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let's continue our discussion of market sensing,
moving from environmental analysis to the
topic of research and consumer behavior.
specifically will be discussing consumer behavior
as part of that the purchase decision process
and problem-solving behavior topics of consumer behavior.
let's start by defining what we mean
by consumer behavior. there we're talking about the action
a buyer takes in purchasing
a product, using a product
and disposing of a product. so when we're talking about consumer behavior
we're talking about all the actions
before, after and during product
use. I want to show you a couple illustrations of
consumer behavior. let's look at the differences of
and how men and women view
purchasing greeting cards by looking at this
Budweiser commercial
it's perfect. so I think that that particular
YouTube video illustrates perfectly
the differences between most men and women when they're buying
a greeting card like a Valentine's Day card or something like that.
so those describe consumer behavior
from the perspective of what they did before
and during product use.
let's look how marketers have changed tuna salad based
on the study consumer behavior.
let's look here at
starkist tuna and if will look
at the reasons people don't eat more tuna
on the go or to take it to lunch -- it deals a lot with
smell. and everything you have to take with you to use
tuna at work. sound to
to handle this problem for consumers
their package includes
ready-made tuna salad you don't even have to mix
the tuna with any mayonaise
and relish anymore. it's already made for you. there are six crackers,
a serving spoon to put the salad on the crackers,
a napkin, a mint afterwards so that you don't have bad breath.
I would challenge you to see what missing.
what still don't they understand about why more people don't
eat tuna for lunch? what happens after
they eat this tuna pack? did they have to dispose of the product?
and when they do dispose of the product,
is there a problems that's solved? do they put it in the trash can and
you still continue to get that tuna smell?
I would like to suggest that way a
better way to meet consumer need and better
understand consumer behavior would be to perhaps included a ziplock type
bag in that packet so that would be easy to
dispose of everything when you are done. so
how do people go about buying, using
and consuming products. what I'd like to introduce now
is the consumer decision-making process. and people who don't understand
marketing tend to focus on how can we get
people to buy. and while that's
a long-term goal for marketers, marketers realize that
individual consumers go through a process
where before they can buy
or purchase, they first have to recognize
they have a problem or need. We would
define that as the difference between what they
actually have and what they desire.
as so when a person has a difference between what they have
what they desire, they then recognized that they have a problem
or a need and will begin to search
for alternatives to help them solve that problem. so we define
problem recognition as the difference between
actual and desired. information searched then is when they would look to some
internal sources, basically what they might remember
about different ways to solve this problem or
different brands, but they also would look to
some external source like
personal sources -- being their friends, their family, their coworkers.
they might also look to public sources --
things that they see in news publications or consumer reports or on social media
by people who aren't necessarily their friends or family and are not
the marketer of the products or services.
and they also use many external source
that are developed by marketers -- advertisements, web page,
personal salespeople,
all external support sources. so i'd
like to ask you right now what
external source do you think people
trust the least? personal sources --
their friends and family? public sources --
things they might see in the media that not paid
advertising or promotion? or marketer sources --
information about a product from the marketer?
they probably trust marketers
sources least and personal sources
the most. that's why it's so important for marketers to have satisfied
customers
so that the word of mouth generated by personal sources is
more positive influence
on people. so again we're talking about when
consumers make a decision to buy the first thing they have to do
is recognize they have a need or problem.
they then use internal and external sources
to search for information. they then
begin to evaluate various alternatives.
and when they evaluate alternative one thing
they'll do in their mind or perhaps even on paper is
come up with some of the evaluative criteria
that they would use. keep in mind
these evaluative criteria may not all have
equal weight. for example perhaps the most important thing to someone choosing
a college
is price and class size.
to another person the most important criteria
might be majors offered and location.
regardless consumers have some sort of evaluative criteria that they
use when they are evaluating different
brands in their consideration set.
the consideration set would be the list
of acceptable brands that they would consider.
so if it's a very important purchase a consumer might actually
write down a pro and con list or a little chart.
but if it's not very important or purchase
or a purchase in which they have a high level of involvement,
they may simply do this in their head.
for example you can see how this consumer
thinks about brand A B and
C. and it might be in this case
because what is most important is price
and class size, they would choose brand
A. so this explains how consumers go about
evaluating alternatives.
so again, as we talk about the
consumer problem-solving process, we've talked about
problem recognition, information search
Evaluation of alternates and then
purchase. by the way not all
not all time when we go through this process
do we end up purchasing. it might be that we go through this process and say
what I have is adequate. I don't need to purchase a new car
or I don't need to go back to college.
but at some point, if they do decide to purchase,
they will select an outlet --
and a number of factors can have huge
impact here. for example type of financing,
delivery or just plain availability of the product
might make them to choose another alternative
than they had selected.
oftentimes after person purchases
they experience what is called post
purchased satisfaction or dis-satisfaction.
and if it's dis-satisfaction we call
that cognitive dissonance
or buyers remorse. when we say cognitive
it means thinking and when we say dissonance
in it means unbalanced. so if you have
unbalanced thinking about a purchase,
you question whether or not you made the right decision.
something I'd like to point out here is
that all of a marketers efforts are not necessarily directed
just at problem recognition, information search,
evaluation of alternative and purchase.
many times seeing an advertisement or promotion
about something that you recently purchased
helps you to eliminate cognitive dissonance
and in your mind solidify
that you didn't make a good purchase.
one thing I want emphasized is
you don't go through this process
with same level of intensity or concern
for all products you buy. in other words --
depending upon your level of involvement
with a particular product or product category --
you might go through this process very very quickly
and doing so you would use what's called
routine problem-solving behavior.
so typically when you want to buy a bottle of ketchup,
you don't spend much time going through this process.
and in fact you probably don't do any
post purchase evaluation
unless product doesn't perform
as expected. if this
product you're buying is very important to you
and you have a high-level involvement
here because it's very expensive or there's a lot of
risk involved or it's going to reflect
significantly on your personal image,
you might take a lot of time going through this process.
in this case you will be using what's called extended
problem solving. a girl buying her wedding
dress probably uses extended problem-solving.
very rarely would they buy the first one they tried on
even if they liked it best with out
first trying other alternatives.
and products that are purchased with some level of involvement
between these two levels
would use what is called
called limited problem solving. so you're going to buy a
blender for example or a new
outfit or something like that, you would probably use
limited problem solving. so I just wanted
to illustrate here for you the beginning of the the concept
consumer behavior and the consumer
buying decision process.
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市場洞悉:消費者行為與決策過程 (Market Sensing: Consumer Behavior Decision Process)

2403 分類 收藏
羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 5 月 10 日    羅紹桀 翻譯    Mandy Lin 審核
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