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If you've got a cold, mucus is hard to miss.
But what is it, and what does it do besides making you miserable?
Your body produces more than a liter of mucus every day,
and all the wet surfaces of your body that are not covered by skin,
like your eyes, nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach get a liberal coating.
That's why they're known as mucus membranes.
Mucus plays lots of roles in your body.
It keeps delicate tissues from drying out and cracking,
which would expose them to infection.
It lubricates your eyes so you can blink.
It protects your stomach lining from acid.
It neutralizes threats by removing or trapping substances
that could make you sick.
And finally, it houses and keeps your body's trillions of bacterial inhabitants,
your microbiota, under control.
Mucus contains lots of different compounds,
including proteins, fats, and salts.
But a key component of mucus versatility is a set of proteins called mucins.
Mucins are the primary large molecules in mucus
and are essential for giving mucus its slippery feel.
They belong to a class of proteins called glycoproteins
which are built out of both amino acids and sugars.
In mucin, long chains of sugars are attached to specific amino acids in the protein backbone.
The hydrophilic sugar chains help mucin dissolve in your body's watery fluids.
Mucus, which is up to 90% water,
stays hydrated thanks to these sugar chains.
Some of these mucins can interact with other mucin molecules
to create a complex network that establishes a barrier against pathogens and other invaders.
That's why mucus is the body's first line of defense against foreign objects, like bacteria and dust.
It's continuously produced to clear them from the respiratory tract,
like a slimy conveyor belt.
This keeps bacteria from getting a solid purchase on delicate lung tissue,
or making it to the blood stream, where they could cause a major infection.
Many of those harmful bacteria also cause diseases
when they cluster into slimy growths called biofilms.
But mucus contains mucins, antimicrobial peptides, antibodies,
and even bacteria-hungry viruses called bacteriophages
that all work together to prevent biofilms from forming.
If microbes do become harmful and you get sick,
the body ramps up mucus production to try to quickly flush out the offenders,
and the immune system floods your mucus with extra white blood cells.
In fact, the greenish mucus often associated with infections
gets its color from an enzyme produced by those white blood cells.
This multi-pronged approach to bacterial management
is one of the main reasons why we're not sick all the time.
Even though mucus protects against the infectious bacteria,
the vast majority of your body's bacterial tenants are not harmful,
and many are actually beneficial.
That's particularly true when they live in mucus,
where they can perform important functions,
like synthesizing vitamins, suppressing harmful inflammation,
and controlling the growth of more harmful species.
So even though you probably associate mucus with being ill,
it's really helping you stay healthy.
Sure, it might seem gross,
but can you think of any other substance that can lubricate,
keep your body clean, fight infection, and domesticate a teeming bacterial population?
Nope, just mucus.
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【TED-Ed】黏液黏膜很重要! 來看看他們如何影響我們的健康 (How mucus keeps us healthy - Katharina Ribbeck)

17403 分類 收藏
SylviaQQ 發佈於 2016 年 3 月 4 日   黃世閔 翻譯   Sally Hsu 審核

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感冒時大家總是最討厭鼻涕直流的狀況吧!但是這些黏液其實對維持人體健康非常的重要!快跟著今天的主編精選,一起了解黏膜黏液的功能吧~

1expose to0:42
expose to 代表「遭受、曝光於、接觸」, 而 expose 這個動詞的意思是「暴露、揭露」。
這個片語用法通常用在把(~人 / 物)秀給 / 曝光於(~人 / 物),或是把某個人或物的秘密揭發出來的狀況。
It is important not to expose the film to light before you develop it.
在沖片前不讓底片曝光是非常重要的。

He exposed the secrets that the CEO is trying to hide to the media.
他將執行長試著隱藏的秘密揭露給媒體。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】想要有肌肉嗎?那就快來看看肌肉是怎麼形成的吧!(What makes muscles grow? - Jeffrey Siegel)


2house0:55
house 除了我們常見的名詞「房屋」的意思之外,動詞有「收藏、為~提供空間」的意思。在影片中就是動詞的這個用法,houses your body's trillions of bacterial inhabitants 代表著「是你體內數億兆細菌的家」。
Bob's gigantic basement houses his sports car collection.
鮑柏巨大的地下室收藏著他的賽車們。


其他一些相似詞包含:
contain 包含、容納
This box contains a bunch of toys.
這個箱子裝著一堆玩具。


hold 容納、擁有、支撐
The auditorium can hold a maximum of two thousand people.
禮堂最多可以容納兩千人。


shelter 保護、躲避
This place once sheltered hundreds of refugees.
這個地方曾經庇護了上百名難民。


3cluster2:24
cluster 動詞的意思代表「使聚集、叢生」。cluster 也可以當作名詞,代表「叢、群」。
cluster 跟動詞意思有「聚集、歸類」、名詞意思有「小組、團體」的 group 有什麼差別呢?
名詞:cluster 代表的是位置靠近的「一群」東西,而 group 則是代表有關係的「一群」。
動詞:cluster 通常代表「主動的」自己形成群,而 group 則通常是指「被分類」。

下面小編就分別各造一個動詞用法的句子:
The teacher grouped the students for the assignment.
老師把班上同學分成報告小組。

The students clustered around the teacher waiting for instructions.
學生們聚集在老師旁等待指示。


名詞的用法也來讓大家比較一下!
The group of trainees waited paitiently for the next task.
受訓者們耐心的等待下一個任務。

This kind of flower tends to grow in clusters around a tree.
這種花通常會在樹周圍群體生長。


*同場加映:
TED-Ed:為什麼建築物會因地震而倒塌?(Why do buildings fall in earthquakes? -Vicki V. May)


4ramp up2:44
ramp up 是「提昇」的意思,通常用在量 / 活動次數的大幅增加上,或是速度、費用等的提昇,因此這個用法常在商用英文中生產活動方面的報告中看到。ramp 這個字名詞是「斜坡」的意思,因此可以聯想「斜坡往上」代表「迅速增加」。
The factory ramps up the amount of products to support the increasing demand.
工廠大幅提升產品生產量以支撐需求量的增加。


build up 算是一個相似的用法,代表「累積、建立」,但是它指的增加大多是指較逐步的,ramp up 則大多是指快速或是大幅的增加。
Sarah put a lot of time and energy into building up her business.
莎拉在建立她的公司上花了很多的時間及精力。


build up 這個片語也有「稱讚、讓~更有自信」的意思。
The praise she recieved really built up her confidence.
別人對她的稱讚真的建立了她的信心。


5vast3:11
vast 代表的是「巨大的、大量的」,但是其實我們有學過不少可以表示「大」的形容詞,小編在下面列舉並造例句讓大家看看用法上可能有哪些不一樣!

vasthuge 通常描述的東西是實質跟具體的:

vast 較常用在指廣度 / 程度的「大」。
The vast majority of Taiwanese are Buddhists.
大多數的台灣人是佛教徒。


huge 極大的、巨大的(較常用在指體積大小 / 量上的「大」)
His bedroom is huge. I'm so envious of him.
他的房間超級大,我好忌妒他。


enormousimmense 則較常用在指抽象跟觀念上的:

enormous 巨大的、龐大的(較常用在尺寸 / 規模的「大」)
After years of hard work, he has accumulated an enormous fortune.
在多年的勤奮工作後,他累積了龐大的財富。


immense 極廣大的、無邊的
The immense universe consists of stars and galaxies.
廣大無邊的宇宙是由星星跟銀河系構成的。


看完這個影片之後,有沒有對於黏液的功能更加的了解呢?小編看完之後對於黏液完全改觀了!以後也繼續鎖定主編精選,一起看影片學英文、增加知識吧! :D

*Pronunciation Challenge
每日口說挑戰從這部影片節錄一句英文,配上主持人詳細的講解,讓你輕鬆搞懂英文發音!

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