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This is Michael Bierut. “I'm Michael Beirut. I'm a graphic designer.”
You might be familiar with his work, but interestingly he thinks that logos are just kind of overrated.
"I'm actually often very ambivalent about them." Let's back out a second. What is a logo?
Basically the face of a company. "Some are beloved. Some... the swastika is a logo and it's reviled. You know?"
They have to work at tiny sizes, and huge. There are three specific types.
First type is the WORDMARK. "The wordmark is the easiest one. And it's the one we're all the most familiar with.
I mean John Hancock's signature is kind of a word mark. It can look crisp clean and modern like the new Google logo looks.
Or it can look somehow that it has roots in a shared heritage the way the coca cola logo looks. You know?"
The second is PICTORAL. "Pictoral logos often function as a kind of rebus, you know.
It's a picture, and you savor what's in the picture, and it sort of is
identifying the name of the company. Sometimes directly like Target. Sometimes indirectly like LaCoste."
The third kind is kind of the holy grail. Abstract iconography.
"It's everyone's favorite kind of category because it just seems almost like magic, you know.
As a designer people come to me and they'll say I want something like the Nike swoosh.
They think that the Nike swoosh was the Nike Swoosh the day it was drawn. But it was nothing the day it was drawn."
The company that birthed nike commissioned a design student named Carolyn to draw some ideas.
And the Nike founders didn't really like them. "They sort of said awww let's use that one."
It wasn't like an overnight success. "And then they started putting it on the sides of shoes.
The shoes were good and then the genius of Nike's marketing apparatus made us further associate that product
not merely with performance athletic gear but with the very idea of athletic achievement itself.
And that's how over a long time a little mark means something big.
"That's exactly how religious symbols work.
It's obviously not just anything inherent in about these shapes, but it's about what those shapes
have come to represent in the minds of the people who are looking at them."
But there's a fourth type of logo that goes beyond these three types, and can use elements of each of them:
The Logo System. A graphical framework, that can have endless permutations.
The first gigantically popular example of the logo system would be MTV.
But google's daily “doodles” are another great example of the logo system – a familiar mark that can also point to other ideas and issues.
This approach all has to do with technological change.
"It used to be if a company was doing a logo there'd be this military operation
by which it would be inscribed on all their equipment and on their airplanes and their retail facilities
and gold pins and cufflinks would be made for the executive suite and put on spittoons in ashtrays,
in the top of the skyscraper, and we say "dwell" on everyone's business card, right?
Nowadays none of that's as important as an email signature or your twitter avatar
or the little thing that sits next to your URL. Those things are much more ubiquitous and they can be changed at the drop of a hat.”
Bierut used this system approach for his Hillary Clinton logo.
"We wanted to have a mark reflect the electorate, and reflect the issues.
Those simple forms that comprise the H with the arrow in it are actually designed
to hold not just two colors say red and blue, but any colors you want."
The use of logo systems seems to be continually on the upswing now – probably because it allows the the brand using it to expand the conversation beyond it's own name.
"The logo really reminds people that's what our priority is today."
But at the end of the day, regardless of the shape, style or system, it might not matter what the logo is.
"It really is about thinking of these symbols as being empty vessels in a way,
and then you pour the meaning into them."
So what's this all add up to?
Basically, those fights people get in about new logos are pretty misguided.
"They think they're judging a diving competition, but actually all these organizations are in swimming competitions.
It's not what kind of splash you make when you hit the water. It's how long you can keep your head above that water."
Logos need to have a long life, not win points in a discussion.
12 years after the birth of the nike logo, Nike came back to that graphic design student Carolyn with a gift.
"A Nike ring with her own trademark on it, the swoosh." "Thank you very much it's beautiful."
And an undisclosed amount of Nike stock. "Wow." In 1973 when it was designed, her pay was $35.
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【生活英文】偷偷告訴你:商標背後的秘密! (What makes a truly great logo)

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Ray 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 24 日    Ray 翻譯    Ray Du 審核

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商標緊緊地連結公司的形象,哪樣的商標是人們最重視的?是圖案、文字,還是顏色?讓我們一起瞧瞧商標背後的秘密吧!

1
graphic0:04
graphic 這個字可以說是從 photograph 的簡化而來的,作為名詞是「圖像;圖形」,而作為形容詞則是「圖像的;圖解的;繪畫似的」。通常用電繪或是手繪而來的圖像,常常是帶有特定的設計理念、表達出特定的意象或者是圖表等示意圖象。
這個字在生活中和商標討論中,可以說是相當地常用呢!像是有名的 T-shirt 專賣店,Design Tshirts Store graniph 就是取自 graphic 這個字,來表達自家的衣服都是設計師繪圖設計的。常用的片語如:

.graphic art 平面藝術、形象藝術
.graphic designer 平面設計師

其他容易搞混的相關單字:

.photo 相機拍攝出的相片
.picture 任何拍攝或繪製之圖片
.image 多用於頭像、形象

*同場加映:
凌晨四點鐘的博物館 (Rives: The Museum of Four in the Morning)


2
overrated0:13
overrated 這個字可以拆成 over-ratedrate 除了作為名詞「比率」,作動詞還有「評等;評價」的意思,而在前方加上 over 則有,有「評分過高」的意思,再加上過去分詞作形容詞的型態,overrated 其實意思就是「被高估的」。
In Taiwan, the importance of academic qualification is oftentimes overrated.
在台灣,學歷的重要性常被過度吹捧。


另外再補充一個相關的重要片語,如果我們想要凸顯事件的重要性,表示一件事情不能再被更加地重視時,我們就可以使用 can't be overstated 來表示哦!
The effect of the US dollar on European economy can't be overstated.
美元對歐洲經濟的影響不容小覷。


擁有 over- 的單字,還有這些:

.overexcited (a.) 興奮過度的
.overreacted (a.) 過度反應
.overexploited (a.) 過度開發
.overgeneralized (a.) 過於籠統

反過來說,如果要講一個東西被低估的話,便可以用 underrate 這個字!
Wreck-it Ralph is one of the most underrated movies in history!
「無敵破壞王」是史上最被低估的電影之一!


同樣地,擁有 under- 的字還有:

.undervalued (a.) 低估、降低價值
.underestimated (a.) 低估
.underdeveloped (a.) 發展不完全的
.underdressed (a.) 穿著過於樸素、不夠華麗

*同場加映:
名人親口唸出攻擊他們的惡毒推特!(Celebrities Read Mean Tweets #2)


3
inscribe2:38
inscribe 有記下的意思,和 write 比較不同的地方在於,inscribe 是正式的記錄下來,例如:登記、雋刻、題字等寫的動作,中文裡常常說為誰題字,就會用這個字!
Her name is inscribed in the company's history for her great contribution.
她對公司的偉大貢獻讓她留名於公司歷史之中。


-scribe 有書寫的意思,這個字尾在大小考試中的出現率都蠻高的,但不是每個都有「寫」的意思,就讓小 V 來為大家整理各種 -scribe 吧!

.describe (v.) 形容
.ascribe (v.) 歸因於
.prescribe (v.) 開藥方、規定
.subscribe (v.) 訂閱、簽署支持
.transcribe (v.) 抄寫、謄寫

*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】諾貝爾和平獎從何而來?(How does the Nobel Peace Prize work? - Adeline Cuvelier and Toril Rokseth)


4
at the drop of a hat3:05
drop 的意思是「落下;下降;摔倒」。因為拿在手上的帽子,鬆手掉落到著地的時間只在一瞬之間,非常快速,因此 at the drop of a hat 這個片語可以用來形容「一個人做決定時毫不遲疑」的樣子。20 世紀初,帽子大為流行,而與帽子有關的片語也就因而大為流行起來囉!
If I ever needed help, I know my brother would be there at the drop of a hat.
如果我需要幫忙,我知道我哥會毫不遲疑的馬上來幫我。


*同場加映:
太有趣!教你五個關於帽子的簡單成語! Learn 5 easy HAT idioms in English (Learn 5 easy HAT idioms in English)


5
upswing3:26
還記得小時候最愛玩的盪鞦韆嗎?越盪越高的弧線,就像是圖表上成長的線,upswing 這個字用這樣來記憶,是不是很好懂呢?他的意思和 increase 是類似的,可以當作動詞、名詞來使用,在經濟相關報導中常常能看見它。
我們可以用 be on the upswing 或是 achieve an upswing,表示某事物正在逐年成長、提升、進步。
After overcoming the worldwide economic depression in 2008, many countries are now on the upswing.
走出2008年全球金融海嘯的風波,近幾年許多國家都逐年在復甦成長。


看懂了商標背後的祕密後,下次看到廣告、上街購物時,可以多留意商標的表現及變化,或許哪天就能成為商標大師也不一定呢!當然,也別忘了小 V 今天教給大家的重點單字唷!

文/ Janet
編輯/ Lilian

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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔