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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    我不確定在座的各位

  • I'm not sure that every person here

    是否熟悉我的作品。

  • is familiar with my pictures.

    我想先向你們展示幾幅作品

  • I want to start to show just a few pictures to you,

    然後我再接著說。

  • and after I'll speak.

    我必須介紹一下我的生平,

  • I must speak to you a little bit of my history,

    因為在接下來的演講中

  • because we'll be speaking on this

    我們會談到它。

  • during my speech here.

    1944年我出生於巴西,

  • I was born in 1944 in Brazil,

    當時的巴西尚未施行市場經濟

  • in the times that Brazil was not yet a market economy.

    我出生在農場,

  • I was born on a farm,

    農場至少有一半的土地是雨林【現在仍然是】。

  • a farm that was more than 50 percent rainforest [still].

    很美的地方。

  • A marvelous place.

    我和珍禽奇獸一起生活,

  • I lived with incredible birds, incredible animals,

    我和凱門鱷在小河中嬉戲。

  • I swam in our small rivers with our caimans.

    農場裡大約有35戶人家,

  • It was about 35 families that lived on this farm,

    我們自給自足。

  • and everything that we produced on this farm, we consumed.

    幾乎不向市場供給。

  • Very few things went to the market.

    一年中唯一的一次供給

  • Once a year, the only thing that went to the market

    是我們飼養的牛。

  • was the cattle that we produced,

    我們要花45天的時間

  • and we made trips of about 45 days

    才能到達屠宰場,

  • to reach the slaughterhouse,

    趕着上千頭牛

  • bringing thousands of head of cattle,

    然後再花20天的時間返回

  • and about 20 days traveling back

    到達我們的農場。

  • to reach our farm again.

    我15歲的時候,

  • When I was 15 years old,

    差不多是要離這個地方的時候了

  • it was necessary for me to leave this place

    去一個大一點的小鎮,其實大很多

  • and go to a town a little bit bigger -- much bigger --

    我在那裡完成了中學的後半部分的學業。

  • where I did the second part of secondary school.

    我在那裡學到了很多。

  • There I learned different things.

    巴西開始邁向城市化和工業化,

  • Brazil was starting to urbanize, industrialize,

    我了解當時的政治。我變的有點激進,

  • and I knew the politics. I became a little bit radical,

    我是一名左翼份子,

  • I was a member of leftist parties,

    接著我變成一名活躍人士。

  • and I became an activist.

    我想成為一名經濟學家,所以我上了大學。

  • I [went to] university to become an economist.

    並且我拿到了經濟學碩士學位。

  • I [did] a master's degree in economics.

    而我人生中最重要的一件事

  • And the most important thing in my life

    也在那時發生。

  • also happened in this time.

    我遇見了一位非常非常棒的女孩

  • I met an incredible girl

    她成為我的人生伴侶,

  • who became my lifelong best friend,

    她參與我到現在為止做的所有事情,

  • and my associate in everything that I have done till now,

    我的妻子,Lélia Wanick Salgado.

  • my wife, Lélia Wanick Salgado.

    當時,巴西非常的激進。

  • Brazil radicalized very strongly.

    我們和當時的獨裁進行了艱苦的鬥爭

  • We fought very hard against the dictatorship,

    就在那時,我們必須要:

  • in a moment it was necessary to us:

    武裝起來,秘密活動

  • Either go into clandestinity with weapons in hand,

    或者離開巴西。我們當時太年輕,

  • or leave Brazil. We were too young,

    我們的組織以為離開是最好的選擇,

  • and our organization thought it was better for us to go out,

    所以我們去了法國,

  • and we went to France,

    我在那裡拿到了經濟學的博士學位,

  • where I did a PhD in economics,

    Léila 成為一名建築師。

  • ila became an architect.

    我在一家投資銀行工作。

  • I worked after for an investment bank.

    我們經常出差,協同世界銀行

  • We made a lot of trips, financed development,

    在非洲建設金融項目。

  • economic projects in Africa with the World Bank.

    有一天,攝影闖進,並完全佔據了我的生活。

  • And one day photography made a total invasion in my life.

    我成為了一名攝影師,

  • I became a photographer,

    放棄了當時擁有的一切,

  • abandoned everything and became a photographer,

    成為一名攝影師,開始攝影

  • and I started to do the photography

    那對我來說很重要。

  • that was important for me.

    很多人對我說:你是一名攝影記者,

  • Many people tell me that you are a photojournalist,

    一名人類學攝影師,

  • that you are an anthropologist photographer,

    一名激進派攝影師。

  • that you are an activist photographer.

    我做的其實比上述更多。

  • But I did much more than that.

    我把攝影視為我的生命。

  • I put photography as my life.

    我生活在攝影裡

  • I lived totally inside photography

    從事長期項目

  • doing long term projects,

    我想向你們展示幾幅作品

  • and I want to show you just a few pictures

    你們會再次看見這些社會項目的內在

  • of -- again, you'll see inside the social projects,

    我出版了很多本書

  • that I went to, I published many books

    書裡面是我拍攝的照片,

  • on these photographs,

    但是我現在只展示幾張。

  • but I'll just show you a few ones now.

    90年代,從1994年到2000年,

  • In the '90s, from 1994 to 2000,

    我用攝影記錄一個叫做《遷徙》的故事

  • I photographed a story called Migrations.

    我把它出版成了書,也辦過了展覽。

  • It became a book. It became a show.

    在那期間,我在拍攝這個,

  • But during the time that I was photographing this,

    我人生中有過一段很艱難的歲月,大部分時間在盧旺達。

  • I lived through a very hard moment in my life, mostly in Rwanda.

    我目睹了在盧旺達的暴行,

  • I saw in Rwanda total brutality.

    我每天都目睹上千人死去。

  • I saw deaths by thousands per day.

    我對人類失去了信心,

  • I lost my faith in our species.

    我當時覺得人類已經快要滅亡了,

  • I didn't believe that it was possible for us to live any longer,

    病菌開始侵入我的身體。

  • and I started to be attacked by my own Staphylococcus.

    我全身都感染,

  • I started to have infection everywhere.

    我和我妻子親熱的時候,射不出精液;

  • When I made love with my wife, I had no sperm that came out of me;

    是血。

  • I had blood.

    我去巴黎找一個朋友的醫生,

  • I went to see a friend's doctor in Paris,

    我告訴他我病的很嚴重。

  • told him that I was completely sick.

    他檢查了很長時間,然後和我說:

  • He made a long examination, and told me, "Sebastian,

    Sebastian,你沒有病,你的前列腺沒有問題。

  • you are not sick, your prostate is perfect.

    你病的這麼嚴重,是因為你目睹那麼多死亡,

  • What happened is, you saw so many deaths that you are dying.

    你必須停下來,停下來。

  • You must stop. Stop.

    你必須要停下來,不然,你會死去。

  • You must stop because on the contrary, you will be dead."

    我決定要停下來。

  • And I made the decision to stop.

    攝影令我心煩意亂

  • I was really upset with photography,

    世界上的一切令我心煩意亂,

  • with everything in the world,

    我決定要回到我出生的地方。

  • and I made the decision to go back to where I was born.

    很巧,

  • It was a big coincidence.

    那時我的父母年紀也大了。

  • It was the moment that my parents became very old.

    我有7個姐妹,我是家中唯一的男孩,

  • I have seven sisters. I'm one of the only men in my family,

    他們一起做了一個決定,

  • and they made together the decision

    把那塊土地轉到我和Léila的名下。

  • to transfer this land toila and myself.

    當我接手這塊土地的時候,它和我一樣,都病入膏肓了。

  • When we received this land, this land was as dead as I was.

    當我還是個孩子的時候,農場至少有一半的土地是雨林

  • When I was a kid, it was more than 50 percent rainforest.

    當我們接手的時候,

  • When we received the land,

    雨林的面積連0.5%都不到,

  • it was less than half a percent rainforest,

    就和我的國家一樣。

  • as in all my region.

    在巴西,為了開發,

  • To build development, Brazilian development,

    我們摧毀了很多雨林。

  • we destroyed a lot of our forest.

    就像你們在美國或印度,

  • As you did here in the United States,

    和世界上的其他地方所作的一樣。

  • or you did in India, everywhere in this planet.

    我們為了開發,

  • To build our development,

    碰到了一個很大的矛盾

  • we come to a huge contradiction

    我們摧毀身邊的一切。

  • that we destroy around us everything.

    這個曾經飼養上千頭牛的農場

  • This farm that had thousands of head of cattle

    只剩下了幾百頭,

  • had just a few hundreds,

    我們不知道該如何面對這些問題。

  • and we didn't know how to deal with these.

    Léila 想到了一個很棒的主意,一個瘋狂的主意。

  • Andila came up with an incredible idea, a crazy idea.

    她說,你為什麼不把消失的雨林重新種回來呢?

  • She said, why don't you put back the rainforest that was here before?

    你說,你出生的地方是個天堂。

  • You say that you were born in paradise.

    那我們就重建天堂。

  • Let's build the paradise again.

    我去拜訪了一個好友

  • And I went to see a good friend

    他從事森林設計工程

  • that was engineering forests

    我們請他幫我們建立重建項目

  • to prepare a project for us,

    然後我們就開始了。我們開始種植。

  • and we started. We started to plant, and this

    第一年,死了很多樹。第二年,情況好轉。

  • first year we lost a lot of trees, second year less,

    然後慢慢的,這片土地死而復生。

  • and slowly, slowly this dead land started to be born again.

    我們開始種植上百上千棵樹,

  • We started to plant hundreds of thousands of trees,

    我們只種本土本國的樹種,

  • only local species, only native species,

    我們建造了一個生態系統,就像以前的那邊土地一樣,

  • where we built an ecosystem identical to the one that was destroyed,

    生命奇蹟般的開始好轉。

  • and the life started to come back in an incredible way.

    我們當時覺得有必要

  • It was necessary for us to transform our land

    把我們的土地變成國家公園。

  • into a national park.

    我們轉化了這片土地,將它還給了大自然。

  • We transformed. We gave this land back to nature.

    它變成了國家公園。

  • It became a national park.

    我們成立名為Instituto Terra的機構,

  • We created an institution called Instituto Terra,

    我們發起了一個很大的環境計畫,並四處籌款。

  • and we built a big environmental project to raise money everywhere.

    在洛杉磯,或者舊金山的灣區

  • Here in Los Angeles, in the Bay Area in San Francisco,

    捐款在美國可以用來抵稅。

  • it became tax deductible in the United States.

    我們在西班牙,意大利和巴西籌款。

  • We raised money in Spain, in Italy, a lot in Brazil.

    我們和巴西的很多公司合作

  • We worked with a lot of companies in Brazil

    它們為這個計畫注入資金

  • that put money into this project, the government.

    其他生物也來了,我有一個強烈的願望

  • And the life started to come, and I had a big wish

    重新拾起攝影,重新拍照。

  • to come back to photography, to photograph again.

    這次,我的願望不再是

  • And this time, my wish was not to photograph anymore

    拍攝我至今一直拍攝的物種:我們人類。

  • just one animal that I had photographed all my life: us.

    我想拍攝其他的物種,

  • I wished to photograph the other animals,

    拍攝其他的風景

  • to photograph the landscapes,

    拍攝人類,原始的我們

  • to photograph us, but us from the beginning,

    和大自然共生的我們。

  • the time we lived in equilibrium with nature.

    我從2004年的年初開始

  • And I went. I started in the beginning of 2004,

    在2011年的年末結束。

  • and I finished at the end of 2011.

    我們拍攝了很多照片,

  • We created an incredible amount of pictures,

    這是我們的成果 - Lélia 負責設計所有攝影集。

  • and the result -- Lélia did the design of all my books,

    和攝影展。她策劃這些展覽。

  • the design of all my shows. She is the creator of the shows.

    我們對這些照片的期望

  • And what we want with these pictures

    是激起一場討論:地球上,還有什麼原始存在

  • is to create a discussion about what we have that is pristine on the planet

    以及我們必須堅持什麼

  • and what we must hold on this planet

    如果我們想生存下去,我們必須在生活中保持一定的平衡。

  • if we want to live, to have some equilibrium in our life.

    我想看到

  • And I wanted to see us

    我們使用石器。

  • when we used, yes, our instruments in stone.

    我們存在。我上週

  • We exist yet. I was last week

    在巴西國立印第安基金會,

  • at the Brazilian National Indian Foundation,

    在亞馬遜,大約有110個印第安部落

  • and only in the Amazon we have about 110 groups

    我們還沒有聯繫上。

  • of Indians that are not contacted yet.

    我們必須要保護這片森林

  • We must protect the forest in this sense.

    對於這些照片,我希望我們能創造

  • And with these pictures, I hope that we can create

    信息,一個信息系統。

  • information, a system of information.

    我們想展示一個新的地球,

  • We tried to do a new presentation of the planet,

    我現在想展示這個項目的一些照片

  • and I want to show you now just a few pictures

    請展示。

  • of this project, please.

    唔,這-(掌聲)-

  • Well, this — (Applause) —

    謝謝。非常感謝。

  • Thank you. Thank you very much.

    我們必須為之奮鬥

  • This is what we must fight hard

    來保持現狀。

  • to hold like it is now.

    但是有另外一個部分,需要我們一起重建

  • But there is another part that we must together rebuild,

    重建我們的社會,我們的現代家庭社會,

  • to build our societies, our modern family of societies,

    我們已經無法回頭。

  • we are at a point where we cannot go back.

    我們製造了一個很大的矛盾。

  • But we create an incredible contradiction.

    為了建立這些,我們摧毀了很多。

  • To build all this, we destroy a lot.

    我們巴西的森林,古老的森林

  • Our forest in Brazil, that antique forest

    差不多和加利福尼亞州一樣大

  • that was the size of California,

    93%的森林已經被毀滅了。

  • is destroyed today 93 percent.

    這裡,在西海岸,你們毀滅了你們的森林。

  • Here, on the West Coast, you've destroyed your forest.

    在這附近,不是嗎?紅杉樹森林已經一去不復返。

  • Around here, no? The redwood forests are gone.

    消失的很快。

  • Gone very fast, disappeared.

    兩天前,我從亞特蘭大州趕來

  • Coming the other day from Atlanta, here, two days ago,

    飛機在沙漠上空

  • I was flying over deserts

    我們親手創造的沙漠。

  • that we made, we provoked with our own hands.

    印度沒有樹木,西班牙也是一樣。

  • India has no more trees. Spain has no more trees.

    我們必須重建樹木。

  • And we must rebuild these forests.

    森林對我們的生命太重要了,

  • That is the essence of our life, these forests.

    我們需要呼吸。

  • We need to breathe. The only factory

    唯一可以把二氧化碳轉化為氧氣的

  • capable to transform CO2 into oxygen,

    就是森林。

  • are the forests.

    唯一可以吸收

  • The only machine capable to capture the carbon

    我們排放出的碳的就是樹木,

  • that we are producing, always,

    即使我們嘗試減少排放,我們所做的一切

  • even if we reduce them, everything that we do, we produce CO2,

    本身就在排放碳體。

  • are the trees.

    我三四周前提出一個問題

  • I put the question -- three or four weeks ago,

    我們在報紙上看到

  • we saw in the newspapers

    在挪威,數百萬條魚死去。

  • millions of fish that die in Norway.

    因為水裡的氧氣不夠。

  • A lack of oxygen in the water.

    我問我自己,如果有那麼一刻,

  • I put to myself the question, if for a moment,

    所有的物種都不會缺氧

  • we will not lack oxygen for all animal species,

    包括我們的 -- 那將會變得很複雜。

  • ours included -- that would be very complicated for us.

    樹木對於水資源是至關重要的。

  • For the water system, the trees are essential.

    我舉個小例子,你們就會很容易了解了。

  • I'll give you a small example that you'll understand very easily.

    你們這些滿頭豐髮的幸運人,

  • You happy people that have a lot of hair on your head,

    如果你洗澡

  • if you take a shower, it takes you

    頭髮大約要兩三個小時才會乾

  • two or three hours to dry your hair

    如果你不用吹風機。

  • if you don't use a dryer machine.

    我,一分鐘,就乾了。 樹木也是一樣的。

  • Me, one minute, it's dry. The same with the trees.

    樹木就像是地球的頭髮。

  • The trees are the hair of our planet.

    如果一個沒有樹木的地方在下雨,

  • When you have rain in a place that has no trees,

    幾分鐘後,雨水成流

  • in just a few minutes, the water arrives in the stream,

    帶來泥沙,摧毀我們的水源,

  • brings soil, destroying our water source,

    摧毀河流,

  • destroying the rivers,

    無法保持濕度。

  • and no humidity to retain.

    如果有樹木,樹根會留住雨水。

  • When you have trees, the root system holds the water.

    樹枝樹葉下垂

  • All the branches of the trees, the leaves that come down

    營造一個濕潤的環境,

  • create a humid area,

    它們需要幾個月的時間匯入河流,

  • and they take months and months under the water, go to the rivers,

    保持我們的水源,維護我們的河流。

  • and maintain our source, maintain our rivers.

    這是最重要的

  • This is the most important thing,

    當我們想像我們每天的生活都離不開水。

  • when we imagine that we need water for every activity in life.

    結束之前,我必須要展示

  • I want to show you now, to finish,

    另外一些對於我來說很重要的照片

  • just a few pictures that for me

    在那個方面。

  • are very important in that direction.

    還記得我說過

  • You remember that I told you,

    當我接手我父母的農場的時候

  • when I received the farm from my parents

    曾經的對於我來說是天堂的農場。

  • that was my paradise, that was the farm.

    已是一片乾枯,荒涼。

  • Land completely destroyed, the erosion there, the land had dried.

    但是你看這張照片,

  • But you can see in this picture,

    我們開始建立一個教育中心

  • we were starting to construct an educational center

    後來成為了巴西一個很大的環境中心

  • that became quite a large environmental center in Brazil.

    你看這些照片上一些小點,

  • But you see a lot of small spots in this picture.

    我們在每一個小點所在的地方種一棵樹

  • In each point of those spots, we had planted a tree.

    有上千棵樹。

  • There are thousands of trees.

    現在我展示給你們看一下兩個月前

  • Now I'll show you the pictures made exactly in the same point

    在同一個位置拍攝的照片。

  • two months ago.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    開始我就說了

  • I told you in the beginning that it was necessary

    我們需要種植大約250萬棵樹

  • for us to plant about 2.5 million trees

    大約200種不同的樹種

  • of about 200 different species

    以便重建我們的生態系統。

  • in order to rebuild the ecosystem.

    我展示最後一張照片。

  • And I'll show you the last picture.

    我們已經種植了200萬棵樹,

  • We are with two million trees in the ground now.

    我們的樹林吸收了

  • We are doing the sequestration

    大約10萬噸的碳。