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  • So let’s talk about trees. But not the kind with flowers or fruit or leaves. No, I mean

    所以我們來談談「樹」,但是不是那種有花、長果子或有葉子的那種。 不!我指的是

  • the trees that underlie our sentences, the ones that build up the structure that our

    一種樹是可以劃出我們所說的句子,那種建構出一種結構

  • words slot into and let us build bigger meanings. Every time you build a sentence, every time

    讓字能夠排排站,讓我們能造出更多的意思。每次當你造出一個句子的時候,每次

  • someone talks to you, youre growing one of these trees. All I’ve just been saying

    有人在跟你說話的時候,你都在種出這一種樹。 我剛剛說的那些

  • has planted a little grove of language in your mind. So let’s do some climbing! I’m Moti

    也已在你腦中種出一片語言的樹林囉!讓我們開始攀爬吧!我是Moti

  • Lieberman, and this is The Ling Space.

    Lieberman,歡迎來到林氏空間(語言學空間)!

  • There’s a whole branch of linguistics that’s devoted to looking at the structure of sentences,

    語言學的所有分支都是靠著從句子結構探討開始

  • known as syntax. But why do we even bother?

    也就是所知的「句法」。 但是為什麼我們還要這麼麻煩呢?

  • Can’t we just stack our words one on top of another like pancakes

    我們就不能就把字一個疊著另一個疊起來,就像煎薄餅一樣

  • to build some delicious meanings?

    把一些美味的意義疊出來?

  • Well, there has to be some structure, or else we’d be able to work back from a smashed-up wreck

    但是一定要有些結構,要不然我們怎麼從一堆破爛的廢墟裡把它蓋回來呢?

  • of a sentence like “a threatening hand is who Angel missing lawyer the is,” and have

    就像這句子「那威脅的手是Angel正在想念的律師」,然後

  • it get the same meaning as the original, “The lawyer who is missing a hand is threatening

    它意思跟原句有一樣嗎?「失去一隻手的律師在威脅Angel。」

  • Angel.” Clearly, one of those is a good sentence of English, and the other one is just gibberish

    明顯地,其中一個是個好英文句子,然而另一句子只是用英文字隨便亂造出來的

  • that happens to be made up of English words. So structure must matter.

    胡言亂語。所以結構是很重要的

  • But what kind of structure do we need? Well, whatever hypothesis we come up with, it’s

    但是我們需要什麼樣的結構呢?不論我們提出什麼樣的假說

  • got to be really flexible. That's because it has to capture all the variation in how all the

    它一定要很有彈性。因為它必須包含世界上所有語言的變化

  • different languages in the world put together all their different sentences. We don’t want to say

    還有組合出來的各式各樣的句子。我們不想說

  • Icelandic speakers have one basic way of making sentences, but Telugu speakers have a second

    冰島人有一個基本造句法,但是印度泰盧固語有第二個造句法

  • one, and Cree speakers a third. Building sentences with their own internal structures is something

    而且加拿大克里語的人有第三種。從內部結構來造句是

  • common to every language of the world, and so an Icelandic baby dropped off in southeastern

    世界上每個語言都普遍的作法,所以當一個被丟在印度東南方的冰島嬰兒

  • India will learn Telugu syntax just fine. That’s because the basic framework of syntax

    也會學到泰盧固語的句法。那是因為句法的基本架構是

  • is universal. In fact, it’s part of Universal Grammar, the linguistic knowledge all people share.

    普遍的。事實上,它是普遍語法的一部分,也就是人類皆共同擁有的語言知識

  • But with all the surface differences, finding something that can branch its way through

    但是有各有表面上的不同。藉由任何一個人類語言,要找到能夠分出它自己的道路

  • every human language isn’t obvious. Not only does it have to be flexible, it also

    並不是很表面的。 不只要具有彈性,也要

  • has to be abstract.

    是抽象的

  • So, here are a lot of hypotheses out there, but one of the most commonly talked about

    因此,現在有很多種假說,但是其中最廣為討論的就是

  • ones, is called X’ theory, first proposed in the early 70s. The X in X’ doesn’t

    被成為「標桿(X')理論」,它在70年代初期被提出。「X'」的「X」並不

  • stand for anything; it’s a variable, like in algebra. We can use that

    代表什麼,它是可變的,就像是代數一樣。我們可以利用這

  • variable to make a basic structure, a template, like this: X can stand for any noun or verb

    可變性來創造出基本架構,一個模板,像這樣:「X可以代表任何名詞或動詞

  • or adjective or any category you want to build a phrase around. You end up with chunks of

    或是形容詞,甚至你要想造一個片語的什麼詞都可以。」你可以用一堆

  • syntax that can be stacked and connected together, and you do it in a way that’s flexible enough to communicate

    可以堆疊起來、連結起來的句法,然後你用一個夠具有足夠彈性的方式

  • anything that you want, in any language that you want.

    來造任何你想要的句子,不論什麼語言

  • This gets a lot clearer when you start looking at some examples. Let’s start with something

    當你看一些例子的時候會比較清楚。 我們來看看很簡單的例子

  • really simple: a name, likeCordelia.” Okay, so in your mental lexicon, where you

    一個名字,像是「Cordelia」。所以在你的心智辭典裡,就是你

  • store all your words, each term belongs to a syntactic category - which is like a part of speech,

    把字都儲存在的那個地方,每個詞都屬於一個句法種類-也就是像詞性

  • so a noun, an adverb, etc. “Cordeliais a noun, so when we want to putCordelia

    像名詞、副詞等。「Cordelia」是一個名詞,所以當我們想要把「Cordelia」

  • in our X’ tree, we replace the Xs with Ns for nouns. In this phrase,

    放進我們的X'樹狀圖,我們把X換成N來表示名詞。 在這片語中

  • Cordelia is thehead”, which is the part of the phrase with the most content and meaning.

    Cordelia是「中心(head)」,也是這片語中最具有內容和意義的一部分

  • Because Cordelia’s the head of the phrase, and because it’s a noun, the whole thing

    因為Cordelia是這個片語中的中心,而且因為它是名詞,所以整個

  • will become a noun phrase, or NP. Great! Done. Except, not really. This might work if we

    會變成一個名詞片語或是NP。 太棒了! 結束! 除了,其實不只。這個或許會有用,如果

  • never said anything more than bare nouns and verbs and things, but natural language is

    永遠不說超過單一名詞或副詞之類的東西,但是自然語言是

  • a lot more involved than that. So sometimes all you want to say is Cordelia, but sometimes

    是比那複雜很多的。 所以有時候你要說的只是Cordelia,但是有時候

  • you might want to say nice things about Cordelia. Maybe you want to say, “The amazing Cordelia.”

    你或許想要說一些有關Cordelia的好事。 或許你想要說「太驚人的Cordelia了」

  • Where did those other words fit in?

    那其他的字要怎麼插進去呢?

  • Well, that’s where thebarpart of X’ theory comes to the rescue. So between the

    喲,標桿理論的「桿(bar)」就來解救這一個情況。 所以在

  • head and phrase level, we introduce one more layer of complexity: that's the bar level, which is written

    中心和片語的層級之間,我們導入多一層複合的層次,也是就「標桿等級(bar level)」,書寫時候會

  • with an apostrophe next to the letter that represents the head. The bar level is an intermediate, repeatable

    把一個省略符號寫在中心所代表的字母旁邊。「標桿等級(bar level)」在這模板是居中的且可重複的

  • stage in the template that allows us all the flexibility we need to

    藉此讓我們所需要的這些彈性來

  • build bigger phrases and sentences. Let’s see how this works.

    造出更長的片語和句子。 我們來看看這怎麼作用的

  • Since theyre still all still associated with the noun - theyre all to do with Cordelia

    因為它們都還是跟名詞連結再一起,他們都是跟Cordelia變化的

  • - you need to have extra room for those extra words in your noun phrase. So they need to get nestled into

    你的名詞片語中需要額外的房間來給其他的字。 所以他們才可以住進

  • the NP, and that’s where the N’ comes in. Now your sentence is shaping up.

    這名詞片語中,而且這也是名詞桿(N')接下來出現的地方。 現在你的句子就往上長了

  • But wait. Why bother having these intermediate stages at all? Even if we know all these words

    但是等等,何必還要有中間的階級呢?甚至是我們都知道這些字

  • come together to make a noun phrase, why put in all these extra levels of structure? Why

    會組合起來成為一個名詞片語,為什麼要把它們放在這結構中的不同階級呢?為什麼

  • not just put in an NP at the top, and then different labels for all the words below - so an N for the noun,

    不直接放個名詞片語(NP)在最上面,然後在字的下面標上標籤,就像是N代表名詞

  • an A for the adjective, etc. That’d be easier, right?

    A代表形容詞等等。 這樣不是簡單多了嗎?

  • Wellhere’s the thing. The reason we needed syntax in the first place was to give

    嗯...這樣有個問題。我們一開始需要句法的原因就是要架出

  • structure to how come sentences mean what they do, and have the word order that they

    一個架構是來解釋為什麼句子意思是如此,它們的功能是什麼,還有字序的功能是什麼

  • do. All the information about what a sentence means, that is the syntax, and it has to be

    所以關於句子意義的資訊就是句法學,而且它一定要

  • visible in our diagrams, why bother drawing trees in the first place, right?

    能就圖表化,不然一開始何必那麼麻煩的畫樹呢?

  • So we end up needing to branch things off two by two with bar levels,

    所以我們結束用標桿等級(bar level)把東西一雙一對的分支下去

  • otherwise we wouldn’t know what parts go with other parts. We can even put as many

    否則我們不知道哪個部分要跟哪個部分在一起。 我們甚至也可以

  • bar levels into the structure as we want, so it'll work for any kind of sentence. For

    放入隨便多少標桿等級(bar level)到架構中,所以這樣才能適用於任何一種句子。

  • example, if we saidthe quirky, supremely intelligent Fred,” and there was no internal

    例如說,如果我們說「那狡詐又極為聰明的佛瑞德」,這樣這個就沒有內部

  • structure, so everything was just flat, we wouldn’t know that supremely was supposed

    結構,所以每個東西都是平的,我們不會知道「極度的」應該要

  • to go with intelligent, and not with quirky. We wouldn’t be able to come up with any

    跟「聰明的」出現,而不是跟「狡詐的」。 我們無法想出任何

  • rules to stop these things. All the rules, everything that’s okay and not okay,

    規則來阻止這樣的狀況。 所有的規則,所有事情是可以或不可以

  • has to be seen in the structure.The bar levels give us a hierarchy that allows us to make

    都要在結構中被檢視。這些標桿等級(bar level)提供了一套階級制度讓我們

  • sense of things like this. Now, we knowsupremelygoes withintelligent”, and that you

    可以像這樣合理化句子。 現在我們知道「極度的」跟「聰明的」一起使用,而且你

  • can’t just pull words out willy-nilly to make nonsense sentences.

    不可以不管可不可以就把字拉出來然後造出不合理的句子

  • What X’ theory shows us is the way that we can build structure

    標桿理論帶給我們的就是我們建構出句構的方法

  • in order to capture all the facts of language, along with the flexibility to add whatever

    為了包含所有的語言的現象,還有添加隨便我們喜歡的東西的彈性

  • we like. They let us add potentially infinite parts before the head, likeThe bespectacled

    它們讓我們有可能在中心之前加上無限的要素,像是

  • bookish Brit Wesley,” or after it, as inthe vampire with a soul and a big black

    「那個帶著眼鏡又像書呆子的英國人衛斯理」;或是加在後面,「那有靈魂和一個大的黑外套的吸血鬼。」(註:英文字序是寫在吸血鬼後面)

  • coat.” And this sort of syntax also lets us capture facts about how we form larger

    而且這樣的句法也讓我們知道如何造出更長的

  • sentences, as questions, find ambiguity, and all sorts of other things, which well

    句子,像是疑問句,發現歧義,還有其他各種的句子,我們在

  • talk about in the future.

    未來會探討到的

  • Linguists today have a lot of other hypotheses about syntax, too, but X’ is a great place

    現在語言學家對於句法也有許多不同的假說,但是X桿是一個

  • to start because it shows all of the hallmarks of why syntax is real and useful. It can be

    很好的起始點,因為它顯示出了為什麼句子是真實且有用的所有特點。 它可以

  • applied to any type of word, in any type of sentence, in any type of language. It’s

    被應用到任何一種文字,任何一種句子,以及任何一種語言。

  • just a template: a head with a phrase and as many intermediate stages as you’d like.

    它就是一個模板:片語的中心以及要多少有多少的中間階層

  • But by using that one little template, and putting it in every time you make a phrase,

    但是藉由這一個小小的模板,然後你每次造句的時候把它應用進去

  • you can shape a whole world of language. Shaping those little trees can tell you what

    你可以精進世界上的任何一種語言。 畫出這些小樹們可以告訴你什麼是

  • language is. And that’s worth the climb.

    語言。而且這是值得去探索的

  • So weve reached the end of the Ling Space for this week, but if you were making your

    我們已經來到本周林式空間(語言學空間)的尾聲,但是如果你正在造你自己的

  • own happy little trees, you learned that sentences must have an internal structure to them if were

    快樂小樹,你就知道句子一定要有一個內部結構,如果我們

  • going to capture the facts we know about them; that the basic template of that structure

    要知道它們所有的事情;句構的基本模板

  • needs to be flexible and universal; that the template in X’ theory consists of a head,

    必須要是彈性的且普遍的;標桿理論中一定要有個中心

  • a phrase, and as many bar levels as you need to fit all the words you have; and that the

    一個片語,但你需要拿來修飾你的文字的標桿等級;而且

  • structure should branch off two-by-two to fit the facts about hierarchy that we feel are true.

    這個架構最多只能分支兩隻來符合我們覺得自然的這個階級

  • The Ling Space is written and produced by me, Moti Lieberman. It’s directed by Adèlelise

    林式空間(語言學空間)是由我撰寫且製作,我是Moti Lieberman。由 Adèle-Élise Prévost

  • Prévost, our production assistant is Georges Coulombe, our music and sound design is by

    所指導,我們的製作助理是Georges Coulombe,我們音樂設計是

  • Shane Turner, and our graphics team is atelierMUSE. Were down in the comments below, or you

    Shane Turner,我們的製圖團隊是atelierMUSE。就都在下方備註欄,或是你

  • can take the discussion back over to our website, where we have more information on this

    可以回到我們的網頁和我們一起討論,在我們的網頁有更多關於這主題的資訊

  • topic. Check us out on Tumblr, Twitter, and Facebook, and if you want to keep expanding

    到Tumblr、Twitter、Facebook上看看我們,如果你想要持續拓展

  • your own personal Ling Space, please subscribe. And well see you next Wednesday. /seləvu/!

    你自己的林式空間(語言學空間),請訂閱我們。我們下星期三見。

So let’s talk about trees. But not the kind with flowers or fruit or leaves. No, I mean

所以我們來談談「樹」,但是不是那種有花、長果子或有葉子的那種。 不!我指的是

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 句子 片語 名詞 語言 結構 模板

句法樹和X'理論 (Syntactic Trees and X' Theory)

  • 294 17
    Sh, Gang (Aaron) 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字