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This episode of DNews is brought to you by Audible.
All you kids out there who hate waking up early for school? Worry not, 'cause science has your back.
Hey guys, Tara here for Dnews - and like many of you out there, I am NOT a morning person.
Having to wake up at 6 am every single day was probably the thing I hated most about school growing up -
and now, there's research to prove that it can actually affect our academic performance.
A new study conducted throughout 718 public elementary schools in Kentucky - finds that
earlier school start times are associated with lower performance - but ONLY in students from middle or upper class backgrounds.
Researchers assessed academic performance using standardized test scores, as well as
attendance rates, teacher-student ratios, and retention rates -
which is the number of students required to repeat a certain grade.
They theorized that earlier start times would be associated with lower performance in almost all of those areas -
particularly in disadvantaged schools. But to their surprise,
the results showed that wasn't true. Kids who attended schools in disadvantaged districts saw no difference in performance,
regardless of what time school started.
However, children attending affluent schools, saw a significant decrease in academic performance, the earlier school started.
Researchers say sleep deprivation could be what's at hand here.
Not getting enough sleep could cause students to lose the ability to remain alert and focused in class -
and it may also lead to an increase in illness.
As for why this only seems to affect children in affluent schools, the answers are still mostly unknown.
Although they believe it may be because disadvantaged children have so many other risk factors at play.
Now before we start rallying to have schools start at 9 am - there were some other unexpected findings.
The study also found that the later school starts, the higher the chance there is of students having to repeat grades.
For every additional minute later school starts,
retention rates increase by 0.2 %. So starting the school day off even 5 minutes later than normal -
could lead to a 1 % increase in the amount of students being held back.
Now, that's pretty antithetical to the rest of the study, which links later start times with improved performance,
but one possible explanation for that, researchers say, is that starting school later may cause average students to improve,
while those with learning disabilities have an even
harder time keeping up.
They also warn that because this is the first study to ever examine the relationship between school start times and student retention in pre-adolescents,
more research is needed before solid conclusions can be drawn.
Still - think of all the things you could get done if school didn't start til 10 am!
You could read a book - or better yet, you could listen to a book on Audible.com!
Audible is the leading provider of downloadable digital audiobooks and spoken word entertainment.
And they've got over 100,000 titles to choose from, including books for kids!
Just download them to your iPod or MP3 player, and listen to them anywhere you want - on the bus,
at home, or at recess, if you're one of the indoor kids. No shame in that, it's the reason I'm so pale!
Best of all, you can get a free audiobook download of your choice by signing up at audiblepodcast.com/dnews.
Every sign-up helps support the show, and encourages reading - the best education of all.
In the meantime, let us know what you think of this study! Would you hate it - or love it - if school started a half hour later?
Parents, I'm sure you feel differently than your kids,
but let us know anyway! Just leave your answers in the comments below -
and as always, thank you guys for watching!
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為何上課不要在大清早? (Why Schools Should Start Classes Later!)

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ioannestong 發佈於 2018 年 1 月 3 日    Yu-Chun Chang 翻譯    Naomi Hwang 審核

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你們還記得國小、國中、高中那些必須早早起床上學的日子嗎?想必大部分的人都跟小編我一樣不喜歡早起上學吧!如今,科學研究證明早起真的會影響學生課業表現。那是如何的影響呢?就讓我們來瞧瞧吧!

1upper class0:39
upper 是一個形容詞,表示「上層的、較高的」,而 class 並非我們熟知的「班級」,此處代表的意思是「社會階級」,合併起來表示「上流社會、上層階級」。
The upper class is often composed of the wealthiest members of the society.
上流社會人士通常是社會中最有錢的一群。

Some of the upper class have never known what working for a living means.
有些上流社會的人一輩子都不明白什麼叫做為了工作而活。


另外,有上層、就有中層、下層,那麼「中產階級」便是 middle class , 而「勞工階級」則是 lower classworking class
The middle class is a group of people that falls between the upper and the lower class.
中產階級是介於上流社會與勞工階級的一群人。

Working class occupations include blue-collar jobs and few white-collar jobs.
工人階級的人們大多做藍領工作以及少數的白領工作。


*同場加映:
【知識力】中產階級有多強大?(How Powerful Is The Middle Class?)


2sleep deprivation1:18
deprivation 作為名詞,指的是「剝奪、損失」。而前面加上 sleep ,合併起來便是 「睡眠剝奪」的意思。
Memory loss is one the consequences of long-term sleep deprivation.
記憶喪失是長期睡眠剝奪下的後果之一。

Scientist have found out that people suffering from sleep deprivation are more likely to cheat on their partners.
科學家發現遭受睡眠剝奪之苦的人比較容易欺騙自己的伴侶。


deprivation 的形容詞,則是 deprived 「被剝奪的」。
Nearly a third of Taiwanese students are seriously sleep deprived.
將近三分之一的台灣學生睡眠剝奪的情況嚴重。


3at hand1:19
at hand 照字面翻是「手邊」,也就是「在附近、隨時可用」的意思。
I'm so excited because this semester is about to end and this means that the summer vacation will be at hand.
我超興奮的,因為這學期即將結束了,這也表示暑假就要來了!

There's big trouble at hand. We have to solve it immediately.
我們手邊有個大麻煩,必須趕快處理才行。


on hand 則是「在手上」,表示「尚待處理」的意思。
A: Do you wanna join us tonight at the nightclub?
B: Nah, I've got loads of work on hand.
A: 我們今晚要去夜店,想加入嗎?
B: 不了,我還有一堆工作還沒處理完。


另外, in hand 也有「在手上」的意思。也可指「正在處理」、「在控制之下」。
Don't worry, the situation is well in hand.
不用擔心,我們已經控制了局面。


同義詞: under control
Everything is under our control. You can trust us.
一切都在我們的掌控之中,你可以相信我們。


4rally1:39
rally 在影片中當作動詞,有「(重新) 整合、集合」的意思,另外也可當作「振作精神」的意思。
I know you're heartbroken because she dumped you, but it has been 3 months now. You should rally your courage and move on.
我知道她把你甩了給了你很大的打擊,但已經過三個月了。你應該鼓起勇氣然後繼續前進。

It's our last year in college. We should rally our classmates and try to win the baseball game.
這是我們在大學的最後一年了,我們班應該團結起來,一起努力打贏這場棒球比賽。

The day after 911 happened, the US government rallied all the retired soldiers.
九一一事件發生的隔一天,美國政府立刻重整所有已退休的老兵。


5conclusions can be drawn2:28
我們常常說「為某件事下結論、達成協議」,通常使用的動詞為 draw ,所以是 draw a conclusion to something,而這句則是「結論可以被做出、被確定」的意思。
We need a lot more evidence so that conclusions can be drawn.
我們需要更多的證據才能得到更確切的結論。

Hey guys, we've been discussing this topic for almost an hour. Can we draw a conclusion now?
嘿大家,我們已經討論這個議題一小時了。可以下個結論了嗎?

It's difficult to draw a conclusion to something when all of us hold our own perspectives and we never take in others opinions.
當大家都持著自己的觀點並且拒絕接受他人的意見時,要為某件事情下結論是很困難的。


另外,補充一下 draw a conclusion 的同義詞:

reach an agreement 意思也是「達成協定」。
After 4 months of discussion, we still haven't reached an agreement.
經過了四個月的討論,我們仍然未達成協議。


*同場加映:
心理學:月暈效應 (The Halo Effect - Science of Attraction)


開課時間的調整,真的是一大難題呢!我想,我們能做的就是別再總是熬夜拖時間,早睡早起才是真正的解決之道!

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