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So if you found yourself staring down
a grizzly bear with the head of a great white shark and cobras for arms,
your body would start releasing adrenaline and norepinephrine within seconds
to prepare you to fight…. Or more likely, to take flight.
After a minute or two your body would be flooded with cortisol.
Cortisol is vital in keeping you healthy in tense situations.
But when you stay stressed for too long
it can have the opposite effect.
Cortisol's job is to restore some order to your body.
It puts more glucose into your bloodstream
so you don't crash when the adrenaline is gone.
It also kicks your liver into gear,
pumping out the extra glucose that's now sloshing around inside you.
Our bodies' hormone responses might have evolved
when we were battling for survival against predators like bear-snake-sharks.
These days, sources of stress are much different:
dwindling bank accounts, overdue assignments, too much e-mail.
That kind of stress tends not to go away,
which means cortisol levels can stay elevated.
And that can lead to health problems.
Cortisol inhibits some of your immune responses,
meaning you're more likely to get sick and it can take longer for wounds to heal.
Cortisol also slows bone growth, meaning sustained levels can lead to weaker, more fragile bones.
And because cortisol acts on parts of your brain that control appetite,
it also increases your desire for fatty and sugary foods.
Stress eating is real, people!
Here's a weird plot twist for cortisol, though.
That lowered immune response can actually be beneficial.
In its medical form, cortisol is called hydrocortisone.
You may have applied it to a rash or a bug bite,
because it helps reduce swelling and itching –
which is how our immune system responds to certain threats.
So at least you won't stress out about that weird rash,
which you should probably get looked at. Seriously.
But before you do that.
Hit that subscribe button.
Want to beat stress?
Then eat healthy food, get exercise, get more sleep.
But definitely subscribe.
Thanks to CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) for sponsoring this video.
And hey, if you‚ are really into molecules,
check out the Scifinder Future Leaders in Chemistry Program.
Ph.D. students and postdocs like me from around the world
are brought in to share their insights and go behind the scenes with Scifinder.
It's an all-expense-paid trip where you can get to see firsthand
how CAS builds and maintains the world most authoritative chemistry databases.
You'll also get to travel to the American Chemical Society's National Meeting Exposition.
For details, please visit CAS.ORG/FUTURELEADERS.
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為什麼過度壓力是不好的? (Why Too Much Stress Is Bad For You)

30419 分類 收藏
羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 2 月 2 日    Silvia W. 翻譯    Kristi Yang 審核

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有時候,有壓力是件好事,因為這樣可以激勵我們認真做事。然而,過多的壓力卻會對我們的身體造成不好的影響。那就讓我們看看,體內的細胞與化學機制是如何運作的,以及壓力可能會導致哪些問題吧!


1take flight0:12
take flight 指的是逃走。另外,flight 也可指飛行、 飛機班次,所以 take flight 也指搭飛機的意思喔!
The wild animals took flight before the onrushing fire.
野生動物在大火來臨前逃走。

Please check if there is any chance to take a flight back to Taiwan tomorrow.
請查看看明天是否有機會搭飛機回台灣。


還有一個很有趣的片語是 fight or flight response,字面上的意思是「戰鬥或逃跑」反應,而在心理學上則是指遇到危機時人們第一個自我保護的機制便是準備防禦或逃跑。

take flight的同義字包括 fleeescape
The robbers fled when they saw the police.
強盜看見警察便逃跑了。


2evolve0:48
evolve 指的是逐步形成、發展、進化。另外,evolve into 代表進化成、漸漸發展成;而 evolve from 則表示由...進化而來。
This simple plan evolved into a complicated scheme.
這個簡單的計劃發展成了一項複雜的規劃。

Scientists think that birds probably evolved from reptiles.
科學家認為,鳥很可能是由爬行動物進化而來的。


其他相關的字還有:
evolution(n.):發展、演化
evolving(a.):進化的
那麼 Darwin's theory of evolution 是什麼呢?答案就是我們熟知的「達爾文演化論」喔!其中,作為著名的理論便是 Survival of the Fittest ,「適者生存」。

*同場加映:
[TED]當抗生素不再有用時,我們該怎麼辦?(Maryn McKenna: What do we do when antibiotics don’t work any more?)


3elevate1:06
elevate 指的是使上升、振奮(情緒)、提高地位。影片當中所說的 stay elevated 指的是停在提升的狀態,表示皮質醇維持在一個高含量的狀態。
Democracy might elevate a common man’s political position.
民主也許能提升普通人的政治地位。

The good news elevated our spirits.
這個好消息使我們精神振奮。

He was elevated to the position of prime minister.
他升任總理。


同義字包括 upliftheightenraise
另外,我們常搭的電梯稱為 elevator,那既然講到電梯,小編就多補充一個單字吧!
電扶梯稱為 escalator 喔!

4immune1:35
immune 作為形容詞指的是免疫的、免除的。若作為名詞則有免疫者、免除者的意思。
Yoga can be used to strengthen the immune system.
瑜伽能增強人體免疫系統。
I am immune from the disease, for I had it once.
我對這疾病有免疫力,因為我已經得過一次了。


其他相關的字還有:
immune system:免疫系統
immune response:免疫反應
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) : 愛滋病;後天性免疫不全症候群
immunity(n.):免疫力、豁免

講到免疫系統,大家是不是還想到人體內的其他系統呢?
respiratory system:呼吸系統
nervous system:神經系統
digestive system:消化系統
endocrine system:內分泌系統

*同場加映:
【醫學英文】了解你的身體:人體免疫系統簡介 (Human Physiology - Introduction to the Immune System)


5stress out1:52
stress out 指的是使非常焦慮。常用片語為 stressed out,表示緊張的、感到焦慮的。另外,當你覺得壓力大時,可以說 I’m stressed out.
Speaking in front of the crowd always stresses him out.
在一群人面前說話總是讓他感到非常緊張。

What’s up, John? You look pretty stressed out.
怎麼了,約翰?你看起來壓力很大。


另外,stress 也指壓力,其同義詞有pressuretensionstrain
He works well under pressure.
他在有壓力的情況下工作很出色。


哇!大家看完影片後,有沒有覺得長知識了呢?即便事情很多、壓力很大,適當的調適身心還是很重要的唷!


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每日口說挑戰從這部影片節錄一句英文,配上主持人詳細的講解,讓你輕鬆搞懂英文發音!

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