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  • So sometimes I get invited to give weird talks.

    有時候,我會被邀請去參加很奇怪的演講。

  • I got invited to speak to the people

    有一次,我被邀請去

  • who dress up in big stuffed animal costumes

    向穿動物戲服,

  • to perform at sporting events.

    在運動場上表演的人演講。

  • Unfortunately I couldn't go.

    可惜,我那次不能去。

  • But it got me thinking about

    但卻使我去思考,

  • the fact that these guys, at least most of them,

    至少這些人大多數都知道

  • know what it is that they do for a living.

    自己靠什麼維生。

  • What they do is they dress up

    他們裝扮成

  • as stuffed animals and entertain people at sporting events.

    動物去娛樂參加大型運動活動的人。

  • Shortly after that I got invited

    過不久我又被邀請到

  • to speak at the convention of the people

    氣球動物達人的大會上

  • who make balloon animals.

    演講。

  • And again, I couldn't go. But it's a fascinating group. They make balloon animals.

    我還是無法去。但他們很吸引人。他們會做氣球動物。

  • There is a big schism between the ones who make

    製作吉祥動物與情色動物的人

  • gospel animals and porn animals, but --

    很不同。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • they do a lot of really cool stuff with balloons.

    他們會用氣球做很多很酷的東西,

  • Sometimes they get in trouble, but not often.

    有時候會碰上困難,但機會不多。

  • And the other thing about these guys

    另外,這些人

  • is, they also know what they do for a living.

    也知道自己靠什麼維生,

  • They make balloon animals.

    他們做氣球動物。

  • But what do we do for a living?

    那我們靠什麼維生呢?

  • What exactly to the people watching this do every day?

    那些看這些演講的人每天都做什麼呢?

  • And I want to argue that what we do

    我認為我們

  • is we try to change everything.

    想要改變一切。

  • That we try to find a piece of the status quo --

    我們嘗試尋找現況中,

  • something that bothers us, something that needs to be improved,

    一塊惱人的或需要改進的部分。

  • something that is itching to be changed -- and we change it.

    某些渴望被改變的東西,然後改變它們。

  • We try to make big, permanent, important change.

    我們嘗試進行大型的、永久的、重要的改變,

  • But we don't think about it that way.

    可是我們並不這麼想,

  • And we haven't spent a lot of time talking about

    也沒有花很多時間去談談,

  • what that process is like.

    那是怎樣的過程。

  • And I've been studying it for a couple years.

    而我已經研究了兩年,

  • And I want to share a couple stories with you today.

    所以,今天想跟大家分享一兩個故事。

  • First, about a guy named Nathan Winograd.

    首先,是內森‧溫諾格先生,

  • Nathan was the number two person at the San Francisco SPCA.

    他曾是舊金山愛護動物協會的第二號人物。

  • And what you may not know about the history of the SPCA

    你可能不清楚愛護動物協會的歷史,

  • is, it was founded to kill dogs and cats.

    這協會成立的目的是殺死貓狗。

  • Cities gave them a charter

    市政府給他們特許,

  • to get rid of the stray animals on the street and destroy them.

    清掃並消滅街上流浪的動物,

  • In a typical year four million dogs and cats were killed,

    通常,一年內有400萬隻貓狗被殺,

  • most of them within 24 hours of being scooped off of the street.

    大多是在被捉到後24小時內處置。

  • Nathan and his boss saw this,

    內森和他的老闆看到這情形,

  • and they could not tolerate it.

    覺得無法忍受,

  • So they set out to make San Francisco

    於是就決定要讓舊金山

  • a no-kill city:

    成為一個禁止殺戮的城市。

  • create an entire city

    創造出一個城市,

  • where every dog and cat,

    讓所有的貓狗,

  • unless it was ill or dangerous,

    除非生病或有危險性,

  • would be adopted, not killed.

    否則都會被認養而不是捕殺,

  • And everyone said it was impossible.

    所有人都說不可能。

  • Nathan and his boss went to the city council to get a change in the ordinance.

    內森跟他老闆到市政府申請更改法令,

  • And people from SPCAs and humane shelters around the country

    國內所有愛護動物協會和人道收留所的人,

  • flew to San Francisco

    都飛到舊金山來,

  • to testify against them --

    作證抗議他們。

  • to say it would hurt the movement and it was inhumane.

    說內森會破壞整個運動且是不人道的。

  • They persisted. And Nathan went directly to the community.

    那些人持續抗議,

  • He connected with people who cared about this:

    於是內森直接走向社群,他聯繫那些關心這議題的群眾。

  • nonprofessionals, people with passion.

    非專業的人士們、充滿熱情的人,

  • And within just a couple years,

    就在短短兩年之內,

  • San Francisco became the first no-kill city,

    舊金山變成了第一個禁止殺戮的城市。

  • running no deficit, completely supported by the community.

    毫無虧損,完全靠社群的支持運作,

  • Nathan left and went to Tompkins County, New York --

    內森接著到紐約的湯金郡去。

  • a place as different from San Francisco

    一個跟舊金山不同的地方,

  • as you can be and still be in the United States. And he did it again.

    美國沒有地方是一樣的。再次成功地實踐,

  • He went from being a glorified dogcatcher

    他從一個被美化的捕犬者,

  • to completely transforming the community.

    變成徹底將社群轉型的人。

  • And then he went to North Carolina and did it again.

    他到北卡羅來納州去也成功了,

  • And he went to Reno and he did it again.

    他到雷諾市去也成功了。

  • And when I think about what Nathan did,

    當我想到內森做的事,

  • and when I think about what people here do, I think about ideas.

    還有想到這裡的人從事的工作,我就會有一些念頭。

  • And I think about the idea that

    我想到要

  • creating an idea, spreading an idea

    創造和散播這個念頭

  • has a lot behind it.

    背後是需要有很多東西。

  • I don't know if you've ever been to a Jewish wedding,

    我不知道各位是否去參加過猶太人的婚禮,

  • but what they do is, they take a light bulb

    但是猶太人在婚禮上會拿出一個電燈泡,

  • and they smash it.

    然後踩碎它。

  • Now there is a bunch of reasons for that, and stories about it.

    這個動作有許多理由和典故,

  • But one reason is because it indicates a change,

    這象徵一個改變,

  • from before to after.

    從事前到事後。

  • It is a moment in time.

    是一個時刻。

  • And I want to argue that we are living through

    而我認為現在我們正在經歷,

  • and are right at the key moment

    也處在一個關鍵時刻,

  • of a change in the way ideas are created

    就是創意的模式在

  • and spread and implemented.

    創造散播和實踐中改變了。

  • We started with the factory idea:

    我們從工廠的概念開始,

  • that you could change the whole world if you had an efficient factory

    如果你有個有效率的工廠,

  • that could churn out change.

    就可以改變世界,可以大量生產改變。

  • We then went to the TV idea,

    接著是電視概念,

  • that said if you had a big enough mouthpiece,

    如果你的大聲公夠大,

  • if you could get on TV enough times, if you could buy enough ads, you could win.

    能夠出現在電視上夠多, 買的廣告夠多,你就會贏。

  • And now we're in this new model of leadership,

    現在我們進入一種新的領導模式,

  • where the way we make change

    就是要製造改變,

  • is not by using money

    並不是用錢,

  • or power to lever a system,

    或權力來操縱整個系統,

  • but by leading.

    而是靠領導力。

  • So let me tell you about the three cycles. The first one is the factory cycle.

    讓我告訴你這三種循環。第一個是工廠循環,

  • Henry Ford comes up with a really cool idea.

    亨利‧福特有個很酷的想法,

  • It enables him to hire men

    這想法令他雇用了

  • who used to get paid 50 cents a day

    原本一天只賺五毛錢的人,

  • and pay them five dollars a day.

    變成支付他們一天五塊錢。

  • Because he's got an efficient enough factory.

    因為他有一個有效率的工廠,

  • Well with that sort of advantage

    有了這樣的優勢,

  • you can churn out a lot of cars.

    你可以大量生產汽車。

  • You can make a lot of change. You can get roads built.

    你能製造許多改變,且讓人們蓋更多馬路,

  • You can change the fabric of an entire country.

    你可以改變整個國家的建設。

  • That the essence of what you're doing is you need

    這行為的本質是你需要

  • ever-cheaper labor,

    愈來愈便宜的人工,

  • and ever-faster machines.

    以及愈來愈快的機器。

  • And the problem we've run into is, we're running out of both.

    現在的問題是,我們正在失去這兩樣東西,

  • Ever-cheaper labor and ever-faster machines.

    更便宜的人工及更快的機器。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we shift gears for a minute,

    於是我們轉換一下方法,

  • and say, "I know: television;

    說:我知道可以用電視,

  • advertising. Push push.

    打廣告、不斷地推,

  • Take a good idea and push it on the world.

    採用一個好點子,然後向世界推銷。

  • I have a better mousetrap.

    我有更好的捕鼠器,

  • And if I can just get enough money to tell enough people, I'll sell enough."

    如果我有足夠的錢來告訴很多人就可以賣很多。

  • And you can build an entire industry on that.

    你甚至可因為這個而成立一整個產業,

  • If necessary you can put babies in your ads.

    如果有需要你可以用嬰兒做廣告,

  • If necessary you can use babies to sell other stuff.

    如果有需要你還可以用嬰兒賣其他東西,

  • And if babies don't work, you can use doctors.

    如果嬰兒沒效果, 你可以用醫生。

  • But be careful.

    可是要小心,

  • Because you don't want to get an unfortunate juxtaposition,

    你可不想有一個不幸的組合,

  • where you're talking about one thing instead of the other.

    讓人誤解你的廣告本意。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • This model requires you to act like the king,

    這模式要求你像國王一樣行動,

  • like the person in the front of the room

    像坐在場內前排的人,

  • throwing things to the peons in the back.

    將東西丟給後排的勞工一樣。

  • That you are in charge, and you're going to tell people

    你掌控全場。你要告訴別人

  • what to do next.

    下一步該做什麼。

  • The quick little diagram of it is, you're up here,

    用簡單的圖示來看就是,你在最上面,

  • and you are pushing it out to the world.

    向世界各處散播訊息。

  • This method -- mass marketing --

    這個大眾行銷的方法,

  • requires average ideas,

    只需要普通的點子,

  • because you're going to the masses,

    因為是用來告訴大眾的,

  • and plenty of ads.

    且要用大量的廣告。

  • What we've done as spammers

    身為訊息傳播者,

  • is tried to hypnotize everyone

    我們嘗試催眠每個人

  • into buying our idea,

    來買我們的點子。

  • hypnotize everyone into donating to our cause,

    催眠每個人為我們的理想貢獻,

  • hypnotize everyone into voting for our candidate.

    催眠每個人投票給我們推舉的候選人 ,

  • And, unfortunately, it doesn't work so well anymore either.

    不幸的是,這個方法也不再有效了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But there is good news around the corner -- really good news.

    不過現在有個好消息,很好的消息,

  • I call it the idea of tribes.

    我稱之為"部落"的構想。

  • What tribes are, is a very simple concept

    "部落"是個很簡單的概念,

  • that goes back 50,000 years.

    早在五萬年前就存在了。

  • It's about leading and connecting people and ideas.

    關係到領導和連結人們及想法,

  • And it's something that people have wanted forever.

    而且一直以來就是人們所渴求的。

  • Lots of people are used to having a spiritual tribe, or a church tribe,

    很多人習慣有靈修部落或教堂部落,

  • having a work tribe,

    有個工作部落,

  • having a community tribe.

    或社區部落。

  • But now, thanks to the internet, thanks to the explosion of mass media,

    現在歸功於網路及大眾媒體的爆炸,

  • thanks to a lot of other things

    及其他許多

  • that are bubbling through our society around the world,

    正在世界各個社會活躍起來,

  • tribes are everywhere.

    部落已經無所不在。

  • The Internet was supposed to homogenize everyone by connecting us all.

    網路原本該透過連結每個人而把人們同類化,

  • Instead what it's allowed is silos of interest.

    相反地,卻允許各種興趣的地盤存在,

  • So you've got the red-hat ladies over here.

    於是,在這邊你看到戴紅帽的婦女,

  • You've got the red-hat triathletes over there.

    在那邊有戴紅帽的鐵人三項運動選手,

  • You've got the organized armies over here.

    這邊有整齊的軍隊,

  • You've got the disorganized rebels over here.

    那邊有混亂的造反者,

  • You've got people in white hats making food.

    有戴白帽子煮菜的人,

  • And people in white hats sailing boats.

    也有戴白帽子航海的人,

  • The point is that you can find Ukrainian folk dancers

    重點是,你可以找到烏克蘭土風舞者,

  • and connect with them,

    然後,與他們連繫。

  • because you want to be connected.

    因為你想跟人有連繫,

  • That people on the fringes

    那些在遠處的人

  • can find each other, connect and go somewhere.

    可以找到彼此,產生連繫及相約出去。

  • Every town that has a volunteer fire department

    每個設有義工消防隊員的城鎮,

  • understands this way of thinking.

    都了解這個道理。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now it turns out

    結果證實

  • this is a legitimate non-photoshopped photo.

    這真的是沒有經過修圖的照片,

  • People I know who are firemen told me that this is not uncommon.

    我認識的消防隊員告訴我這很平常,

  • And that what firemen do to train sometimes

    消防隊員在訓練時,有時候

  • is they take a house that is going to be torn down,

    會縱火燒一棟即將被拆除的房子,

  • and they burn it down instead, and practice putting it out.

    用來練習如何撲火,

  • But they always stop and take a picture.

    不過他們中途都會停下來拍照留念。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You know the pirate tribe is a fascinating one.

    你知道海盜部落是令人驚奇的一群人,

  • They've got their own flag. They've got the eye patches.

    他們有自己的旗幟及獨眼罩,

  • You can tell when you're running into someone in a tribe.

    當你遇到部落中的一員你能馬上認出來,

  • And it turns out that it's tribes --

    結果證明是部落,

  • not money, not factories --

    不是金錢或工廠,

  • that can change our world, that can change politics,

    可以改變世界和政治 ,

  • that can align large numbers of people.

    可以聯盟一大群人。

  • Not because you force them to do something against their will,

    並不是因為你逼迫他們,違背意願行動,

  • but because they wanted to connect.

    而是因為他們想要與人連繫,

  • That what we do for a living now,

    現在我們可以賴以維生的就是,

  • all of us, I think,

    我認為所有人,

  • is find something worth changing,

    應該尋找值得改變的東西,

  • and then assemble tribes that assemble tribes

    然後召集會召集部落的部落,

  • that spread the idea and spread the idea.

    把想法一圈一圈地傳播出去。

  • And it becomes something far bigger than ourselves,

    成為比我們自己還要大的組織,

  • it becomes a movement.

    最後成為一種運動 。

  • So when Al Gore set out

    所以當高爾重新開始

  • to change the world again,

    改變世界的時候,

  • he didn't do it by himself.

    他並不是靠自己辦到的,

  • And he didn't do it by buying a lot of ads.

    也不是靠購買大量的廣告,

  • He did it by creating a movement.

    而是靠創造一個運動來達成。

  • Thousands of people around the country

    全國有成千上萬的人,

  • who could give his presentation for him,

    可以為他做簡報 。

  • because he can't be in 100 or 200 or 500 cities in each night.

    因為他不可能每晚出現在100個或200個或500個城市裡,

  • You don't need everyone.

    你不需要號召每一個人。

  • What Kevin Kelley has taught us is you just need,

    凱文‧凱利教我們的是,你只需要,

  • I don't know, a thousand true fans --

    也許一千個忠實的粉絲而已。

  • a thousand people who care enough

    一千個真正關心的粉絲,

  • that they will get you the next round

    為你帶來下一輪,

  • and the next round and the next round.

    下下一輪,再下下一輪。

  • And that means that the idea you create, the product you create,

    也就是你所創造的想法、產品

  • the movement you create isn't for everyone,

    及運動,並不是創造給每一個人。

  • it's not a mass thing. That's not what this is about.

    這不是一個大眾的東西。這不是它的意義

  • What it's about instead

    而是關於

  • is finding the true believers.

    找到虔誠的信徒。

  • It's easy to look at what I've said so far,

    你能輕易明白我剛才所說的,

  • and say, "Wait a minute, I don't have what it takes to be that kind of leader."

    然後說:「等一下, 我沒有那種領導者的特質啊」

  • So here are two leaders. They don't have a lot in common.

    這裡有兩位領導者,他們沒有多大的共通點,

  • They're about the same age. But that's about it.

    他們年齡相約, 頂多就是這樣而已,

  • What they did, though, is each in their own way,

    而他們所做的是以他們各自的方法,

  • created a different way

    去創造出不同的模式

  • of navigating your way through technology.

    讓你航行在科技之中 。

  • So some people will go out and get people to be on one team.

    所以會有人出去找人來參加這一隊,

  • And some people will get people to be on the other team.

    也會有人去找人來參加另外一隊。

  • It also informs the decisions you make

    當你製造產品或服務時,

  • when you make products or services.

    這也會告訴你關於自己做的決定。

  • You know, this is one of my favorite devices.

    你知道這是我最喜歡的產品之一。

  • But what a shame that it's not organized

    可惜的是,它的組成不是

  • to help authors create movements.

    去幫助作家創造一個運動。

  • What would happen if, when you're using your Kindle,

    假使你使用電子書Kindle時,

  • you could see the comments and quotes and notes

    你可以同時讀到

  • from all the other people reading the same book as you in that moment.

    其他正在讀同一本書的人,他們的感想引語及筆記,會如何呢?

  • Or from your book group. Or from your friends, or from the circle you want.

    或來自你的讀書會,你的朋友或你想連結的圈子,

  • What would happen if authors, or people with ideas

    假使作者或其他有念頭的人,

  • could use version two, which comes out on Monday,

    可以使用星期一將上市的第二版。

  • and use it to organize people

    利用電子書來集合

  • who want to talk about something.

    想要討論的人們,

  • Now there is a million things I could share with you about the mechanics here.

    我可以在這裡分享過百種關於這個機制,

  • But let me just try a couple.

    不過就讓我試著說一兩個好了。

  • The Beatles did not invent teenagers.

    披頭四並沒有創造出青少年 ,

  • They merely decided to lead them.

    純粹只決定要領導他們而已 ,

  • That most movements, most leadership that we're doing

    大部分我們進行的運動及領導,

  • is about finding a group that's disconnected

    都是關於尋找一個尚未連結的群體,

  • but already has a yearning --

    但卻有渴望存在。