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  • We invent.

    我們發明,

  • My company invents

    我的公司發明

  • all kinds of new technology

    各種新的科技

  • in lots of different areas.

    在各種不同的領域。

  • And we do that for a couple of reasons.

    我們做發明有兩個理由

  • We invent for fun --

    我們為好玩而發明

  • invention is a lot of fun to do --

    發明是一件很好玩的事

  • and we also invent for profit.

    我們還為了利潤而發明

  • The two are related because

    這兩個理由是相關的

  • the profit actually takes long enough that if it isn't fun,

    獲利需要夠長的時間,如果做起來不好玩

  • you wouldn't have the time to do it.

    你就不會想花時間去做。

  • So we do this

    所以我們為了

  • fun and profit-oriented inventing

    又好玩又可以賺錢而發明

  • for most of what we do,

    這占了大多數

  • but we also have a program where we invent for humanity --

    但我們也有案件是為了人道而發明

  • where we take some of our best inventors,

    在這些情況我們對我們最好的發明家說,

  • and we say, "Are there problems

    我們問,有沒有那些問題

  • where we have a good idea for solving a problem the world has?" --

    是我們能夠有好點子去解決世界上還存在的問題?

  • and to solve it in the way we try to solve problems,

    而且在解決這些問題的過程中

  • which is with dramatic, crazy,

    我們試著用些誇張的,瘋狂的,

  • out-of-the-box solutions.

    跳脫框框外的解決方式。

  • Bill Gates is one of those smartest guys of ours

    比爾蓋茲是我們當中之一最聰明的

  • that work on these problems

    致力於解決這些問題的人

  • and he also funds this work, so thank you.

    他同時也贊助這個計劃,謝謝您。

  • So I'm going to briefly discuss

    所以我要開始簡短的敘述,

  • a couple of problems that we have

    一兩個我們正在面對的問題

  • and a couple of problems where

    和一兩個問題

  • we've got some solutions underway.

    我們已經在某個程度上正在解決的過程上

  • Vaccination is one of the

    疫苗接種是其中一個

  • key techniques in public health,

    推動公共衛生的關鍵技術

  • a fantastic thing.

    了不起的技術

  • But in the developing world a lot of vaccines

    但是在發展中國家,很多的疫苗

  • spoil before they're administered,

    在被使用前就壞掉了。

  • and that's because they need to be kept cold.

    因為疫苗需要保持在低溫

  • Almost all vaccines need to be kept at refrigerator temperatures.

    幾乎所有的疫苗都該存放在冷藏的溫度

  • They go bad very quickly if you don't,

    不然的話很快就會壞掉

  • and if you don't have stable power grid, this doesn't happen,

    如果沒有穩定的電源,幾乎沒辦法做到

  • so kids die.

    所以兒童們死亡

  • It's not just the loss of the vaccine that matters;

    重點不是損失了疫苗

  • it's the fact that those kids don't get vaccinated.

    而是那些孩童沒有接種疫苗

  • This is one of the ways that

    這是其中一種

  • vaccines are carried:

    疫苗運送的方式

  • These are Styrofoam chests. These are being carried by people,

    這些是保利龍箱。圖中這些箱子由人背著來運送

  • but they're also put on the backs of pickup trucks.

    有些時候用卡車來運送這些箱子

  • We've got a different solution.

    我們想出了一個不同的解決方法

  • Now, one of these Styrofoam chests

    這些保利龍箱中的任何一個

  • will last for about four hours with ice in it.

    裡頭放了冰塊,可以維持四個小時的低溫

  • And we thought, well, that's not really good enough.

    我們想,四個小時是不夠的

  • So we made this thing.

    所以我們去做了這個

  • This lasts six months with no power;

    可以在沒有電源的情況下維持六個月低溫

  • absolutely zero power,

    完全不需要任何能源

  • because it loses less

    因為它損失

  • than a half a watt.

    小於半瓦

  • Now, this is our second generations prototype.

    這裡是我們第二代的雛形

  • The third generation prototype is, right now,

    第三代的雛形現在

  • in Uganda being tested.

    正在烏干達測試中

  • Now, the reason we were able to come up with this

    我們能夠想出這個設計的原因

  • is two key ideas:

    有兩個關鍵的點子

  • One is that this is similar to a cryogenic Dewar,

    其中一個是類似液態氮瓶

  • something you'd keep liquid nitrogen or liquid helium in.

    可以存放液態氮或液態氦

  • They have incredible insulation,

    這種瓶子有極佳的保溫效果

  • so let's put some incredible insulation here.

    所以我們把極佳的保溫效果用在這裡

  • The other idea is kind of interesting,

    另外一個點子有點有趣

  • which is, you can't reach inside anymore.

    就是,你沒有辦法用手去裡頭拿

  • Because if you open it up and reach inside,

    因為如果你打開蓋子伸手進去拿

  • you'd let the heat in, the game would be over.

    你會讓熱氣進去,那就玩完了

  • So the inside of this thing actually looks like a Coke machine.

    所以這個瓶子裡頭實際上看起來像個自動販賣機

  • It vends out little individual vials.

    一次送出一小罐

  • So a simple idea,

    所以很簡單的點子

  • which we hope is going to change the way vaccines are distributed

    我們希望可以改變疫苗分發運送的方式

  • in Africa and around the world.

    在非洲和世界各地

  • We'll move on to malaria.

    接著我們來談談瘧疾

  • Malaria is one of the great public health problems.

    瘧疾是其中一個嚴重的大衆健康問題

  • Esther Duflo talked a little bit about this.

    Esther Duflo的演講提到了一點點

  • Two hundred million people a year.

    每一年有2.5億人感染

  • Every 43 seconds a child in Africa dies;

    每43秒在非洲有一個兒童死於瘧疾

  • 27 will die during my talk.

    27個在我的演講的時間中死亡

  • And there's no way for us here in this country

    我們在這個國家沒有辦法去體會

  • to grasp really what that means to the people involved.

    這對病患的親朋來說是什麼意義

  • Another comment of Esther's

    Esther提到的另外一點

  • was that we react when there's

    我們會對海地這種災難

  • a tragedy like Haiti,

    做出快速的反應

  • but that tragedy is ongoing.

    但瘧疾是持續性的災難

  • So what can we do about it?

    所以我們能夠做些什麼?

  • Well, there are a lot of things people have tried

    很多年來大家試了

  • for many years for solving malaria.

    很多方法去消滅瘧疾

  • You can spray; the problem is there are environmental issues.

    你可以噴殺蟲劑;但問題是不環保

  • You can try to treat people and create awareness.

    你可以試著去治療病患和讓他們對瘧疾有警覺性

  • That's great, except the places that have malaria really bad,

    這很好,只是在瘧疾最嚴重的地區

  • they don't have health care systems.

    他們沒有醫療系統

  • A vaccine would be a terrific thing,

    疫苗會是很有用的

  • only they don't work yet.

    只是目前疫苗還沒有效用

  • People have tried for a long time. There are a couple of interesting candidates.

    很多人試了很久。有幾個比較有趣的可能方案

  • It's a very difficult thing to make a vaccine for.

    開發疫苗是很困難的

  • You can distribute bed nets,

    你可以發送蚊帳

  • and bed nets are very effective if you use them.

    如果蚊帳有被使用的話,效果是很好的

  • You don't always use them for that. People fish with them.

    但蚊帳不只是被用來當蚊帳。有人用蚊帳來捕魚

  • They don't always get to everyone.

    不是每個人都拿到蚊帳

  • And bed nets

    而蚊帳可以

  • have an effect on the epidemic,

    有效控制傳染

  • but you're never going to make it extinct with bed nets.

    但你永遠沒有辦法用蚊帳消滅瘧疾

  • Now, malaria is

    現在,瘧疾是一種

  • an incredibly complicated disease.

    極度複雜的傳染病

  • We could spend hours going over this.

    我們可以花上好幾個小時來談瘧疾

  • It's got this sort of soap opera-like lifestyle;

    瘧疾有這種像是連續劇般的生命週期

  • they have sex, they burrow into your liver,

    它們交配。它們埋進你的肝臟。

  • they tunnel into your blood cells ...

    它們鑽進你的血球中

  • it's an incredibly complicated disease,

    它是種極度複雜的疾病

  • but that's actually one of the things we find interesting about it

    但這正是我們對它感到興趣的其中一點

  • and why we work on malaria:

    和為什麼我們研究瘧疾

  • There's a lot of potential ways in.

    有很多可能的角度可以切入

  • One of those ways might be better diagnosis.

    其中一個可能是改良診斷的方法

  • So we hope this year

    所以我們希望今年

  • to prototype each of these devices.

    可以完成這幾個儀器的雛形

  • One does an automatic malaria diagnosis

    其中一個可以自動診斷瘧疾

  • in the same way that a diabetic's glucose meter works:

    用類似於血糖儀量測的方法

  • You take a drop of blood,

    你抽一滴血

  • you put it in there and it automatically tells you.

    放進儀器裡,儀器自動告訴你結果

  • Today, you need to do a complicated laboratory procedure,

    目前,你需要經過複雜的實驗室步驟

  • create a bunch of microscope slides

    製做一堆顯微切片

  • and have a trained person examine it.

    然後由訓練有素的人員檢驗它

  • The other thing is, you know,

    另外一點,你也知道

  • it would be even better if you didn't have to draw the blood.

    如果不需要抽血那就更好了

  • And if you look through the eye,

    比方說你可以透過觀察眼睛

  • or you look at the vessels on the white of the eye,

    或是檢視眼白裡的血管

  • in fact, you may be able to do this

    實際上,你也許可以做到

  • directly, without drawing any blood at all,

    直接的,完全不需要抽任何血

  • or through your nail beds.

    或觀察你的指甲

  • Because if you actually look through your fingernails, you can see blood vessels,

    因為,當你看透你的指甲,你可以看到血管

  • and once you see blood vessels, we think we can see the malaria.

    而且當你可以看到血管,我們想我們可以看到瘧疾

  • We can see it because of this molecule

    我們可以看到瘧疾,是因為這個分子

  • called hemozoin.

    叫做hemozoin

  • It's produced by the malaria parasite

    這是由瘧原蟲產生的

  • and it's a very interesting crystalline substance.

    這是一種很有趣的結晶狀物質

  • Interesting, anyway, if you're a solid-state physicist.

    相當有趣的,如果你是固態物理學家的話

  • There's a lot of cool stuff we can do with it.

    有很多很酷的東西我們可以用它去試試

  • This is our femtosecond laser lab.

    這是我們的飛秒超快雷射實驗室

  • So this creates pulses of light

    這可以產生脈衝雷射光

  • that last a femtosecond.

    這個光包持續一個飛秒

  • That's really, really, really short.

    這是非常,非常,非常的短

  • This is a pulse of light that's

    這是一個脈衝的光

  • only about one wavelength of light long,

    只維持大約一個波長

  • so it's a whole bunch of photons

    所這只是一小群光子

  • all coming and hitting simultaneously.

    全部一起進來打在樣品上

  • It creates a very high peak power

    它產生一個非常高的能量

  • and it lets you do all kinds of interesting things;

    它讓你做各種有趣的東西

  • in particular, it lets you find hemozoin.

    特別是讓你找到hemozoin

  • So here's an image of red blood cells,

    這張照片裡有一些紅血球

  • and now we can actually map

    而現在我們可以直接標示出

  • where the hemozoin and where the malaria parasites are

    Hemozoin在那裡和瘧原蟲在那裡

  • inside those red blood cells.

    在那些紅血球裡面

  • And using both this technique

    同時使用這個技術

  • and other optical techniques,

    還有其他光學科技

  • we think we can make those diagnostics.

    我們覺得我們可以做出診斷

  • We also have another hemozoin-oriented

    我們還有其他以hemozoin為目標的

  • therapy for malaria:

    瘧疾治療方式

  • a way, in acute cases, to actually

    在急重症的情形下用一個方法

  • take the malaria parasite and filter it out of the blood system.

    直接把瘧原蟲從血液中過濾出來

  • Sort of like doing dialysis,

    有點像是做透析

  • but for relieving the parasite load.

    但是是為了減少原蟲的數量

  • This is our thousand-core supercomputer.

    這是我們的千核超級電腦

  • We're kind of software guys,

    我們是做軟體的

  • and so nearly any problem that you pose,

    所以幾乎所有你提出來的問題

  • we like to try to solve with some software.

    我們喜歡試著去用軟體來解決

  • One of the problems that you have if you're trying to eradicate malaria

    其中一個問題是如果你要試著去消滅瘧疾

  • or reduce it

    或者去減少案例

  • is you don't know what's the most effective thing to do.

    你無法知道什麼是最有效的方法

  • Okay, we heard about bed nets earlier.

    我們之前提到蚊帳

  • You spend a certain amount per bed net.

    每個蚊帳要花這麼多錢

  • Or you could spray.

    或者你可以噴殺蟲劑

  • You can give drug administration.

    你可以給藥

  • There's all these different interventions

    有這些不同的介入法

  • but they have different kinds of effectiveness.

    但這些方法有不同的效果

  • How can you tell?

    你怎麼決定?

  • So we've created, using our supercomputer,

    所以我們用我們的超級電腦創造了

  • the world's best computer model of malaria,

    世界上最好的瘧疾電腦模擬

  • which we'll show you now.

    我們現在要秀給你看。

  • We picked Madagascar.

    我們選了馬達加斯加

  • We have every road,

    我們有每一條路

  • every village,

    每一個村莊

  • every, almost, square inch of Madagascar.

    每個,幾乎馬達加斯加的每一英吋

  • We have all of the precipitation data

    我們有所有的降雨量資料

  • and the temperature data.

    氣溫的資料

  • That's very important because the humidity and precipitation

    這些資料很重要因為溼度和降雨量

  • tell you whether you've got

    告訴你會不會有積水的水塘

  • standing pools of water for the mosquitoes to breed.

    讓蚊子在裡頭繁殖

  • So that sets the stage on which you do this.

    所以這設下了你可以使用的平臺

  • You then have to introduce the mosquitoes,

    你然後要加入蚊子

  • and you have to model that

    然後去模擬

  • and how they come and go.

    看蚊子如何來來去去

  • Ultimately, it gives you this.

    最終,你得到這個

  • This is malaria spreading

    這是瘧疾怎麼傳播

  • across Madagascar.

    橫跨馬達加斯加

  • And this is this latter part of the rainy season.

    這是雨季快結束的部分

  • We're going to the dry season now.

    接下來現在是旱季

  • It nearly goes away in the dry season,

    它在旱季時幾乎完全消失

  • because there's no place for the mosquitoes to breed.

    蚊子沒有地方可以繁殖

  • And then, of course, the next year it comes roaring back.

    然後,當然,下一年它又再重新來過

  • By doing these kinds of simulations,

    透過這種電腦模擬

  • we want to eradicate or control malaria

    我們想要在軟體上模擬

  • thousands of times in software

    消滅或控制瘧疾幾千次

  • before we actually have to do it in real life;

    在我們實際上去執行之前

  • to be able to simulate both the economic trade-offs --

    能夠同時去模擬經濟效益

  • how many bed nets versus how much spraying? --

    要買多少蚊帳還是要噴多少藥

  • or the social trade-offs --

    或是社會效益

  • what happens if unrest breaks out?

    如果騷動發生了要怎麼辦?

  • We also try to study our foe.

    我們也試著去研究我們的敵人。

  • This is a high-speed camera view

    這是高速攝影機拍攝的

  • of a mosquito.

    一隻蚊子

  • And, in a moment,

    等一下

  • we're going to see a view of the airflow.

    我們可以看到空氣怎麼流動

  • Here, we're trying to visualize the airflow

    這裡,我們試著去觀察

  • around the wings of the mosquito

    蚊子翅膀旁的氣流

  • with little particles we're illuminating with a laser.

    我們用雷射去照亮這些小粒子

  • By understanding how mosquitoes fly,

    透過了解蚊子怎麼飛

  • we hope to understand how to make them not fly.

    我們希望可以了解怎麼可以讓牠們不能飛

  • Now, one of the ways you can make them not fly

    現在,其中一個讓牠們不飛的方法

  • is with DDT.

    是用DDT(殺蟲劑)

  • This is a real ad.

    這是真的廣告(廣告上:DDT是對我有益的)

  • This is one of those things you just can't make up.

    這不是那種你可以隨便假造

  • Once upon a time, this was the primary technique,

    從前從前,這是主要的控制方法

  • and, in fact, many countries got rid of malaria through DDT.

    而且,實際上不少國家用DDT消滅了瘧疾

  • The United States did.

    美國是其中一個

  • In 1935, there were 150,000 cases a year

    1935年,在美國

  • of malaria in the United States,

    一年有15萬個瘧疾案例

  • but DDT and a massive public health effort

    但是DDT和大量的公共衛生努力

  • managed to squelch it.

    終於控制住

  • So we thought,

    所以我們想

  • "Well, we've done all these things that are focused on the Plasmodium,

    我們已經做了所有有關瘧原蟲的

  • the parasite involved.

    和寄生蟲有關的研究

  • What can we do to the mosquito?

    我們可以做些什麼是和蚊子有關的?

  • Well, let's try to kill it with consumer electronics."

    好的,讓我們試著用家電用品來殺蚊子。

  • Now, that sounds silly,

    現在,這聽起來有些荒唐

  • but each of these devices

    但這裡每一個家電

  • has something interesting in it that maybe you could use.

    都有些有趣的元件也許可以用得上

  • Your Blu-ray player has

    你的藍光光碟機

  • a very cheap blue laser.

    有一個很便宜的藍光電射

  • Your laser printer has a mirror galvanometer

    你的雷射印表機鏡測電流計

  • that's used to steer a laser beam very accurately;

    用來很準確地控制雷射光

  • that's what makes those little dots on the page.

    這是用來在紙上畫出那些小點

  • And, of course, there's signal processing

    而且,當然,還有訊號處理

  • and digital cameras.

    和數位攝影機

  • So what if we could put all that together

    所以如果我們可以把所有的東西裝在一起

  • to shoot them out of the sky with lasers?

    用雷射把蚊子從空中射下來?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Now, in our company, this is what we call

    現在,在我們公司,這是我們叫做

  • "the pinky-suck moment."

    “吸小指的時刻”(邪惡博士)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • What if we could do that?

    要是我們可以做的到的話?