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  • The following are my opinions,

    以下是我的個人意見,

  • and do not reflect the opinions or policies of any particular prosecutor's office.

    並不反映任何地檢處的意見或政策。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I am a prosecutor.

    我是檢察官。

  • I believe in law and order.

    我相信法治。

  • I am the adopted son of a police officer, a Marine and a hairdresser.

    我是一名警員、海軍、和髮型師收養的兒子。

  • I believe in accountability and that we should all be safe in our communities.

    我相信人皆應為所做的決定或行動負責,我們應能安全地生活在自己的社區裡。

  • I love my job and the people that do it.

    我熱愛我的工作和工作的同袍。

  • I just think that it's our responsibility to do it better.

    我只是認為我們有責任不斷改進。

  • By a show of hands,

    請舉手示意,

  • how many of you, by the age of 25,

    你們當中有多少人在25歲前

  • had either acted up in school,

    曾在學校搗蛋,

  • went somewhere you were specifically told to stay out of,

    闖入別人特別交代你不要去的地方,

  • or drank alcohol before your legal age?

    或者未成年飲酒?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • All right.

    很好。

  • How many of you shoplifted,

    有多少人曾經偷竊,

  • tried an illegal drug

    嘗試非法藥物,

  • or got into a physical fight – yes, even with a sibling?

    或者打架?對,跟兄弟姊妹也算。

  • Now, how many of you ever spent one day in jail for any of those decisions?

    有多少人曾經因為那些決定而入獄呢?

  • How many of you sitting here today think that you're a danger to society

    今日在座有多少人認為自己對社會構成危險,

  • or should be defined by those actions of youthful indiscretion?

    或者,那些年少輕狂的行為定位了你是個什麼樣的人?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Point taken.

    明白意思了。

  • When we talk about criminal justice reform,

    當我們提到刑事審判的改革,

  • we often focus on a few things,

    我們通常聚焦在一些事情上,

  • and that's what I want to talk to you about today.

    這就是我今天要跟大家談的。

  • But first I'm going tosince you shared with me,

    由於你們並不隱瞞你們的過去,

  • I'm going to give you a confession on my part.

    所以首先我要坦白,

  • I went to law school to make money.

    我讀法律學院是為了賺大錢。

  • I had no interest in being a public servant.

    我沒意願當公務人員,

  • I had no interest in criminal law.

    對犯罪法並沒有興趣,

  • And I definitely didn't think that I would ever be a prosecutor.

    更絕對沒想過要當檢察官。

  • Near the end of my first year of law school, I got an internship in the Roxbury Division of Boston Municipal Court.

    法學院一年級快結束時,我得到一個在波士頓法院羅克斯伯里司的實習機會。

  • I knew of Roxbury as an impoverished neighborhood in Boston, plagued by gun violence and drug crime.

    我知道羅克斯伯里是波士頓的一個貧窮街坊,槍枝暴力和毒品問題猖獗。

  • My life and my legal career changed the first day of that internship.

    我的人生和法律職業在實習的第一天就轉變了。

  • I walked into a courtroom, and I saw an auditorium of people who, one by one, would approach the front of that courtroom to say two words and two words only:

    走進法庭,我看見大堂裡滿滿是人,他們一個接著一個走近臺前,只說兩個字

  • "Not guilty."

    「無罪」。

  • They were predominately black and brown.

    他們幾乎全是黑皮膚或棕色皮膚。

  • And then a judge, a defense attorney and a prosecutor would make life-altering decisions about that person without their input.

    然後,法官、辯護律師、檢察官們,沒有聽聽他們的說法,就做出改變他們生命的決定。

  • They were predominately white.

    幾乎全是白人。

  • As each person, one by one, approached the front of that courtroom, I couldn't stop but think:

    當每個人一個接一個走向前,我忍不住想:

  • How did they get here?

    他們為什麼會站在這裡?

  • I wanted to know their stories.

    我想知道他們的故事。

  • And as the prosecutor read the facts of each case, I was thinking to myself, we could have predicted that.

    身為檢察官,我仔細研讀每一案件。我在心裡對自己說,我們本來可以預測得到,

  • That seems so preventable, not because I was an expert in criminal law, but because it was common sense.

    本可防止,讓它不發生的...不因我是個刑法專家,而是基於常識。

  • Over the course of the internship,

    在實習的過程中,

  • I began to recognize people in the auditorium,

    我開始了解,人們出現在法庭上

  • not because they were criminal masterminds

    不是因為他們是犯罪主謀,

  • but because they were coming to us for help

    而是來尋求我們的幫助,

  • and we were sending them out without any.

    但我們未提供任何幫助就送走他們。

  • My second year of law school I worked as a paralegal for a defense attorney,

    就讀法律學院的第二年,我的工作是辯護律師的助理。

  • and in that experience I met many young men accused of murder.

    在這段經驗中,我碰到許多被指控謀殺的年輕男子。

  • Even in our "worst," I saw human stories.

    即使是最「糟糕」的情況,我仍看到人的故事。

  • And they all contained childhood trauma, victimization, poverty, loss, disengagement from school,

    他們都有童年創傷,受害、貧窮、失落、輟學、

  • early interaction with the police and the criminal justice system, all leading to a seat in a courtroom.

    早年就已與警察、司法系統有牽連。這些都導致他們出現在法庭裡。

  • Those convicted of murder were condemned to die in prison,

    那些被判謀殺罪名成立、被譴責應該死在獄中的人。

  • and it was during those meetings with those men that I couldn't fathom why we would spend so much money to keep this one person in jail for the next 80 years,

    與那些人討論、商談之間,我想不透,為什麼我們要花大錢把他們關在監獄裡80年,

  • when we could have reinvested it up front, and perhaps prevented the whole thing from happening in the first place.

    而不是在他們犯罪之前做些什麼,也許在第一時間就早已阻止事情發生。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • My third year of law school,

    就讀法學院的第三年時,

  • I defended people accused of small street crimes,

    我為被控犯了街頭小罪的人辯護。

  • mostly mentally ill,

    他們大多患精神病、

  • mostly homeless,

    無家可歸

  • mostly drug-addicted,

    或吸毒成癮。

  • all in need of help.

    他們都需要幫忙。

  • They would come to us,

    他們來尋求協助,

  • and we would send them away without that help.

    而我們未提供任何協助,就把他們送走了。

  • They were in need of our assistance.

    他們需要我們的幫助,

  • But we weren't giving them any.

    但我們並沒有給予任何幫助;

  • Prosecuted, adjudged and defended

    反而由全然不認識、 不了解他們的人

  • by people who knew nothing about them.

    來起訴、辯護和判決他們。

  • The staggering inefficiency is what drove me to criminal justice work.

    這驚人的低下效率,使我轉換跑道改做刑事司法的工作。

  • The unfairness of it all made me want to be a defender.

    這一切的不公平 讓我想成為一名辯護人。

  • The power dynamic that I came to understand

    這股動力使我明白過來,

  • made me become a prosecutor.

    成為一名檢察官。

  • I don't want to spend a lot of time talking about the problem.

    我不想花太多時間討論這問題。

  • We know the criminal justice system needs reform,

    我們都知道司法系統極需改革,

  • we know there are 2.3 million people in American jails and prisons,

    在美國有230萬人被關在監獄中,

  • making us the most incarcerated nation on the planet.

    使我國成為世界上禁錮最多人犯的國家。

  • We know there's another seven million people on probation or parole,

    我們知道另有七百萬人

  • we know that the criminal justice system

    正在緩刑或假釋中。

  • disproportionately affects people of color,

    我們知道司法系統不成比例地影響有色人種,

  • particularly poor people of color.

    尤其是貧窮的有色人種。

  • And we know there are system failures happening everywhere

    我們知道司法系統處處失敗。

  • that bring people to our courtrooms.

    它把人送進法庭,

  • But what we do not discuss

    卻不討論如何教

  • is how ill-equipped our prosecutors are to receive them.

    訓練不足的檢察官怎麼處理他們。

  • When we talk about criminal justice reform,

    當討論司法改革時,

  • we, as a society, focus on three things.

    我們社會通常聚焦在三件事情上。

  • We complain, we tweet, we protest

    我們抱怨,我們發聲,我們抗議

  • about the police, about sentencing laws

    關於警察、刑則法條,

  • and about prison.

    和監獄。

  • We rarely, if ever, talk about the prosecutor.

    我們幾乎沒有談到檢察官。

  • In the fall of 2009,

    在2009年的秋天,

  • a young man was arrested by the Boston Police Department.

    波士頓警察局逮捕一名年輕男子。

  • He was 18 years old, he was African American

    他十八歲,非洲裔美國人,

  • and he was a senior at a local public school.

    是當地公立高中的高三學生。

  • He had his sights set on college

    他原將目標設定在上大學,

  • but his part-time, minimum-wage job wasn't providing the financial opportunity

    但他僅僅最低薪資的兼職工作

  • he needed to enroll in school.

    根本無法賺夠註冊費。

  • In a series of bad decisions,

    一連串錯誤決定之後,

  • he stole 30 laptops from a store and sold them on the Internet.

    他偷了三十台筆記型電腦,網拍。

  • This led to his arrest

    這導致他被逮捕,

  • and a criminal complaint of 30 felony charges.

    面臨偷竊三十台電腦的重罪指控。

  • The potential jail time he faced is what stressed Christopher out the most.

    克里斯托弗最緊張的是他可能面臨的監獄刑期。

  • But what he had little understanding of

    但是他並不清楚,

  • was the impact a criminal record would have on his future.

    他的犯罪記錄將會影響他未來的人生。

  • I was standing in arraignments that day

    那天,我站在提訊桌前,

  • when Christopher's case came across my desk.

    克里斯托弗的檔案在我桌上。

  • And at the risk of sounding dramatic, in that moment,

    聽起來相當戲劇化,

  • I had Christopher's life in my hands.

    當時我手中握著克里斯托弗的前程。

  • I was 29 years old, a brand-new prosecutor,

    那時我29歲,是新手檢察官。

  • and I had little appreciation for how the decisions I would make

    我意識到我當時做的決定

  • would impact Christopher's life.

    將會影響克里斯托弗的一生。

  • Christopher's case was a serious one

    克里斯托弗的案件很嚴重,

  • and it needed to be dealt with as such,

    需要嚴肅對待。

  • but I didn't think branding him a felon for the rest of his life

    但我不認為 把他的下半生銘記為罪犯

  • was the right answer.

    是對的。

  • For the most part, prosecutors step onto the job

    在大多數情況下,接案的檢察官

  • with little appreciation of the impact of our decisions,

    並未意識到所做的決定將造成的影響,

  • regardless of our intent.

    姑且不論原先的意向。

  • Despite our broad discretion,

    儘管我們慎重地裁量,

  • we learn to avoid risk at all cost,

    但我們不惜一切代價

  • rendering our discretion

    以規避風險的既成習性,

  • basically useless.

    使我們的判斷基本上不可用。

  • History has conditioned us to believe that somehow,

    歷史經驗的訓練,讓我們相信

  • the criminal justice system brings about accountability

    刑事司法系統令人為犯行負責,

  • and improves public safety,

    並提高公眾安全;

  • despite evidence to the contrary.

    儘管佐證明顯是相反的。

  • We're judged internally and externally by our convictions and our trial wins,

    內部和外部都以定罪和勝訴來判斷我們的績效,

  • so prosecutors aren't really incentivized to be creative

    致使檢察官在處理案子時,

  • at our case dispositions,

    沒有誘因創意地去採證,

  • or to take risks on people we might not otherwise.

    或為人承擔風險。

  • We stick to an outdated method,

    因而適得其反, 無法達到大家的共同目標:

  • counterproductive to achieving the very goal that we all want,

    因而適得其反,無法達到大家的共同目標:

  • and that's safer communities.

    更安全的社會。

  • Yet most prosecutors standing in my space would have arraigned Christopher.

    大多數的檢察官若站在我的立場,他們會起訴克里斯托弗。

  • They have little appreciation for what we can do.

    他們幾乎不會意識到能夠做些什麼。

  • Arraigning Christopher would give him a criminal record,

    起訴克里斯托弗將會留給他犯罪紀錄,

  • making it harder for him to get a job,

    使他很難找到工作,

  • setting in motion a cycle

    進入惡性循環,

  • that defines the failing criminal justice system today.

    造成我們當前失敗的刑事司法系統。

  • With a criminal record and without a job,

    有犯罪紀錄、沒有工作、

  • Christopher would be unable to find employment, education or stable housing.

    克里斯托弗將無法被僱用、受教育,或有穩定的居所。

  • Without those protective factors in his life,

    若沒有這些生命裡的保護因素,

  • Christopher would be more likely to commit further, more serious crime.

    克里斯托弗恐將難免犯更多、更嚴重的罪。

  • The more contact Christopher had with the criminal justice system,

    克里斯托弗越是與司法系統有牽連,

  • the more likely it would be that he would return again

    就越可能一而再、再而三地陷入刑事事件中,

  • and again and again --

  • all at tremendous social cost to his children, to his family

    而這引發的高昂社會成本,將由他的子女、家人

  • and to his peers.

    以及同儕來承擔。

  • And, ladies and gentlemen,

    各位先生、女士,

  • it is a terrible public safety outcome for the rest of us.

    這樣的社安結果將是我們所有人的夢魘。

  • When I came out of law school,

    剛從法學院畢業時,

  • I did the same thing as everybody else.

    我和大家一樣,

  • I came out as a prosecutor expected to do justice,

    期待當一名伸張正義的檢察官。

  • but I never learned what justice was in my classes --

    但我未曾在課堂上學到正義是什麼。

  • none of us do.

    沒人學過。

  • None of us do.

  • And yet, prosecutors are the most powerful actors

    然而,檢察官是刑事司法系統中

  • in the criminal justice system.

    最強大的角色。

  • Our power is virtually boundless.

    我們的力量幾乎無限,

  • In most cases, not the judge,

    在大多數的案件當中,不是法官、

  • not the police, not the legislature,

    警察、立法機關,

  • not the mayor, not the governor, not the President

    也不是市長、州長、總統

  • can tell us how to prosecute our cases.

    告訴我們如何起訴案件。

  • The decision to arraign Christopher and give him a criminal record

    起訴克里斯托弗與否, 讓他留下犯罪紀錄與否,

  • was exclusively mine.

    完全由我決定。

  • I would choose whether to prosecute him for 30 felonies, for one felony,

    由我來決定起訴他 三十個重罪、一個重罪、

  • for a misdemeanor,

    一個輕罪,

  • or at all.

    或以上全部。

  • I would choose whether to leverage Christopher into a plea deal

    由我選擇讓他協議認罪

  • or take the case to trial, and ultimately,

    或開庭審理,

  • I would be in a position to ask for Christopher to go to jail.

    最終,我的處境將會是送克里斯托弗去坐牢。

  • These are decisions that prosecutors make every day unfettered,

    這些是檢察官每天 在不受約束的情況下所做的決定。

  • and we are unaware and untrained

    而我們未經訓練,也不明白

  • of the grave consequences of those decisions.

    這些決定的嚴重後果是什麼。

  • One night this past summer,

    在剛過的夏天的某一晚,

  • I was at a small gathering of professional men of color

    我參加一個本市各地有色人種

  • from around the city.

    專業男士的小聚會,

  • As I stood there stuffing free finger sandwiches into my mouth,

    我站在那裡,大啖免費的小三明治,

  • as you do as public servant

    如同人民公僕們常做的—

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I noticed across the room,

    我注意到在房間的那一頭,

  • a young man waving and smiling at me and approaching me.

    有一個年輕男子,微笑、揮手,向我走過來。

  • And I recognized him, but I couldn't place from where,

    我認得他的臉,但不確定在哪裡見過他。

  • and before I knew it, this young man was hugging me.

    這年輕男子幾乎立刻擁抱

  • And thanking me.

    和感謝我。

  • "You cared about me, and you changed my life."

    「你在乎我,並改變了我的生命。」

  • It was Christopher.

    他是克里斯托弗。

  • See, I never arraigned Christopher.

    我並未起訴克里斯托弗。

  • He never faced a judge or a jail,

    他並沒有面對審判或進監獄,

  • he never had a criminal record.

    沒留下犯罪紀錄。

  • Instead, I worked with Christopher;

    我和克里斯托弗一起達成替代方案;

  • first on being accountable for his actions,

    首先,他要為自己的行為負責,

  • and then, putting him in a position where he wouldn't re-offend.

    然後,確保他不會再犯。

  • We recovered 75 percent of the computers that he sold

    我們找回75%他當初賣掉的電腦,

  • and gave them back to Best Buy,

    歸還給賣場,

  • and came up with a financial plan

    並對沒找回的電腦

  • to repay for the computers we couldn't recover.

    擬定賠償計畫。

  • Christopher did community service.

    克里斯托弗做社區服務。

  • He wrote an essay reflecting on how this case could impact his future

    他寫文章反思這案件

  • and that of the community.

    對於他和社會未來的影響。

  • He applied to college,

    他申請大學,

  • he obtained financial aid,

    獲得獎學金,

  • and he went on to graduate from a four-year school.

    從四年制大學畢業。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • After we finished hugging, I looked at his name tag,

    在結束擁抱後,我看他的名牌,

  • to learn that Christopher was the manager of a large bank in Boston.

    得知克里斯托弗是波士頓一間大銀行的經理。

  • Christopher had accomplishedand making a lot more money than me

    克里斯托弗已獲得成就,並且賺的錢比我多。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • He had accomplished all of this

    他已經完成了這一切

  • in the six years since I had first seen him in Roxbury Court.

    自我第一次在羅克斯伯里法院看到他起至今的六年間

  • I can't take credit for Christopher's journey to success,

    克里斯托弗的成功,我不能居功,

  • but I certainly did my part to keep him on the path.

    但我肯定有部分幫助到他,使他留在正途。

  • There are thousands of Christophers out there,

    外頭還有上千位的克里斯托弗,

  • some locked in our jails and prisons.

    有一些被鎖在監獄中。

  • We need thousands of prosecutors

    我們需要數以千計的檢察官

  • to recognize that and to protect them.

    去了解這點和保護他們。

  • An employed Christopher is better for public safety than a condemned one.

    就公共安全而言,有前途的克里斯托弗比直接送他入獄來得好。

  • It's a bigger win for all of us.

    這使我們都成為贏家。

  • In retrospect, the decision not to throw the book at Christopher

    現在回想起來,不起訴克里斯托弗的決定

  • makes perfect sense.

    非常合理。

  • When I saw him that first day in Roxbury Court,

    我第一次在羅克斯伯里法院看到他的那天,

  • I didn't see a criminal standing there.

    我看到的,不是站在那兒的一個罪犯。

  • I saw myself – a young person in need of intervention.

    我看到我自己—一位需要介入幫助的年輕人

  • As an individual caught selling a large quantity of drugs in my late teens,

    如同我青少年時期所見因販售大量毒品而被抓的人,

  • I knew firsthand the power of opportunity

    我親身體會到善用機會的大力量,

  • as opposed to the wrath of the criminal justice system.

    它和雷霆般的司法系統恰恰相反。

  • Along the way, with the help and guidance of my district attorney,

    過程中,在地區檢察官、

  • my supervisor and judges,

    上司和法官的幫助和指導下,

  • I learned the power of the prosecutor

    我學會運用檢察官的力量,

  • to change lives instead of ruining them.

    去改變生命,而不是去毀滅生命。

  • And that's how we do it in Boston.

    這是我們在波士頓做的。

  • We helped a woman who was arrested for stealing groceries to feed her kids

    我們幫助為了養活小孩而去偷雜貨的女人

  • get a job.

    找工作。

  • Instead of putting an abused teenager in adult jail

    不把打架的受虐青少年

  • for punching another teenager,

    送進成人監獄,

  • we secured mental health treatment and community supervision.

    而是確保他接受心理治療和社區監督。

  • A runaway girl who was arrested

    逃家的女孩

  • for prostituting, to survive on the streets,

    為了生活, 在街上賣淫被捕,

  • needed a safe place to live and grow --

    她需要安全的地方居住和成長 --

  • something we could help her with.

    我們可以幫助她。