstorm ideas for their new product.

Brainstorming creates new ideas and solves problems faster.

5the best of both worlds3:26
the best of both worlds 是指「兼具看似兩種對立事物的優點於一身」,也就是「兩全其美」的意思。
Living in the suburbs, I can enjoy the best of both worlds. Both the city and countryside are just an hour's drive away.

Growing up Asian-American gave me the best of both worlds. I'm proud of both cultures.

EF 國際語言學校 美國加州洛杉磯雷東多海灘 (EF Los Angeles - Redondo Beach, California, USA)

小編推薦大家 Google 搜尋 Personality test based on Jung and Briggs Myers typology「根據榮格與邁爾斯-布里格斯分類法的性格測驗」,測驗結果會有四個字母,總共有 16 個組合,可看出你是 extroverted(外向)還是 introverted(內向)、偏好 thinking(思考)或是 feeling(感覺)等等,很有趣喔!小編個人是 INFP,也就是 Introverted(內向), Intuition(直覺), Feeling(情感), Perceiving(感知)。歡迎在下方留言分享你的結果!




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