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This might seem hard to believe, but right now,
300 million women across the planet are experiencing the same thing:
a period.
The monthly menstrual cycle that leads to the period
is a reality most women on Earth will go through in their lives.
But why is this cycle so universal?
And what makes it a cycle in the first place?
Periods last anywhere between two and seven days,
arising once within in a 28-day rotation.
That whole system occurs on repeat,
happening approximately 450 times during a woman's life.
Behind the scenes are a series of hormonal controls
that fine tune the body's internal workings
to make menstruation start or stop during those 28 days.
This inner machinery includes two ovaries
stocked with thousands of tiny sacks called follicles
that each contain one oocyte, an unfertilized egg cell.
At puberty, ovaries hold over 400 thousand egg cells,
but release only one each month,
which results in pregnancy or a period.
Here's how this cycle unfolds.
Each month beginning around puberty,
the hormone-producing pituitary gland in the brain
starts releasing two substances into the blood:
follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
When they reach the ovaries,
they encourage the internal egg cells to grow and mature.
The follicles respond by pumping out estrogen.
The egg cells grow and estrogen levels peak,
inhibiting the production of FSH,
and telling the pituitary to pump out more LH.
That causes only the most mature egg cell from one of the ovaries
to burst out of the follicle and through the ovary wall.
This is called ovulation,
and it usually happens ten to sixteen days before the start of a period.
The tiny oocyte moves along the fallopian tube.
A pregnancy can only occur if the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell within the next 24 hours.
Otherwise, the egg's escapade ends,
and the window for pregnancy closes for that month.
Meanwhile, the now empty follicle begins to release progesterone,
another hormone that tells the womb's lining
to plump up with blood and nutrients
in preparation for a fertilized egg that may embed there and grow.
If it doesn't embed,
a few days later, the body's progesterone and estrogen levels plummet,
meaning the womb stops padding out and starts to degenerate,
eventually falling away.
Blood and tissue leave the body, forming the period.
The womb can take up to a week to clear out its unused contents,
after which, the cycle begins anew.
Soon afterwards, the ovaries begin to secrete estrogen again,
and the womb lining thickens,
getting ready to accommodate a fertilized egg
or be shed.
Hormones continually control these activities
by circulating in ideal amounts delivered at just the right time.
The cycle keeps on turning,
transforming each day and each week into a milestone along its course
towards pregnancy or a period.
Although this cycle appears to move by clockwork,
there's room for variation.
Women and their bodies are unique, after all.
Menstrual cycles occur at different times in the month,
ovulation comes at various points in the cycle,
and some periods last longer than others.
Menstruation even begins and ends at different times in life for different women, too.
In other words, variations between periods are normal.
Appreciating these differences and learning about this monthly process
can empower women,
giving them the tools to understand and take charge of their own bodies.
That way, they're able to factor this small cycle
into a much larger cycle of life.
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【Ted-Ed】女性生理期是如何運作的呢? (How menstruation works - Emma Bryce)

22598 分類 收藏
SylviaQQ 發佈於 2018 年 2 月 9 日   Sh, Gang (Aaron) 翻譯   Kristi Yang 審核

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生理期是每個女生人生中必須經歷無數次的體驗,但是卻很少人真正清楚生理期是經過怎麼樣的身體機能運作所產生的。你想要更瞭解自己的身體在生理期時會經歷什麼樣的變化嗎?現在讓我們一起來看影片的介紹吧!

1fine-tune0:45
fine 是形容詞,具有「細微的」和「精密的」的意思。 tune 作為名詞是「曲調」的意思,動詞則是「調音」和「使協調」的意思。所以 fine-tune 這個動詞合併出的意思就是「對...進行細微調整」。
The company has to fine-tune the strategies for the current marketing campaign.
公司必須微調目前行銷活動的策略方針。


2unfold1:13
fold 作為動詞是「摺疊」或「對摺」的意思,而 un- 開頭的詞彙代表否定的意思,所以放在 un- 後的形容詞或動詞就是代表該狀態被否定。由此可知 unfold 的直接解釋為「非對摺或摺疊」,進而衍伸出「打開」或「展開」的意思。
As the story unfolds, the truth becomes more clear.
當故事展開,事實變得更加明朗。


*同場加映:
TED-Ed:龍捲風是如何形成的? How do tornadoes form? - James Spann (How do tornadoes form? - James Spann)


3pump out1:31
pump 作為名詞是「幫浦」的意思,而作為動詞則是「抽送(氣體或液體)」的意思。當 pump 加上 out 這個介系詞,它除了有「將液體或氣體抽出」的意思,也有「持續大量產出某事物」的意思。
People whose cars pump out black smoke should be fined heavily.
車子排出黑煙的人應被處以巨額罰款。


*同場加映:
「油」到底能撐多久?


4inhibit1:37
inhibit 是動詞,中文解釋是「抑制」、「約束」或「禁止」。另外,inhibitprohibit 雖然為相似詞彙,但意義和用法卻不一樣。inhibit 強調的是來自內在成因帶來的限制或約束,但 prohibit 通常都是指外部因素帶來的限制,例如法律或主管機關等等。
Dehydration can inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
乾燥可以抑制微生物的生長。


*同場加映:
李威廉:我們能藉著飲食餓死癌症嗎? Can we eat to starve cancer?


5burst out1:47
burst 這個動詞有「爆發」和「突然發生」的意思,而 burst out 這個片語有「突然大量湧出某物」、「突然大聲嚷嚷」、「突然離開」或「突然做某個動作」的意思。當要表示「突然做某個動作」,那就是 burst out +動詞 Ving,例如 burst out laughing「突然大笑」。若要表示「突然大量湧出某物」或「突然離開」,那就是 burst out of + 名詞
As soon as he got the call, he burst out of his room.
他一接到電話就馬上從他房間衝出來。

The moment she found out that she had been admitted to school, she couldn't help but burst out cheering.
當她知道她已經獲得入學許可,她忍不住大聲歡呼。


*同場加映:
找尋內心的真理 (Diego Hangartner at TEDxTaipei 2013)


看完影片,更瞭解自己的身體在經歷什麼變化了嗎?總結來說,月經是身體排出的子宮內膜和血液,它的形成與一連串激素變化有關。當激素刺激卵巢排卵時,黃體素上升使子宮壁變厚,若排出的卵子沒有成為受精卵,那子宮內膜就會剝落,這就形成月經。

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