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Well, I learned a lot of things about ballooning,
especially at the end of these balloon flights
around the world I did with Brian Jones.
When I took this picture,
the window was frozen because of the moisture of the night.
And on the other side there was a rising sun.
So, you see that on the other side of ice
you have the unknown,
you have the non-obvious,
you have the non-seen,
for the people who don't dare
to go through the ice.
There are so many people
who prefer to suffer in the ice they know
instead of taking the risk of going through the ice
to see what there is on the other side.
And I think that's one of the main problems of our society.
We learn, maybe not the famous TED audience,
but so many other people learn,
that the unknown, the doubts,
the question marks are dangerous.
And we have to resist to the changes.
We have to keep everything under control.
Well, the unknown is part of life.
And in that sense, ballooning is a beautiful metaphor.
Because in the balloon, like in life,
we go very well in unforeseen directions.
We want to go in a direction,
but the winds push us in another direction, like in life.
And as long as we fight horizontally,
against life, against the winds,
against what's happening to us,
life is a nightmare.
How do we steer a balloon?
By understanding that the atmosphere
is made out of several different layers of wind
which all have different direction.
So, then, we understand that if we want to change our trajectory,
in life, or in the balloon,
we have to change altitude.
Changing altitude, in life,
that means raising to another psychological, philosophical,
spiritual level.
But how do we do that?
In ballooning, or in life,
how do we change altitude?
How do we go from the metaphor
to something more practical that we can really
use every day?
Well, in a balloon it's easy, we have ballast.
And when we drop the ballast overboard we climb.
Sand, water, all the equipment we don't need anymore.
And I think in life it should be exactly like this.
You know, when people speak about pioneering spirit,
very often they believe that pioneers
are the ones who have new ideas.
It's not true.
The pioneers are not the ones who have new ideas,
because new ideas are so easy to have.
We just close our eyes for a minute we all come back
with a lot of new ideas.
No, the pioneer is the one who
allows himself to throw overboard a lot of ballast.
Habits, certainties,
convictions, exclamation marks,
paradigms, dogmas.
And when we are able to do that,
what happens?
Life is not anymore
just one line going in one direction
in one dimension. No.
Life is going to be made out of all the possible lines
that go in all the possible directions
in three dimensions.
And pioneering spirit will be each time we allow ourselves
to explore this vertical axis.
Of course not just like the atmosphere in the balloon,
but in life itself.
Explore this vertical axis, that means
explore all the different ways to do,
all the different ways to behave, all the different ways to think,
before we find the one that goes in the direction we wish.
This is very practical.
This can be in politics.
This can be in spirituality.
This can be in environment,
in finance, in education of children.
I deeply believe
that life is a much greater adventure
if we manage to do politics
without the trench between the left and the right wing.
Because we will throw away these political dogmas.
I deeply believe that we can make much more protection of the environment
if we get rid -- if we throw overboard
this fundamentalism that some of the greens have showed in the past.
And that we can aim for much higher spirituality
if we get rid of the religious dogmas.
Throwing overboard, as ballast, to change our direction.
Well, these basically are things I believed in such a long time.
But actually I had to go around the world in a balloon
to be invited to talk about it.
(Laughter)
(Applause)
It's clear that it's not easy to know which ballast to drop
and which altitude to take. Sometime we need
friends, family members or a psychiatrist.
Well, in balloons we need weather men,
the one who calculate the direction of each layer of wind,
at which altitude, in order to help the balloonist.
But sometimes it's very paradoxical.
When Brian Jones and I were flying around the world,
the weather man asked us, one day, to fly
quite low, and very slow.
And when we calculated we thought we're never going to make it
around the world at that speed.
So, we disobeyed. We flew much higher, and double the speed.
And I was so proud to have found that jetstream
that I called the weather man,
and I told him, "Hey, guy, don't you think we're good pilots up there?
We fly twice the speed you predicted."
And he told me, "Don't do that. Go down immediately
in order to slow down."
And I started to argue. I said, "I'm not going to do that.
We don't have enough gas to fly so slow."
And he told me, "Yes, but with the low pressure you have on your left
if you fly too fast, in a couple of hours
you will turn left and end up at the North Pole.
(Laughter)
And then he asked me --
and this is something I will never forget in my life --
he just asked me, "You're the good pilot up there.
What do you really want? You want to go very fast
in the wrong direction, or slowly in the good direction?
(Laughter)
(Applause)
And this is why you need weathermen.
This is why you need people with long-term vision.
And this is precisely what fails
in the political visions we have now,
in the political governments.
We are burning, as you heard,
so much energy,
not understanding that such an unsustainable
way of life cannot last for long.
So, we went down actually.
We slowed down. And we went through moments of fears
because we had no idea how the little amount of gas
we had in the balloon
could allow us to travel 45,000 kilometers.
But we were expected to have doubts; we're expected to have fears.
And actually this is where the adventure really started.
When we were flying over the Sahara and India
it was nice holidays.
We could land anytime and fly back home with an airplane.
In the middle of the Pacific,
when you don't have the good winds, you cannot land,
you cannot go back.
That's a crisis.
That's the moment when you have to wake up
from the automatic way of thinking.
That's the moment when you have to motivate
your inner potential,
your creativity.
That's when you throw out all the ballast,
all the certainties,
in order to adapt to the new situation.
And actually, we changed completely our flight plan.
We changed completely our strategy.
And after 20 days we landed successfully in Egypt.
But if I show you this picture
it's not to tell you how happy we were.
It's to show you how much gas was left
in the last bottles.
We took off with 3.7 tons of liquid propane.
We landed with 40 kilos.
When I saw that, I made a promise to myself.
I made a promise that the next time I would fly around the world,
it would be with no fuel,
independent from fossil energies,
in order to be safe,
not to be threatened by the fuel gauge.
I had no idea how it was possible.
I just thought it's a dream and I want to do it.
And when the capsule of my balloon was introduced
officially in the Air and Space Museum in Washington,
together with the airplane of Charles Lindbergh,
with Apollo 11, with the Wright Brothers' Flyer,
with Chuck Yeager's 61,
I had really a thought then.
I thought, well, the 20th century, that was brilliant.
It allowed to do all those things there.
But it will not be possible in the future any more.
It takes too much energy. It will cost too much.
It will be prohibited
because we'll have to save our natural resources
in a few decades from now.
So how can we perpetuate
this pioneering spirit
with something that will be independent from fossil energy?
And this is when the project Solar Impulse
really started to
turn in my head.
And I think it's a nice metaphor also
for the 21st century.
Pioneering spirit should continue, but on another level.
Not to conquer the planet or space,
not anymore, it has been done,
but rather to improve the quality of life.
How can we go through the ice of certainty
in order to make the most incredible a possible thing?
What is today completely impossible --
get rid of our dependency on fossil energy.
If you tell to people, we want to be independent
from fossil energy in our world,
people will laugh at you, except here,
where crazy people are invited to speak.
(Laughter)
So, the idea is that if we fly around the world
in a solar powered airplane,
using absolutely no fuel,
nobody ever could say in the future
that it's impossible to do it
for cars, for heating systems,
for computers, and so on and so on.
Well, solar power airplanes are not new.
They have flown in the past, but without
saving capabilities, without batteries.
Which means that they have more proven
the limits of renewable energies
than the potential of it.
If we want to show the potential,
we have to fly day and night.
That means to load the batteries during the flight,
in order to spend the night on the batteries,
and fly the next day again.
It has been made, already, on remote controlled
little airplane models, without pilots.
But it stays an anecdote
because the public couldn't identify to it.
I think you need a pilot in the plane
that can talk to the universities,
that can talk to students,
talk to politicians during the flight,
and really make it a human adventure.
For that, unfortunately,
four meters wingspan is not enough.
You need 64 meter wingspan.
64 meter wingspan to carry one pilot, the batteries,
flies slowly enough with the aerodynamic efficiency.
Why that? Because fuel is not easy to replace.
That's for sure.
And with 200 square meters of solar power on our plane,
we can produce the same energy
than 200 little lightbulbs.
That means a Christmas tree, a big Christmas tree.
So the question is, how can you carry a pilot around the world
with an airplane that uses
the same amount of energy as a big Christmas tree?
People will tell you it's impossible,
and that's exactly why we try to do it.
We launched the project with my colleague Andre Borschberg
six years ago.
We have now 70 people in the team working on it.
We have gone through the stages of simulation, design,
computing, preparing the construction
of the first prototype.
That has been achieved after two years of work.
Cockpit, propeller, engine.
Just the fuselage here, it's so light.
It's not designed by an artist, but it could be.
50 kilos for the entire fuselage.
Couple of kilos more for the wing spars.
This is the complete structure of the airplane.
And one month ago we have unveiled it.
You cannot imagine how it is for a team
who has been working six years on it
to show that it's not only a dream and a vision,
it's a real airplane.
A real airplane that we could finally present.
And what's the goal now?
The goal is to take off,
end of this year for the first test,
but mainly next year, spring or summer,
take off, on our own power,
without additional help, without being towed,
climb to 9,000 meters altitude.
The same time we load the batteries,
we run the engines, and when we get at the maximum height,
we arrive at the beginning of the night.
And there, there will be just one goal, just one:
reach the next sunrise before the batteries are empty.
(Laughter)
And this is exactly the symbol of our world.
If our airplane is too heavy,
if the pilot wastes energy,
we'll never make it through the night.
And in our world, if we keep on spoiling,
wasting our energy resources,
if we keep on building things that consume so much energy
that most of the companies now go bankrupt,
it's clear that we'll never give the planet to the next generation
without a major problem.
So, you see that this airplane is more a symbol.
I don't think it will transport 200 people
in the next years.
But when Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic,
the payload was also just sufficient
for one person and some fuel.
And 20 years later there were 200 people
in every airplane crossing the Atlantic.
So, we have to start,
and show the example.
A little bit like on this picture here.
This is a painting from Magritte,
in the museum in Holland that I love so much.
It's a pipe, and it's written, "This is not a pipe."
This is not an airplane.
This is a symbol of what we can achieve
when we believe in the impossible,
when we have a team,
when we have pioneering spirit,
and especially when we understand
that all the certainties we have
should be thrown overboard.
What pleases me very much
is that in the beginning I thought that we would have to fly
around the world with no fuel
in order to have our message been understood.
And more and more, we're invited around the world with Andre
to talk about that project, to talk about the symbol of it,
invited by politicians, invited in energy forums,
in order to show that it's not anymore
completely stupid
to think about getting rid of the dependency
on fossil energies.
So, through speeches like this one today,
through interviews, through meetings,
our goal is to get as many people possible on the team.
The success will not come
if we "just," quote, unquote,
fly around the world in a solar-powered airplane.
No, the success will come
if enough people are motivated
to do exactly the same in their daily life,
save energy, go to renewables.
And this is possible. You know, with the technologies we have today,
we can save between 30 and 50 percent
of the energy of a country in Europe,
and we can solve half of the rest with renewables.
It leaves 25 or 30 percent for
oil, gas, coal, nuclear, or whatever.
This is acceptable.
This is why all the people who believe
in this type of spirit
are welcome to be on that team.
You can just go on SolarImpulse.com, subscribe
to just be informed of what we're doing.
But much more, to get advices,
to give your comments, to spread the word
that if it's possible in the air,
of course it's possible in the ground.
And each time we have some ice in the future,
we have to know that life will be great,
and the success will be brilliant
if we dare to overcome our fear of the ice,
to go through the obstacle,
to go through the problem, in order to see what there is on the other side.
So, you see, this is what we're doing on our side.
Everyone has his goal, has his dreams,
has his visions.
The question I leave you with now
is which is the ballast
you would like to throw overboard?
Which will be the altitude at which
you would like to fly in your life,
to get to the success that you wish to have,
to get to the point that really belongs to you,
with the potential you have,
and the one you can really fulfill?
Because the most renewable energy we have
is our own potential, and our own passion.
So, let's go for it, and I wish you an excellent adventure
in the wings of the future. Thank you.
(Applause)
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【TED】博特蘭‧皮卡德的太陽能動力的大冒險 (Bertrand Piccard's Solar-powered Adventure)

4030 分類 收藏
Max Lin 發佈於 2016 年 5 月 16 日
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