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  • Since youre watching SciShow, youre probably pretty familiar with the Internet

    既然你正在收看SciShow,那麼對於網路世界你一定非常熟悉。

  • -- it’s full of information and awesome communities.

    網路世界充滿各種資訊和很棒的社群,

  • But, like any cool and kinda-magical place, it has its dark sides

    但,就像任何又酷、又富有魔力的地方一樣,它也有黑暗的一面...

  • Even its very own trolls.

    像是網路酸民。

  • Trolling is used to describe a lot of different situations. But, basically, it’s when someone

    在網路上,酸民一詞可以用來解釋不同狀況。但基本定義就是當某人

  • posts an off-topic or inflammatory comment to disrupt an online conversation.

    po了一則偏離主題的帖子或煽動性言論,目的是為了在網上挑起爭端。

  • Not all trolls are bad! Sometimes theyre just goofy, like our own dear litojonny and

    不過,並非所有酸民都那麼壞,他們只是有點傻。 就像我們親愛的litojonny先生,

  • his questions about butt hair. But others can be more harmful.

    和他關於屁股長毛的蠢問題;然而,其他人可能更具殺傷力。

  • You mightve heard the warning, “don’t read the comments” -- to try and avoid potentially

    你在網路上可能也看過這類警告性的帖子: 別讀它! —— 為的是試著避免潛在的

  • aggressive online interactions.

    網路激戰。

  • But who are the people writing these kinds of comments in the first place, and why do

    不過,是誰在第一時間寫了上述這種帖子,

  • they do what they do?

    還有他們爲什麼要這樣做?

  • What goes through the mind of a troll?

    到底,這些網路酸民心態為何?

  • First, let’s talk about different kinds of trolling.

    首先,先來討論不同類型的酸文。

  • We think trolling began in the early 1990s, on discussion boards like Usenet- basically

    酸文一詞出現在90年代早期,一開始出現在Usenet上;

  • early versions of message boards or forums.

    Usenet就是早期的網路留言板(例如BBS)。

  • Experienced users would go trolling for newbies, by asking overly naive questions, or by making

    版上的老鳥會用一些方式來釣菜鳥,像是問一些太過簡單明白的問題,

  • new posts about topics that had been way over-discussed.

    或重新po一些早就討論過度的主題。

  • Veterans on the site would recognize each other’s usernames and realize what was going

    其他老手能認出彼此的網路暱稱,明白現在在演哪齣,

  • on, so only new users would fall for the trap and answer them.

    所以,就只有新人會跳入這些老鳥的陷阱而回帖。

  • This relatively harmless form of trolling was meant to get a laugh from people in-the-know

    這類無傷大雅的酸文是為了讓知曉內情的人發噱,

  • -- they were in it for the lulz.

    為此而幸災樂禍(LOL)。

  • Nowadays, the definition of trolling includes a lot of different kinds of people.

    而今,發酸文的定義含括了更多不同類型的酸民。

  • For example, some people who self-identify as trolls irritate others for the sake of a joke.

    例如,有些酸民靠著惹惱網友當作玩笑以尋求自我認同- -

  • -- like so-called griefers in online gaming communities.

    像是愛在線上遊戲中搞破壞、騷擾其他人的玩家(griefer)。

  • Like when someone gets onto your minecraft server and just puts TNT everywhere.

    或像有人登入你在【當個創世神】中的地圖,然後將炸彈方塊(TNT)放得到處都是。

  • But griefers can also engage in more harmful behavior, going beyond playful rule-breaking

    但這些破壞者也可能帶來更多傷害,更勝於原本只為了好玩才破壞規則的行為;

  • and slinging racial insults and threats to upset other players.

    進而丟出一些帶種族歧視的侮辱威脅字眼,讓其他玩家不愉快。

  • Some groups like Anonymous have grown out of communities that basically celebrate trolling,

    有些團體,像是【匿名者】駭客組織,源自於基本上贊成發酸文的論壇,

  • like 4chan, and use its methods to oppose online censorship, or make political statements

    例如4chan論壇,用戶以自己的方式反對網路審查制,或發動駭客行動以表達政治觀點,

  • through hacktivism, taking advantage of the anonymity of the Internet.

    網路匿名的特性有益於這類行動順利進行。

  • But, other kinds of trolling are essentially cyber-bullying -- like the trolls who descend

    然而,另外一種酸文在本質上就是網路霸凌--就像某些酸民突然出現在

  • on the memorial pages for deceased teenagers to post harassing comments.

    紀念某個青少年的網頁上,po一些騷擾性的言論。

  • No matter the cause, it’s hard for victims to distinguish between empty threats and real

    不管是甚麼導致這樣的行為,都很難讓受害者分清什麼只是惡作劇、什麼又是真正的

  • threats online, which can leave people stressed and scared.

    網路恐嚇,這都對受害者造成心理壓力和恐懼。

  • So, some behavioral scientists are trying to get to the bottom of it.

    所以,一些行為科學家試著找到導致這種行為的真相。

  • The Internet is still a fairly new place, so psychologists are still figuring out how

    網際網路相較而言是一個新領域,因此心理學家仍努力找出

  • online spaces affect our psyche and behaviors.

    線上空間如何影響人類的心理和行為。

  • Some research has started to answer the big question: what makes a troll?

    有些研究已開始探討以下這個關鍵問題: 是什麼原因塑造了這些酸民?

  • Back in 2004 -- before Twitter, before YouTube, before Reddit -- a scientist named John Suler

    回到2004年--在Twitter, YouTube, Reddit出現之前,科學家John Suler

  • coined a term to describe the loosening of social inhibitions because of the anonymity

    發明了一個新詞,形容因網路匿名文化而抵銷社會抑制效應,名為 :

  • of the Internet: the Online Disinhibition Effect.

    「網路去抑效應」。

  • Basically, people are willing to behave differently online than in real life. This isn’t necessarily

    簡單來說,就是人們在網路世界中傾向於表現得和真實生活不同。這並不全然

  • a bad thing, but it can be.

    是壞事,但也未必是好事。

  • Dr. Suler believed that there were six key factors that contributed to this effect:

    Suler博士認為,有六種主要原因誘發去抑效應:

  • First, dissociative anonymity describes the ability to hide your true identity online.

    第一點,「解離式匿名」形容在網路上隱藏你真實個性的能力,

  • This gives people the sense that their online actions can’t be linked back to real life,

    解離式匿名讓人們以為自己在網上的言行不會連結真實生活,

  • and can remove a sense of responsibility.

    因此可以卸責。

  • Next, because social media and online forums usually rely on text-based communication,

    第二點,因為大眾媒體和網路論壇通常仰賴於文字溝通,

  • this also instills a sense of invisibility.

    這也逐漸加強了「不可視性」,

  • Without eye contact or body language, commenters can become more disinhibited.

    不可視性意思是少了眼神接觸及肢體語言,評論者可能變得更缺少顧忌。

  • Plus, online conversations can have a time disconnect, or asynchronicity, meaning that

    再者,第三點,網路對話中,彼此的時間可能是斷開的,也就是「異步性」,意思是

  • you don’t have to immediately respond to someone.

    你不用立刻回覆他人。

  • You can disengage and re-engage whenever you want, and craft your responses more carefully

    你可以隨時參與或離開這個話題,也比起面對面講話,

  • than in face-to-face conversation.

    更能細細雕琢自己的回覆。

  • It can also be hard to see other Internet users as real people who are affected by the

    此外,我們也很難將銀幕另一端的網友視為現實世界中,因我們的一言一行

  • things we say and do.

    而受影響的人。

  • And one part of that is solipsistic introjection, which means you basically create a character

    這便是「以我為中心的投射」,意思是你在心中爲網友創造了

  • of the other person in your mind. By only having their words to read, you can sort of

    專屬角色,藉由閱讀他們的文字,你可能聽到腦中想像出的聲音

  • hear their responses in an imagined voice in your head. So, the other person has become dehumanized.

    輕聲念出那些回覆。結果,這些人轉而變為非人化。

  • As a result, there’s a disconnect between the real conversation youre having and

    也因此,與網友的實際對話和爲網友創造的形象之間

  • your constructed version of the other person.

    產生了落差,無法連結兩者。

  • This then can lead to dissociative imagination, where online interactions are seen more as

    接著,這也導致「想像分離」,也就是在網路上,人際互動變得更像

  • a fantasy than a reality. They can almost become a game -- one that’s easy to turn

    虛擬想像而非實際交流,那麼這些互動就變成像是一場遊戲- 可以讓人輕易

  • off and walk away from.

    登出離場。

  • This could be especially relevant to griefers -- theyre just people playing a different

    這些與那些愛搗蛋的破壞者(Griefer)尤其相關- 他們把網路社交當作另一種類型的

  • kind of online game, one that’s more about a social experiment and messing with other players.

    線上遊戲,一款有著更多社交需求,更能對其他玩家惡作劇的遊戲。

  • And when it comes to trolling, a big part is the minimization of authority -- the lack

    另外,說到爲什麼發酸文,很大部份是因為網路行為幾乎無法可管- 也就是缺乏了

  • of clearly defined authority figures online.

    清楚詳細的網路管制辦法。

  • Viewing other users as peers makes it easier to say whatever you want, including toxic

    將其他網友看成是自己的同儕容易讓人做出任何想做的事,包括回覆一些毒舌言論,

  • comments, because there’s no fear of punishment.

    只因在網路世界裡根本不用怕被懲罰。

  • Since the first description of the Online Disinhibition Effect, Internet communities

    自從網路去抑效應這名詞發明以來,網路社群

  • have grown, and so has our definition of trolling.

    逐漸成長,我們也爲發酸文的行為下了定義。

  • But the research on trolling behavior is still pretty sparse.

    但關於發酸文行為的研究仍只見於零星論述。

  • Most studies are completed through online surveys, so they rely on participants to self-report

    而且大部份相關的研究都是透過在網路上做問卷,這種方式必須依賴受測者

  • what they do.

    的自我檢測(是否具信度)。

  • And, since there are lots of different kinds of trolls, the psychology behind the actions

    此外,因為網路上充斥著不同類型的酸民,因此,其背後的心理因素

  • and reactions that they cause can be varied.

    和因不同因素造成的反應,也非常多樣。

  • What motivates someone to consistently comment about butt hair is almost definitely not the

    不過,那種堅持評論屁股長毛這類主題的網友,他們的動機絕對和

  • same thing that motivates a troll to spam someone with death threats.

    寄死亡威脅給別人的網友不一樣。

  • Some recent studies have focused on more aggressive kinds of trolls, and the presence of traits

    一些近期研究開始將重點放在更具攻擊性的酸民,以及他們的人格特質和

  • associated with the so-called Dark Triad or Dark Tetrad.

    所謂的「暗黑人格三特質」之間的關聯性。

  • And the name is... uhpretty fitting for this group of personality traits:

    暗黑人格三特質這名詞就是...爲三種黑暗性格發明出的名詞:

  • For example, one personality type is known as the Machiavellian -- which is predisposed

    例如,其中一種人格特質的代表性人物是馬基維利- 這種人的個性更傾向於

  • to being cold and detached in order to manipulate others.

    讓自己看來冷酷、對他人漠不關心,為的是操控他人。

  • Narcissism, on the other hand, indicates an inflated sense of self and lack of empathy toward other people.

    第二種特質: 自戀型人格,也就是說,這類特質的人過度關注自己但對他人缺少同情心

  • You might also have heard of the term psychopathy. Psychologists refer to this more accurately

    第三種,是你可能也聽過的精神病態。對心理學家而言,更正確的說法是

  • as antisocial personality disorder -- it results in an inability to feel empathy or guilt,

    反社會人格障礙- 它的成因來自無法感到同情或有罪惡感,

  • and a tendency to take advantage of other people.

    而且習於利用他人達到目的。

  • And sadism describes the tendency to take pleasure from other’s pain.

    除了這三種特質,還有一種叫虐待狂,傾向於從別人的痛苦中得到快感,

  • ….which is some pretty dark stuff.

    這又是另一種暗黑小玩意兒。

  • In 2014, in an online survey of over 400 people, those who said they enjoyed trolling other

    2014年,一份網路問卷調查了400名聲稱喜歡發酸文作弄他人的網友-

  • people -- for example, by linking them to jump-scare websites, or griefing in games

    例如,愛在貼文裡放恐怖圖片網站網址,或在遊戲裡搞破壞的人;

  • -- had positive correlations with several of these personality traits.

    - 這些人和上述提到的人格特質具正相關。

  • And people who spent the most overall time posting comments online tended to have more anti-social motivations.

    而大部分時間都花在上網po文的網友,最容易有反社會動機。

  • Rather than participating in message board conversations and online gaming to make friends,

    比起加入各留言版聊天或玩線上遊戲來交朋友,

  • they were in it for the trolling.

    他們更偏好發酸文或搞破壞。

  • But also, only around 5% of survey respondents specifically said that they enjoyed trolling,

    不過,問卷調查中只有百分之5的受測者特別提到他們以發酸文為樂,

  • out of the 60% that said they interact with people online in some way, like by posting comments.

    其他超過百分之60的受測者則認為po文、回覆是他們和其他人互動的一種方式。

  • So this suggests that mean-spirited trolls only make up a small fraction of Internet

    因此,這份調查也告訴我們懷有惡意的酸民只佔了發文者中的小部分,

  • commenters, and an even smaller fraction of everyone online.

    而在網路世界其他地方佔的比例更低。

  • These results may sound pretty intuitive, but it’s still interesting that there’s

    這份結果看起來有些直觀,但仍有些値得探究的地方,像是

  • some correlation between some self-identified trolls and these personality traits.

    尋求自我認同類型的酸民和其人格特質之間的相關性。

  • Plus, it highlights how the Internet can provide an outlet for some individuals with these

    此外,它也強調網路提供了一個發洩管道,讓一些在現實生活中不討喜的言論能在

  • social tendencies that are less acceptable to express in offline interactions.

    網上發表。

  • Of course, this doesn’t mean that all self-identified trolls are sadistic or narcissists.

    當然,這不代表尋求自我認同的酸民就是虐待狂或自戀狂。

  • But it is causing more psychologists to ask interesting questions about the motivations

    但這也讓更多心理學家想知道這個有趣問題的答案: 這些愛發酸文的人,心裡動機

  • of people who troll.

    是甚麼?

  • Their research could help everyone understand online trolling a little better -- and, how

    他們的研究可能可以讓我們更了解發酸文的動機- 以及如何處理那些

  • to deal with the harmful ones.

    存有惡意會傷人的評論。

  • Many people think that toxic online interactions stem from a lack of meaningful social feedback,

    許多人覺得,毒舌言論和酸文相互攻訐根源來自於缺少了有意義的社交反饋,

  • to help people adjust their behavior.

    無法導正這些人的行為。

  • After all, the Internet is still pretty new -- new enough that it’s not always clear what the social rules are.

    畢竟,線上世界還是一個全新領域- 新到沒有一個清楚的社交規範。

  • And it’s really big -- so there are a lot of different kinds of communities where different

    而且網路空間無限寬廣- 有很多不同類型的社群,能容納或不能容納

  • behaviors are acceptable, or not.

    各種行為。

  • So how can we make more spaces on the Internet fun and more comfortable for communities,

    所以我們要怎麼做能打造出一個能享受網路樂趣的空間,讓更多社群感到舒適,

  • and avoid the worst kinds of cyber-bullies and the more vicious trolls?

    而且還要防止不好的網路霸凌和各式的酸文?

  • Many activists say that well-moderated communities tend to have more civil conversations.

    許多提倡網路社交規範的運動者認為,好的社群應該要有更多文明理性的對話。

  • This is linked to the concept used by some social scientists, known as the Broken Windows

    這個概念引用自一些社會學家所謂的「破窗效應」。

  • Theory. This says that, for example, areas that have already been hit by vandals are

    例如,已被暴徒打破一角的窗戶,

  • more likely to be targeted again.

    比其他扇窗戶更可能淪為攻擊目標。

  • In other words: where there’s already lots of mean-spirited trolling, similar trolls will congregate.

    換句話說,在那些充斥惡意朝諷酸文的板上,更容易聚集其他酸文。

  • On the other hand, communities that already have and enforce civil conversations, will

    另一方面,網路社群如果事先規範且強調對話要理性,

  • discourage more harmful trolls.

    那麼就會遏止滿懷惡意的酸民出現。

  • But intense moderation may make free-speech activists cringe.

    但過度導正可能讓捍衛言論自由的運動者卻步。

  • Some people argue that everyone has the right to express themselves however they want, even

    某些爭論認為每個人都有權力表達他們想說的,

  • if others find it offensive or upsetting.

    無論是否會冒犯或傷到他人。

  • So there are still lots of unanswered questions about the ethics of moderation and anonymity

    所以網路環境中,關於言論規範的準則和匿名性爭議仍待解答。

  • in online environments.

    所以網路環境中,關於言論規範的準則和匿名性爭議仍待解答。

  • But what we do understand about the psychology of trolling can help combat its more serious forms.

    但如果我們能更了解發酸文的心理動機,就更能幫助我們打擊那些帶有惡意的文章。

  • For example, if the anonymity of the Internet is part of what fuels aggressive trolls, then

    舉例來說,假如線上出現愛火上加油,匿名的酸民,那麼

  • one way to stop them is to un-do the Online Disinhibition Effect.

    阻止他們的辦法就是不要助長網路去抑效應。

  • If a victim manages to humanize themselves, then it might become harder for a troll to

    如果受害者把自己表現得人性化,那麼酸民就很難把線上身分和真實的自己分開,

  • keep dissociating, and then they might realize theyre doing real harm.

    因此他們會了解到自己正在傷害他人。

  • Feminist activist and writer Lindy West was trolled repeatedly by a man who was imitating

    從事女權運動的作家Lindy West 曾被某人發文攻擊,發文者不斷在Twitter上

  • her deceased father on Twitter.

    模仿Lindy已逝的父親。

  • She wrote a poignant piece about the experience. And to her surprise, the man behind the Twitter

    她寫下這段令人痛苦的往事,然而,出乎意料的是,那個隱身在twitter帳號後的人

  • account reached out to directly apologize.

    出面向她道歉。

  • In further conversation, he said that after he read her writing about the experience,

    在更進一步談話中,他告訴Lindy他看到那篇文章後,

  • he was actually able to recognize that she was a real, living human being who was receiving

    突然了解了到: 她並非虛擬的,而是個活生生的人正在接受

  • his insults and cruelty.

    他的侮辱和殘酷虐待。

  • So it’s pretty clear that there are a lot of different flavors of trolling, and the

    藉此,我們了解到有各式各樣不同特色的酸文,而引發這些行為的

  • mechanisms behind it can vary, too.

    背後機制也各不相同。

  • Some of it’s pretty harmless, derailing conversations to get a laugh or mess with

    有些酸文不怎麼有害,只是用些脫離主題的言論博得大家一笑,或在遊戲中對其他玩家。

  • other players in a game. But some of it can turn into bullying and have serious consequences.

    惡作劇。但一些酸文最後可能發展成網路霸凌或其他嚴重的後果。

  • Psychologists are trying to understand where this behavior comes from, and how these interactions affect our minds.

    心理學家目前正試著了解這類行為的起因是什麼,以及這種方式的互動如何影響我們的認知。

  • Hopefully in the future, well reach an equilibrium where people on the Internet can

    希望有一天,我們能讓網路世界達到公平性,

  • feel free to express themselves anonymously without hurting others.

    匿名網友能暢所欲言卻又不會傷害他人。

  • And in the meantime, just remember: don’t feed the trolls.

    同時,切記,別回應那些酸民。

  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you by our patrons on

    感謝您收看這集的SciShow,本節目由Patreon贊助。

  • Patreon. If you want to help support this show, just go to patreon.com/scishow. And

    如果你想捐款支持我們的節目,請上patreon.com/scishow。

  • don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

    還有,別忘了上youtube訂閱我們的頻道。

Since youre watching SciShow, youre probably pretty familiar with the Internet

既然你正在收看SciShow,那麼對於網路世界你一定非常熟悉。

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B1 中級 中文 網路 酸民 網友 言論 匿名 人格

為什麼有人喜歡在網路上引戰? (The Psychology of Trolling)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 27 日
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