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  • In February 2016,

    2016 年 2 月

  • the Pakistan government promised to amend their laws around honor killings.

    巴基斯坦政府承諾將修正「名譽處決」的法律漏洞

  • This comes on the heels of the 2016 Academy Award winning short documentary,

    就在《河中女孩:寬恕的代價》贏得奧斯卡最佳紀錄短片之後

  • "A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness."

    《河中女孩:寬恕的代價》

  • The film tells the story of a Pakistani woman

    紀錄短片描述一名巴基斯坦婦女

  • who was badly beaten, shot in the head and left in a river to die

    遭到毒打、頭部中槍後被拋在河中等死

  • all because she married a man whom her father and uncle didn't approve.

    只因為她的丈夫沒有得到父親與叔父的認可

  • In fact, the UN has estimated that

    據聯合國估計

  • as many as five thousand honor killings like this occur every year

    每年至少有 5 千起類似案件

  • So what exactly are honor killings?

    究竟什麼是名譽處決?

  • An honor killing is the murder of one family member by another,

    名譽處決是家庭成員將自家人處以極刑

  • due to a perceived shameful act by the victim upon their family or community.

    因為受害人的行為損害家族名譽

  • They are predominantly carried out in honor based societies,

    這種習俗大多出現在重視名聲的社會

  • which define a person's standing by their integrity in the eyes of the community.

    在這樣的社會中,個人的聲譽決定社會地位

  • Those with honor are generally viewed as good, while those without are shamed.

    有名望的人就能抬頭挺胸、沒有的人便是家門恥辱

  • In these societies,

    在這種社會中

  • women are believed to dishonor their families through immoral, often sexual, behavior.

    女性若不守婦道、有失貞節便會讓家族蒙羞

  • Because a woman is generally understood as a man’s property,

    由於女性是男性的所有物

  • their betrayal strips away their honor, and can be punishable by death.

    女性若失節,便等同丟男性的臉,就可以處以極刑

  • Honor killings can happen as the result of

    名譽處決可能發生在以下情況:

  • a woman seeking escape from an arranged marriage, or having an extramarital affair,

    女性若逃避家長安排的婚姻或有婚外情就會被處決

  • but they can also stem from actions as basic as

    其他簡單的原因包括

  • dating someone not accepted by a family or wearing western clothing.

    交往對象不受家庭認可,以及穿著西方服飾

  • Some women have even been killed after being victim to a sexual assault or rape.

    有些女性甚至因為遭到強暴、性侵而被處決

  • In 2015, a Syrian woman was brutally murdered, allegedly by her father and brothers,

    2015 年一名敘利亞女性據稱遭到父親與兄弟殘忍殺害

  • after she was gang raped.

    只因她被人輪姦

  • The woman had fled Syria two years earlier, for fear that her family would see her as "unclean."

    即便兩年前她就因為害怕家族認為她「不潔」而逃離敘利亞

  • Honor killings were prominent in ancient Rome, where the male head of the family

    名譽處決早在古羅馬時期便相當盛行,當時的男性族長

  • could murder sexually active daughters and adulterous wives.

    可以處決有性行為的女兒和通姦的妻子

  • This idea carried into the Ottoman Empire,

    鄂圖曼土耳其帝國承襲這個習俗

  • where men who were found guilty of killing their wives were exempt from responsibility

    殺害妻子的丈夫可以因此脫罪

  • or given reduced sentences.

    或減刑

  • Ottoman men were even known to publicly boast about the act as a way to increase their honor.

    鄂圖曼男人甚至以公開炫耀此舉來抬高自己的聲望

  • Interestingly, this idea was borrowed from an almost identical

    有趣的是,19世紀的法國刑法內容也有雷同之處

  • 19th century French penal code, which remained on the books until 1975.

    該法條直至 1975 年才遭到廢除

  • Today, honor killings are usually associated with countries in the Middle East and North

    現在名譽處決多發生在中東和北非

  • Africa, but the horrific practice still occurs in other parts of the world, including India,

    但世界其他國家也有這個習俗,包括印度

  • Europe, Latin America and the U.S.

    歐洲、拉丁美洲和美國

  • Despite its prevalence in Islamic regions,

    雖然名譽處決盛行於伊斯蘭教地區

  • honor killings are never mentioned in the Quran or Hadith.

    但可蘭經和聖訓中並沒有相關記載

  • And religious authorities, like Ayatollah Khamenei of Iran, have publicly denounced the practice.

    而地區宗教領袖,如伊朗的 Ayatollah Khamenei,也曾公開譴責這種行為

  • But in countries like Jordan and Iraq the legal system tacitly approves of honor killings,

    但約旦和伊拉克的法律卻默示名譽處決

  • as murder sentences are reduced

    殺人兇手能獲得減刑

  • if the victim was deemed to have brought dishonor to their family.

    只要受害者有損其家族名譽

  • In fact, perpetrators in Jordan

    據報,約旦的殺人犯

  • reportedly serve no more than six months behind bars for the crime.

    刑期都在半年以下

  • The Queen of Jordan has repeatedly spoken out against honor killings,

    約旦皇后曾多次公開反對名譽處決

  • however the country's parliament has resisted closing up loopholes

    然而國會遲遲不願修改法條

  • that allow killers to get off with little or no punishment.

    讓殺人犯持續鑽漏洞逃過刑罰

  • But government negligence is only part of the problem.

    不過政府默示只是問題的一小部分

  • The larger issue is the subordinate role women play in society.

    更嚴重的議題是女性在社會上的從屬地位

  • According to a 2013 study, nearly half of Jordanian boys

    根據 2013 年的研究,約旦有近半男孩

  • and 20 percent of girls believe that killing a woman in the name of honor is justifiable.

    以及兩成女孩認為,以聲譽之名處死女性再合理不過

  • Religious and political leaders in countries like Pakistan and Jordan are pushing measures

    巴基斯坦和約旦的政教領袖正積極尋求方法

  • that would further criminalize honor killings.

    將名譽處決有罪化

  • However, the heinous acts are likely to continue until broad societal norms also give way.

    儘管如此,這樣仍無法遏止殘忍習俗,除非社會規範整體改變

  • Westerners have a lot of misconceptions about the Muslim world, and the women in it.

    西方社會對伊斯蘭世界及婦女有諸多誤解

  • Find out what some of them are by watching this video up top.

    想知道是哪些誤解,請看上方影片

  • Or to learn about some of the most women-friendly Muslim countries, watch this video below.

    想知道哪些伊斯蘭國家對婦女友善,請看下方影片

  • Thanks for watching Test Tube News,

    感謝收看 TestTube News

  • don't forget to like and subscribe for new videos every day!

    別忘了按讚和訂閱每日最新影片

In February 2016,

2016 年 2 月

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 處決 約旦 女性 習俗 社會 家族

【人權教育】榮譽處決知多少 (What Are Honor Killings?)

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    劉宜佳 發佈於 2017 年 09 月 14 日
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