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  • There's a beautiful statement on the screen that says,

    在螢幕上有個美妙的見解:

  • "Light creates ambiance, light makes the feel of a space,

    「光線創造氛圍,

  • and light is also the expression of structure."

    光線製造空間的感受,

  • Well, that was not by me.

    且光線是構造的表現。」

  • That was, of course, by Le Corbusier, the famous architect.

    這不是我說的,

  • And here you can see what he meant in one of his beautiful buildings --

    是名建築家

  • the chapel Notre Dame Du Haut De Ronchamp --

    柯比意說的。

  • where he creates this light that he could only make because there's also dark.

    在這裡你可以從他美麗的建築物中

  • And I think that is the quintessence of this 18-minute talk --

    瞧出端倪。

  • that there is no good lighting that is healthy and for our well-being

    巴黎廊香教堂便是一棟

  • without proper darkness.

    他運用光線的範例,

  • So this is how we normally would light our offices.

    而這樣的光線必須由黑暗相伴。

  • We have codes and standards that tell us that the lights should be so much Lux

    而我認為這是

  • and of great uniformity.

    這十八分鐘演講的精華:

  • This is how we create uniform lighting from one wall to the other

    若沒有適當的黑暗,

  • in a regular grid of lamps.

    就沒有所謂的

  • And that is quite different from what I just showed you

    健康、有用的光明。

  • from Le Corbusier.

    這是我們平常如何照明辦公室。

  • If we would apply these codes and standards

    我們有規範和標準

  • to the Pantheon in Rome,

    告訴我們燈光需要多亮

  • it would never have looked like this,

    且需要多整齊。

  • because this beautiful light feature that goes around there all by itself

    這是我們如何

  • can only appear because there is also darkness in that same building.

    利用整齊的光格

  • And the same is more or less what Santiago Calatrava said

    製造兩牆間一致的照明。

  • when he said, "Light: I make it in my buildings for comfort."

    而這與我剛剛給你們看的

  • And he didn't mean the comfort of a five-course dinner

    柯比意運用的方式

  • as opposed to a one-course meal,

    是很不同的。

  • but he really meant the comfort

    如果我們運用一樣的規範和標準

  • of the quality of the building for the people.

    在羅馬的神殿中,

  • He meant that you can see the sky and that you can experience the sun.

    它看起來就不會是這樣的,

  • And he created these gorgeous buildings where you can see the sky,

    因為這美麗的光線特色

  • and where you can experience the sun,

    讓光可以環繞自己,

  • that give us a better life in the built environment,

    只能存在於

  • just because of the relevance of light in its brightness and also in its shadows.

    建築物本身也包含黑暗的狀況下。

  • And what it all boils down to is, of course, the sun.

    同樣的Santiago Calatrava(西班牙建築家)說:

  • And this image of the Sun may suggest

    「我在我的建築中使用光線,

  • that the Sun is something evil and aggressive,

    來達到舒適感。」

  • but we should not forget

    且他的意思不是五道式晚宴

  • that all energy on this planet actually comes from the Sun,

    與一道式簡餐的差別,

  • and light is only a manifestation of that energy.

    而是建築物本身

  • The sun is for dynamics, for color changes.

    帶給人的舒適感。

  • The sun is for beauty in our environment,

    他的意思是你可以看天空

  • like in this building -- the High Museum in Atlanta,

    且感受到太陽。

  • which has been created by Renzo Piano from Italy,

    且他設計了一些華麗的建築,

  • together with Arup Lighting, a brilliant team of lighting designers,

    從中你可以看到天空

  • who created a very subtle modulation of light across the space,

    亦可感受陽光。

  • responding to what the sun does outside,

    那讓我們在這樣設計的環境中有更好的生活,

  • just because of all these beautiful openings in the roof.

    因為光的明亮

  • So in an indirect way, you can see the sun.

    也因為光的陰影。

  • And what they did is they created an integral building element

    這全都是因為太陽。

  • to improve the quality of the space that surrounds the visitors of the museum.

    這張太陽的圖片可能會讓人覺得

  • They created this shade that you can see here,

    太陽是個邪惡且具侵略性的東西。

  • which actually covers the sun,

    但我們不該忘記的是

  • but opens up to the good light from the sky.

    這星球上所有的能量都來自於太陽。

  • And here you can see how they really crafted a beautiful design process

    且光線僅僅只是

  • with physical models,

    這能量的表象。

  • with quantitative as well as qualitative methods,

    太陽是動態的、會改變顏色的,

  • to come to a final solution that is truly integrated

    太陽是我們環境中美麗的來源,

  • and completely holistic with the architecture.

    就像在這個建築物中--

  • They allowed themselves a few mistakes along the way.

    亞特蘭大的高等藝術博物館--

  • As you can see here, there's some direct light on the floor,

    是由義大利的倫佐皮亞諾

  • but they could easily figure out where that comes from.

    和奧雅納萊丁共同創造的。

  • And they allow people in that building to really enjoy the sun,

    這是組非常聰明的光線設計師,

  • the good part of the sun.

    他們設計了

  • And enjoying the sun can be in many different ways, of course.

    一個非常微妙的光線變化,

  • It can be just like this,

    讓空間中的光線

  • or maybe like this, which is rather peculiar,

    能隨著室外陽光作變化,

  • but this is in 1963 --

    而他們運用的就是天花板的孔洞。

  • the viewing of a sun eclipse in the United States.

    所以間接的

  • And it's just a bit bright up there,

    人們可以看到太陽。

  • so these people have found a very intriguing solution.

    所以他們做的是

  • This is, I think, a very illustrative image of what I try to say --

    設計了一個與建築物融合的元素

  • that the beautiful dynamics of sun, bringing these into the building,

    來改善空間的品質,

  • creates a quality of our built environment that truly enhances our lives.

    來包圍博物館中的參觀民眾。

  • And this is all about darkness

    他們設計了這樣的遮光物,

  • as much as it is about lightness, of course,

    在螢幕上可以看到,

  • because otherwise you don't see these dynamics.

    可以遮住太陽

  • As opposed to the first office

    但讓天空中許多光線進入。

  • that I showed you in the beginning of the talk,

    在這裡你們可以看到

  • this is a well-known office, which is the Weidt Group.

    他們如何在設計過程中

  • They are in green energy consulting, or something like that.

    運用物理模型

  • And they really practice what they preach

    運用量化和質化的方法

  • because this office doesn't have any electric lighting at all.

    才來到這個最終的東西,

  • It has only, on one side, this big, big glass window

    這是真正融合

  • that helps to let the sunlight enter deep into the space

    整個建築物的設計。

  • and create a beautiful quality there and a great dynamic range.

    在過程中他們讓自己有犯錯的空間。

  • So it can be very dim over there, and you do your work,

    就像你們可以看到的,地上有些直射的光,

  • and it can be very bright over there, and you do your work.

    但他們可以很輕易的找出問題來源。

  • But actually, the human eye turns out to be remarkably adaptable

    且他們讓在屋子中的人

  • to all these different light conditions that together create an environment

    可以盡情地享受陽光,

  • that is never boring and that is never dull,

    有用的陽光。

  • and therefore helps us to enhance our lives.

    享受陽光

  • I really owe a short introduction of this man to you.

    可以有很多不同種的方式。

  • This is Richard Kelly who was born 100 years ago,

    可以只是這樣,

  • which is the reason I bring him up now, because it's kind of an anniversary year.

    或是這樣有些怪的方式,

  • In the 1930s, Richard Kelly was the first person to really describe

    但這是1963年--

  • a methodology of modern lighting design.

    在美國看到的

  • And he coined three terms,

    日蝕。

  • which are "focal glow," "ambient luminescence"

    這邊有點太亮了,

  • and "play of the brilliants" --

    所以人們想到了這樣有趣的解決方式。

  • three very distinctly different ideas about light in architecture

    這是,我認為很能說明我想要解釋的東西--

  • that all together make up this beautiful experience.

    就是太陽美妙的變化,

  • So to begin with, focal glow.

    當融入建築物後,

  • He meant something like this --

    可以創造一個能夠

  • where the light gives direction to the space

    提升生活品質的環境。

  • and helps you to get around.

    且這全都與黑暗有關

  • Or something like this,

    重要程度跟光線一樣,

  • which is the lighting design he did for General Motors,

    因為如果沒有黑暗就感受不到變化。

  • for the car showroom.

    相對於我一開始

  • And you enter that space,

    給你們看的辦公室,

  • and you feel like, "Wow! This is so impressive,"

    這是一間很有名的辦公室,叫做白組織。

  • just because of this focal point, this huge light source in the middle.

    他們做的是類似綠色能源諮商的事情。

  • To me, it is something from theater,

    且他們真的言行一致,

  • and I will get back to that a little bit later.

    因為他們的辦公室沒有使用任何電力照明。

  • It's the spotlight on the artist that helps you to focus.

    他們只有一邊

  • It could also be the sunlight that breaks through the clouds

    有很大很大的玻璃窗戶

  • and lights up a patch of the land,

    可以讓太陽光進來,

  • highlighting it compared to the dim environment.

    進到空間當中,

  • Or it can be in today's retail, in the shopping environment --

    且產生了這美妙的特色和動態的變化。

  • lighting the merchandise and creating accents that help you to get around.

    所以那邊可以很暗,且你可以做事,

  • Ambient luminescence is something very different.

    也可以很亮,你仍然可以做事。

  • Richard Kelly saw it as something infinite,

    但事實上人眼

  • something without any focus,

    是據有極高適應性的,

  • something where all details actually dissolve in infinity.

    對於各種的光線變化,

  • And I see it as a very comfortable kind of light that really helps us to relax

    讓這些創造一個

  • and to contemplate.

    永遠不會無聊單調的環境,

  • It could also be something like this:

    且讓我們改善生活。

  • the National Museum of Science in London,

    我應該要介紹一個人。

  • where this blue is embracing all the exhibitions and galleries

    他叫做裡查克利。

  • in one large gesture.

    他生於一百年前,

  • And then finally,

    這也是我要提他的原因,

  • Kelly's play of brilliants added to that

    因為有點像是週年紀念。

  • really some play, I think, of the skyline of Hong Kong,

    在1930年代,裡查克利是第一個

  • or perhaps the chandelier in the opera house,

    真的去解釋

  • or in the theater here,

    現代燈光設計方法的人。

  • which is the decoration, the icing on the cake, something playful,

    他創立了三個名詞,

  • something that is just an addition to the architectural environment,

    「焦點光」、

  • I would say.

    「環境照明」、

  • These three distinct elements, together,

    和「亮點特色」。

  • make a lighting environment that helps us to feel better.

    雖然是建築照明中

  • And we can only create these out of darkness.

    非常不同的東西,

  • And I will explain that further.

    但加起來

  • And I guess that is something that Richard Kelly, here on the left,

    組成美妙的體驗。

  • was explaining to Ludwig Mies van Der Rohe.

    所以從焦點光開始。

  • And behind them, you see that Seagram Building

    他是指

  • that later turned into an icon of modern lighting design.

    光線如何在空間中指示方位

  • Those times, there were some early attempts

    且幫助你找到要去的地方。

  • also for light therapy already.

    換句話說,像他幫

  • You can see here a photo

    General Motors設計的汽車展示場。

  • from the United States Library of Medicine,

    當你進到那個空間時,

  • where people are put in the sun to get better.

    會感受到「哇!這令人印象深刻」

  • It's a little bit of a different story, this health aspect of light,

    就是因為有焦點光,

  • than what I'm telling you today.

    就是中間的巨大光來源。

  • In today's modern medicine,

    對我來說這是從劇場來的,

  • there is a real understanding of light in an almost biochemical way.

    我晚點再回來說這個。

  • And there is the idea that, when we look at things,

    這是照在藝術家的聚光燈,

  • it is the yellow light that helps us the most,

    幫助你聚焦。

  • that we are the most sensitive for.

    這也可以是透過雲層照出來的太陽光

  • But our circadian rhythms,

    照亮一小塊地,

  • which are the rhythms that help us to wake and sleep

    讓它在旁邊暗的環境中

  • and be alert and relaxed and so forth and so on,

    顯得突出。

  • they are much more triggered by blue light.

    或是可以是今天的零售店,在一個買東西的環境中,

  • And by modulating the amount of blue in our environment,

    照亮商品

  • we can help people to relax, or to be alert,

    製造一個讓你到處逛逛的氛圍。

  • to fall asleep, or to stay awake.

    環境照明則不同。

  • And that is how, maybe in the near future, light can help hospitals

    裡查克利認為它是無邊的,

  • to make people better sooner, recover them quicker.

    是沒有焦點的,

  • Maybe in the airplane, we can overcome jet lag like that.

    是個所有細節

  • Perhaps in school, we can help children to learn better

    都散在無邊的環境中。

  • because they concentrate more on their work.

    我認為它是一個舒適的光線,

  • And you can imagine a lot more applications.

    讓我們放鬆

  • But I would like to talk further

    及思考。

  • about the combination of light and darkness

    它也可以是這樣的:

  • as a quality in our life.

    在倫敦的國家科學博物館中,

  • So light is, of course, for social interaction also --

    藍光

  • to create relationships with all the features around us.

    圍繞著所有的展示品

  • It is the place where we gather around

    及展覽廳。

  • when we have to say something to each other.

    然後最後,克利運用亮點。

  • And it is all about this planet.

    就像是香港的地平線,

  • But when you look at this planet at night,

    或是歌劇院的水晶燈,

  • it looks like this.

    或是這個劇場,

  • And I think this is the most shocking image in my talk today.

    就是個裝飾,

  • Because all this light here goes up to the sky.

    像是蛋糕上的糖衣,有趣的東西,

  • It never reaches the ground where it was meant for.

    或是只是一個

  • It never is to the benefit of people.

    附加在建築物環境的東西。

  • It only spoils the darkness.

    這三樣不同的元素

  • So at a global scale, it looks like this.

    加在一起可以製造一個

  • And, I mean, that is quite amazing, what you see here --

    讓我們感覺更好的環境。

  • how much light goes up into the sky and never reaches the ground.

    且這只能在有黑暗的狀況下才能達到。

  • Because if we look at the Earth the way it should be,

    我會再解釋更多。

  • it would be something like this very inspiring image

    我猜這是裡查克利,在左手的那位,

  • where darkness is for our imagination and for contemplation

    想要解釋給Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe(德國建築師)聽的。

  • and to help us to relate to everything.

    在他們後面你可以看到西格拉母大廈,

  • The world is changing though,

    這座建築之後

  • and urbanization is a big driver of everything.

    成為現代燈光設計的代表。

  • I took this photo two weeks ago in Guangzhou,

    在那時候,已經開始有一些

  • and I realized that 10 years ago,

    早期的燈光治療。

  • there was nothing like this, of these buildings.

    你看到這裡是美國醫藥圖書館,

  • It was just a much smaller city,

    有些人在太陽光下療傷。

  • and the pace of urbanization is incredible and enormous.

    這是有點不一樣的,

  • And we have to understand these main questions:

    這個光的健康因素,

  • How do people move through these new urban spaces?

    這部份和我今天要談的不大一樣。

  • How do they share their culture?

    在現今的醫學中,

  • How do we tackle things like mobility?

    對光線有一定的瞭解,

  • And how can light help there?

    且主要是以生化的角度來看待。

  • Because the new technologies,

    有這樣的說法:

  • they seem to be in a really interesting position

    當我們看東西時,

  • to contribute to the solutions of urbanization

    黃光對我們幫助最大,

  • and to provide us with better environments.

    且是我們最敏感的光源。

  • It's not that long ago

    但我們的晝夜節律

  • that our lighting was just done with these kinds of lamps.

    就是調控我們起床、睡覺、

  • And of course, we had the metal-halide lamps

    清醒、放鬆的節律,

  • and fluorescent lamps and things like that.

    反而對藍光比較敏感。

  • Now we have LED,

    利用調節環境中的

  • but here you see the latest one, and you see how incredibly small it is.

    藍光,

  • And this is exactly what offers us a unique opportunity,

    我們可以幫助人們放鬆或警戒、

  • because this tiny, tiny size allows us

    睡眠或清醒。

  • to put the light wherever we really need it.

    這也是

  • And we can actually leave it out where it's not needed at all

    或許在不遠的未來

  • and where we can preserve darkness.

    醫院可以利用光線

  • So that is a really interesting proposition, I think,

    來幫助病人

  • and a new way of lighting the architectural environment

    更快康復。

  • with our well-being in mind.

    或是在飛航中,

  • The problem is, though, that I wanted to explain to you how this really works --

    我們可以利用這個克服時差。

  • but I can have four of these on my finger,

    或是在學校,我們可以幫助孩子們學習,

  • so you would not be able to really see them.

    因為他們可以更專注於學習。

  • So I asked our laboratory to do something about it,

    且你們可以想出更多用途。

  • and they said, "Well, we can do something."

    但我想要更深入地談

  • They created for me the biggest LED in the world

    光與暗

  • especially for TEDx in Amsterdam.

    的結合

  • So here it is.

    在我們生活品質的影響。

  • It's the same thing as you can see over there --

    光,顯然的,與社會互動有關,

  • just 200 times bigger.

    能夠建立我們

  • And I will very quickly show you how it works.

    與生活周遭的關係。

  • So just to explain.

    它是當我們有事情要和別人說時

  • Now, every LED that is made these days gives blue light.

    圍繞的中心。

  • Now, this is not very pleasant and comfortable.

    且它也敘述了這個地球。

  • And for that reason, we cover the LED with a phosphor cap.

    但當你在夜晚看這顆行星時,它會長這樣。

  • And the phosphor is excited by the blue

    且我認為這是我今天的演講中

  • and makes the light white and warm and pleasant.

    最驚人的一張圖片。

  • And then when you add the lens to that,

    因為這裡所有的光

  • you can bundle the light and send it wherever you need it

    都會到天空去。