高級 美國腔 24052 分類 收藏
You may not know it, but your body is engaged in a never-ending battle.
You are literally covered in staph and strep and e coli, and all sorts of dubious characters
that are intent on using you, and your body’s many resources, to feed themselves, find shelter,
and reproduce as much as they want.
And, hey, we all gotta make a living. But it is not your job to give these guys a free lunch.
So your body has developed a three-part policy toward these shady customers, and its enforcement
is handled by your immune system.
The immune system is different from all the other systems we’ve talked about this year
and that it’s not a specific, tissue-organ-system kind of system.
Instead, it involves a whole bunch of different tissue groups, organ systems, and
specialized-but-widely-distributed defense cells.
Together, this league of extraordinary substances joins forces to perform all of the defense
functions your body depends on to keep you alive in an incredibly germy world.
And the first line of defense in this never-ending battle? That’s your innate, or nonspecific, defense system.
Like your average frontline soldier, it’s prepared to immediately engage with anyone
suspicious, and it mostly includes stuff we were born with, like the external barricades
of your skin and mucous membranes, and internal defenses like phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins,
and other attack cells.
But some enemies must be fought with special forces. And here, your body can deploy your
adaptive, or specific defense system, which is more like your Seal Team Six.
It takes more time to call in, but it’s specially designed to go after specific targets.
And it keeps files on those bad guys so it knows how to handle them next time around.
But today we’re going to focus on your innate system, and look at how it uses an arsenal
of physical and chemical barriers, killer cells, and even fever, to keep you healthy.
Proving that sometimes, the symptoms we associate with illness are actually the signs that we're healing.
Just because something is simple doesn’t mean that it can’t be elegant.
I mean, your body is capable of some incredibly sophisticated things, including
defending itself from infection.
But occasionally there’s something to be said for brute force.
And a lot of your innate immune system’s functions aren’t exactly subtle. For example,
your body’s very first line of defense is a simple physical barrier. And it works!
Like a wall around a fortress, your skin does a fantastic job of keeping out all manner
of malevolent microorganisms.
As long as that tough, keratinized epithelial membrane doesn’t get torn open or busted
up too much, you could probably, like, make snowballs out of raw sewage and still be alright.
Although...no. No.
Your many mucous membranes also provide a handy physical barrier. You’ll remember
that they line any cavity that opens up into the germy outside world, including the respiratory,
digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
Not only do your skin and mucosa supply simple physical protection,
they also pack some serious chemical weaponry.
Eat some questionable leftovers for lunch? Don’t worry, your stomach is literally filled
with acid, so you probably are covered.
Walk face-first into your co-worker’s nasty sneeze cloud? No worries, your nasal passages
can whip up a tissue-box worth of sticky mucus to help trap viruses before they enter your lungs.
You’ve also got bacteria-fighting enzymes in your saliva and lacrimal eye fluid, and
peptides called defensins in your skin and membranes that help keep bacteria and fungi
from setting up shop around inflamed or scraped skin.
Which, no matter how careful you are, you’re gonna get, one way or another.
Maybe you shave with a dull blade. Or you just brush your teeth too hard. And DON’T
GET ME STARTED about the dangers of bagel-cutting.
So when you’ve breached that first, simple line of defense, it’s time to call on your
second line of internal innate defenses.
This is where your body starts pulling strategic maneuvers like firing up a fever, releasing
chemical signals, causing inflammation, or other defensive tactics that help identify
and attack infectious invaders.
Some of the first defensive cells on the scene are your phagocytes. Their name literally
means “to eat,” and like Pac-Man, they indiscriminately chase down intruders and
gobble them up. And they come in a few different varieties:
First you’ve got neutrophils, which are the most abundant type of your white blood
cells. They kind of self-destruct after devouring a pathogen. And, in fact, you’ve probably
seen piles of their little dead bodies, because that’s what pus is made of.
But the bigger, tougher phagocytes are the macrophages. They’re derived from monocyte
white-blood cells that have moved out of the blood stream to occupy tissues. And some are
free types that patrol tissues looking for creepers, while others are fixed -- attached
to fibers in specific organs, devouring anything suspicious that passes by.
So when a macrophage in, say, the finger I just cut slicing a bagel, sees a new bacterium
coming along, it snares it using cytoplasmic extensions, reels it in, completely engulfs
it, and -- essentially -- digests it and spits the rest out.
And unlike neutrophils, it can do this over and over again, like a boss.
But not all your defense cells are phagocytic. You’ve also got cells with what is by far
the awesomest name of any cell in the body: the natural killer cells. You can call them
NK cells if you want to, but like, why would you do that?
Anyway, these tiny assassins patrol your blood and lymph looking for abnormal cells, and
are unique in that they can kill your own cells if they are infected with viruses or
have become cancerous.
How can they tell?
A normal, healthy cell contains a special protein on its surface called MHC1, or major
Histocompatibility Complex. But if it’s infected, it stops making that protein.
And if an NK cell detects a defective cell, it doesn’t swallow it whole like a macrophage
-- it pokes it with an enzyme that triggers apoptosis, or programmed cell death, which
is pretty awesome.
So those are some ways your innate immune cells handle their enemies, but how do they
know where to look in the first place?
So, let’s talk strategery.
So, say you’re in a banana factory and you slip on a banana peel and scrape your knees.
Your outer fortress has been breached, and the pathogens are just flooding in like orcs
through Helm’s Deep.
Banana factories are very dirty places.
Now your body wants to contain the spread of pathogens, clean up the mess, and get healing
as quickly as possible, so it cues up your inflammatory response.
This is basically an internal fire alarm, only it uses chemicals instead of sirens to
get the message across, and instead of smoke and fire
you sense redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
For example, in the event of injury, specialized mast cells in your connective tissue send
out histamine molecules.
And histamine is great at calling in the cavalry.
For one thing, it causes vasodilation, which creates redness and heat at the site of the injury.
Now, those things might freak you out a little, but they’re actually signs of healing --
the increased temperature, for example, ratchets up the cells' metabolic rates
so they can repair themselves faster.
Meanwhile, histamines and other inflammatory chemicals also increase the permeability of
blood vessels, causing nearby capillaries to release protein-rich fluids.
This causes swelling -- which again, is actually a good thing -- because that leaked protein
helps clot blood and form scabs, while the lymphatic system sucks up and filters that
extra fluid, cleaning it up before putting it back into your bloodstream.
And of course, like chum to sharks, an inflamed knee is also going to attract a bunch of local phagocytes
-- which find it easier to escape your now-leaky capillaries --
and lymphocytes that are also flowing freely, helping to destroy pathogens
while also cleaning up dead-cell wreckage.
And don't forget: During all this, the neutrophils have been doing their best, but they were
the first wave to arrive, so by this time, they’re starting to die in heaps.
They're triggered when the injured knee-skin cells release chemicals that begin leukocytosis
– the release of neutrophils from the bone marrow where they're made into the bloodstream.
To attract the neutrophils to the damaged area, inflamed endothelial cells in the capillaries
send out chemicals that act like homing devices-- and when the neutrophils arrive, they cling
to the capillary walls near the injury, flatten themselves out and squeeze through the vessel
walls to get to work.
Your big monocytes eventually roll up to the battle, and transform into hungry macrophages,
replacing that first line of now-dead neutrophils and basically just eating up any lingering
enemies and then cleaning up the carnage.
Now, all this works pretty well in most circumstances. But you may have noticed with
a more major injury, or an especially nasty virus or infection, sometimes your
local troops get overrun.
When white blood cells and macrophages run into more foreign invaders than they can handle,
they let loose pyrogen chemicals that tap the hypothalamus and raise your body’s thermostat,
calling in a systemic fever to burn everything.
The resulting temperature rise increases the metabolism of your cells so they can heal
faster, and it also tells the liver and spleen to hold onto all of their iron and zinc, so
those things can’t contribute to bacterial growth.
But even then, sometimes, well sometimes you find yourself facing a more formidable foe.
That’s when you call in the specialists -- your adaptive immune defenses.
And to learn exactly how they save the day, you have to watch next time.
But for now you learned that your immune system’s responses begin with physical barriers like
skin and mucous membranes, and when they’re not enough, there are your phagocytes -- the
neutrophils and macrophages. You also learned about natural killer cells and the inflammatory
response, and watched as all of these elements saved the day
when you slipped on a banana peel.
Thank you to our Headmaster of Learning, Linnea Boyev, and thank you to all of our Patreon patrons
whose monthly contributions make Crash Course possible, not only for themselves,
but for everybody. If you like Crash Course and you want to help us keep making videos
like this, you can go to patreon.com/crashcourse.
This episode was filmed in the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio, it was written
by Kathleen Yale, the script was edited by Blake de Pastino, and our consultant is Dr.
Brandon Jackson. It was directed by Nicholas Jenkins, edited by Nicole Sweeney, our sound
designer is Michael Aranda, and the Graphics team is Thought Cafe.



生理學速成班:先天免疫系統 (Immune System, part 1: Crash Course A&P #45)

24052 分類 收藏
羅紹桀 發佈於 2017 年 9 月 8 日    emily 翻譯    Lilian Chang 審核


人體的免疫系統由層層複雜的機制所協調,除了大家熟知的「白血球」,你真的知道我們的免疫系統是如何分工合作、驅除外敵的嗎?人體的免疫系統可以略分為先天免疫系統 (Innate Immune Sysem) 及後天免疫系統 (Adaptive Immune System) 兩種,而今天的影片就要帶大家來一窺人體奧妙,認識先天免疫系統的運作!

1make a living0:15
make a living 是一個常用的片語,有「謀生、糊口」的意思。如果表示自己「以… 維生」的話,可以用 make a living from somethingmake a living by doing something 來表示。而另一個意思很接近的片語是 earn a living,在大多數的時候,這兩個片語是可以互相通用的,只是若真的要細究,earn a living 有「賺錢」糊口的意思在,而 make a living 則不一定要是透過賺錢糊口。

另外,若在 living 前加上一個形容詞,則能夠使得「謀生」這個動作更加生動:
make a great living 過好日子
make a bare living 勉強糊口
It's hard to make a living by selling paintings.

After losing both his legs, David can't even make a bare living.

就是這些神奇秘方,讓皮克斯的作品栩栩如生 (The magic ingredient that brings Pixar movies to life | Danielle Feinberg)

2join forces0:42
force 本身有「力量;部隊」的意思,而 join forces 則有「參加、加入;合作;和(某人)一起」的意思,也會以 join force with somebody/something 的形式出現。
Sara joined forces to protest against hate.

Jim joined force with Andy today to attend the seminar.

collaborate (v.) 合作,適用於人與人間在處理事務上有緊密的互動、想法交流
cooperate (v.) 合作,適用於每個人各自負責自己的部分以完成全局
league (v.) 聯合、結盟
conspire (v.) 同謀,常用於負面

【新聞時事】IBM Watson幫助醫生診斷兒童罕見病

3gobble up3:40
gobble up 的意思是「狼吞虎嚥」。而 gobble 這個詞同時也可以作名詞,表示「咯咯的叫聲」。
He gobbled up the sandwich in merely 3 seconds.

She gobbled up everything in sight as if she hadn't eaten anything for a week.

gulp down (phr.) 大口大口地吃
pig out on (phr.) 大吃一番
grab a bite (phr.) 隨便吃一點
eat up (phr.) 吃光光
demolish (v.) (口語) 吃光
swallow (v.)
sip (v.) 啜飲

【經典童話】小紅帽 (Little Red Riding Hood - Bedtime Story Animation | Best Children Classics HD)

4like a boss4:27
like a boss 字面上的意思是「像老大一樣」,其實就是用於形容某件事「很強、很了不起,簡直像個老大」。
She slept like a boss while standing on a bus ride.

He snored out a tune like a boss.

超炫的麥當勞點餐方式! (How To Order Mcdonald's Like A Boss!)

5save the day8:00
save the day 有「反敗為勝、化險為夷、挽救局面」的意思,也可以用 save the situation 來表示。
We can save the day by joining forces.

Davis really saved the day by solving the bug.

眾星雲集告訴你:一人一票,救救美國! (IMPORTANT - Save The Day)


文/ Lilian Chang




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