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  • My work is play.

    我的工作是發揮

  • And I play when I design.

    我發揮在設計上

  • I even looked it up in the dictionary, to make sure

    我甚至去查了字典

  • that I actually do that,

    以確信我確實這麼做

  • and the definition of play,

    關於"Play"的定義

  • number one, was engaging in a childlike

    第一、如同孩童般地積極投入活動

  • activity or endeavor,

    或是努力去達成

  • and number two was gambling.

    第二、必須具有冒險精神

  • And I realize I do both

    我認為我兩者兼具

  • when I'm designing.

    當我在設計的時候

  • I'm both a kid and I'm gambling all the time.

    我像是一個孩子也像是一個賭徒

  • And I think that if you're not,

    而且我認為如果你不是這樣

  • there's probably something inherently wrong

    那一定是有不對的地方

  • with the structure or the situation you're in,

    或與你的處境不相符

  • if you're a designer.

    如果你是一位設計師

  • But the serious part is what threw me,

    然而,"認真"困擾著我

  • and I couldn't quite get a handle

    而我卻不太能完全掌控

  • on it until I remembered an essay.

    直到我想起了一篇短文

  • And it's an essay I read 30 years ago.

    一篇我在30年前讀過的文章

  • It was written by Russell Baker,

    作者是Russell Baker

  • who used to write an "Observer" column in the New York Times.

    他曾經在紐約時報撰寫過"觀察者"專欄

  • He's a wonderful humorist. And I'm going to read you

    他是個相當棒的幽默作家。我將要向大家

  • this essay,

    朗讀這篇文章

  • or an excerpt from it

    或者說是一篇節選

  • because it really hit home for me.

    因為它真的令我深有感觸

  • Here is a letter of friendly advice.

    這是一封很友好的勸告信

  • Be serious, it says.

    嚴肅起來,信裡寫道

  • What it means, of course, is, be solemn.

    當然,這意味著要開始鄭重其事

  • Being solemn is easy.

    鄭重其事很簡單

  • Being serious is hard.

    認真卻不是件容易的事

  • Children almost always begin by being serious,

    小孩通常幾乎都是由認真開始

  • which is what makes them so entertaining

    認真使他們顯得有趣

  • when compared with adults as a class.

    當他們與成年人比較時

  • Adults, on the whole, are solemn.

    整體而言,成年人是鄭重其事的

  • In politics, the rare candidate who is serious,

    在政治上,認真的參選人很罕見

  • like Adlai Stevenson,

    像Adlai Stevenson

  • is easily overwhelmed by one who is solemn, like Eisenhower.

    會很輕易的被鄭重其事的候選人擊敗,就像Eisenhower.

  • That's because it is hard for most people

    這是因為對於大多數人而言

  • to recognize seriousness, which is rare,

    了解稀少的認真是件困難的事

  • but more comfortable to endorse solemnity,

    但對於鄭重其事

  • which is commonplace.

    早已司空見慣

  • Jogging, which is commonplace,

    慢跑,很常見

  • and widely accepted as good for you, is solemn.

    對身體好這點廣泛被接受,這是鄭重的

  • Poker is serious.

    而撲克牌是認真的

  • Washington, D.C. is solemn.

    華盛頓特區是鄭重的

  • New York is serious.

    紐約是認真的

  • Going to educational conferences to tell you anything

    在學術研討會上告訴你任何東西

  • about the future is solemn.

    任何關於未來的,是鄭重其事的

  • Taking a long walk by yourself,

    當你獨自一人走一段長路的同時

  • during which you devise a foolproof scheme for robbing Tiffany's,

    策劃一個笨拙的搶劫Tiffany's的計畫

  • is serious.

    這是認真的

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, when I apply Russell Baker's definition

    現在,我將Russell的定義運用在設計上

  • of solemnity or seriousness to design,

    鄭重或是認真地設計

  • it doesn't necessarily make any particular point about quality.

    品質則不再具任何特殊含意

  • Solemn design is often important and very effective design.

    鄭重的設計通常重要且實用

  • Solemn design is also socially correct,

    也通常被社會大眾認可

  • and is accepted by appropriate audiences.

    被適當的觀眾接受

  • It's what right-thinking designers

    這是所謂觀念正確的設計者和顧客

  • and all the clients are striving for.

    所努力追求的

  • Serious design, serious play,

    認真的設計和發揮

  • is something else.

    卻是另一回事

  • For one thing, it often happens

    一方面,認真的設計通常

  • spontaneously, intuitively,

    發生的自然地、主觀地、

  • accidentally or incidentally.

    偶然地、或是附帶地就發生了

  • It can be achieved out of innocence, or arrogance,

    這可能透過無辜、傲慢、

  • or out of selfishness, sometimes out of carelessness.

    自私,或是有時的粗心大意達成

  • But mostly, it's achieved through all those kind of crazy

    但大部分的情況,他是透過各種的

  • parts of human behavior that

    人類瘋狂的行為

  • don't really make any sense.

    那些沒甚麼意義的行為,來實現的

  • Serious design is imperfect.

    認真的設計是不完美的

  • It's filled with the kind of craft laws that come from something being

    它充滿著那種原始的

  • the first of its kind.

    工藝法則

  • Serious design is also -- often -- quite unsuccessful

    從鄭重的角度來看,

  • from the solemn point of view.

    認真的設計通常也不會太成功

  • That's because the art of serious play

    這是因為認真發揮的藝術

  • is about invention, change, rebellion -- not perfection.

    是創造、改變、反抗,而不是完美

  • Perfection happens during solemn play.

    完美是在鄭重其事的設計才會發生的。

  • Now, I always saw design careers

    現在,我將設計生涯

  • like surreal staircases.

    視為超現實的樓梯

  • If you look at the staircase, you'll see

    如果你看著這個樓梯,你會看到

  • that in your 20s the risers are very high

    在你二十多歲時,整個階梯是很高的

  • and the steps are very short,

    而每一步卻是很短的

  • and you make huge discoveries.

    因此你能有重大的發現

  • You sort of leap up very quickly in your youth.

    你在年輕的時候迅速地飛躍

  • That's because you don't know anything and you have a lot to learn,

    那是因為你甚麼都不知道,而且你有很多要學

  • and so that anything you do is a learning experience

    所以你做的任何事,都是個學習的經驗

  • and you're just jumping right up there.

    這是你飛躍的過程

  • As you get older, the risers get shallower

    隨著年紀增長,階梯隨著縮短

  • and the steps get wider,

    而每一步隨著變寬

  • and you start moving along at a slower pace

    同時你開始放慢腳步

  • because you're making fewer discoveries.

    因為你能獲得的發現越來越少

  • And as you get older and more decrepit,

    隨著你年紀越來越大、越來越衰老

  • you sort of inch along on this

    你舉步維艱地

  • sort of depressing, long staircase,

    走在這個令人沮喪的長階上

  • leading you into oblivion.

    最終會帶領你走向死亡

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I find it's actually getting really hard to be serious.

    我發現變得認真的確相當艱難

  • I'm hired to be solemn, but I find more and more

    我的老闆要求我要鄭重,但我卻發現越來越多時候

  • that I'm solemn when I don't have to be.

    我不需要鄭重,但我卻依然鄭重

  • And in my 35 years of working experience,

    在我三十五年的工作經驗中,

  • I think I was really serious four times.

    我曾有四次相當地認真

  • And I'm going to show them to you now,

    現在我將要把它們展示給你們

  • because they came out of very specific conditions.

    因為他們發生在相當特殊的條件下

  • It's great to be a kid.

    當個小孩真好

  • Now, when I was in my early 20s,

    在我二十歲出頭的時候,

  • I worked in the record business, designing record covers for CBS Records,

    我在一間唱片公司工作,為CBS唱片的專輯設計封面

  • and I had no idea what a great job I had.

    當時我並不知道我擁有的是這麼棒的工作

  • I thought everybody had a job like that.

    我以為每個人的工作都像我的一樣

  • And what --

    而且...

  • the way I looked at design and the way I looked at the world was,

    我看待設計和看待世界的方式就是,

  • what was going on around me

    我周遭正在發生的事

  • and the things that came at the time I walked into design

    和我走進辦公室所遇到的各種事

  • were the enemy.

    都是我的敵人

  • I really, really, really hated

    我真的、真的、非常討厭

  • the typeface Helvetica.

    無襯線字體

  • I thought the typeface Helvetica

    我認為無襯線字體

  • was the cleanest, most boring, most fascistic,

    是最枯燥、最無聊、最法西斯、

  • really repressive typeface,

    非常獨裁的一種字體

  • and I hated everything that was designed in Helvetica.

    我討厭所有無襯線字體的設計

  • And when I was in

    當我還在

  • my college days,

    大學階段的時候,

  • this was the sort of design

    這正是一種

  • that was fashionable and popular.

    既時尚又流行的一種設計

  • This is actually quite a lovely book jacket by Rudy de Harak,

    這是一個Rudi de Harra設計的很可愛的書皮

  • but I just hated it, because it was designed with Helvetica,

    但我就是討厭它,因為它用了無襯線字體

  • and I made parodies about it.

    然後我為此做了諷刺性的模仿

  • I just thought it was, you know, completely boring.

    我就只是覺得它,你知道的,非常地枯燥

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So -- so, my goal in life

    因此,我人生的目標

  • was to do stuff that wasn't made out of Helvetica.

    就是不用無襯線字體做設計

  • And to do stuff that wasn't made out of Helvetica

    而不用無襯線字體做設計的確不容易

  • was actually kind of hard because you had to find it.

    因為你很難找到不是無襯線字體的設計

  • And there weren't a lot of books about the history of design

    而且在七零年代初期,

  • in the early 70s. There weren't --

    並沒有很多關於設計史的書

  • there wasn't a plethora of design publishing.

    也沒有過多的設計出版

  • You actually had to go to antique stores. You had to go to Europe.

    你必須要去骨董店、去歐洲

  • You had to go places and find the stuff.

    你必須要到好多地方去找

  • And what I responded to was, you know,

    而我的應對是

  • Art Nouveau, or deco,

    新藝術派、Deco、

  • or Victorian typography,

    或是維多利亞式印刷術、

  • or things that were just completely not Helvetica.

    或者,就是那些完全不用無襯線字體的設計

  • And I taught myself design this way,

    我教我自己用這樣的方式設計

  • and this was sort of my early years,

    這就是我初期的設計

  • and I used these things

    我運用這些東西

  • in really goofy ways

    以一些拙劣的方式

  • on record covers and in my design.

    在我設計的專輯封面上

  • I wasn't educated. I just sort of

    我並沒有學過這樣

  • put these things together.

    我只是把這些東西拼湊在一起

  • I mixed up Victorian designs with pop,

    我將維多利亞式的設計混合進流行元素

  • and I mixed up Art Nouveau with something else.

    同時也把新藝術派風格加入一些其它的元素

  • And I made these very lush,

    我把這些專輯封面弄得相當華麗

  • very elaborate record covers,

    非常精巧

  • not because I was being a post-modernist or a historicist --

    這並不是因為我是後現代主義者或是歷史批判主義者

  • because I didn't know what those things were.

    我根本不瞭解那些東西倒底是些什麼

  • I just hated Helvetica.

    我就只是討厭無襯線字體設計

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And that kind of passion

    而且這種激情

  • drove me into very serious play,

    促使我非常認真地去發揮

  • a kind of play I could never do now

    一種我從來沒去嘗試過的發揮

  • because I'm too well-educated.

    因為我受過非常良好的教育

  • And there's something wonderful about

    那種年輕生命裡

  • that form of youth,

    存在著一些很有意思的東西

  • where you can let yourself

    在這種青春鼓舞下你可以讓你自己

  • grow and play, and be

    成長並且發揮

  • really a brat, and then accomplish things.

    像一個頑童般,然後設計出與眾不同的東西

  • By the end of the '70s, actually,

    事實上,直到70年代末

  • the stuff became known.

    我這些作品才嶄露頭角

  • I mean, these covers appeared all over the world,

    我的意思是,那些封面開始風靡全球

  • and they started winning awards,

    並且陸續贏得獎項

  • and people knew them.

    我的作品變得廣為人知

  • And I was suddenly a post-modernist,

    我也突然變成一個後現代主義者

  • and I began a career as -- in my own business.

    那時,我開創了自己的事業

  • And first I was praised for it, then criticized for it,

    起初,我因此受到讚賞,後來又因此飽受批評

  • but the fact of the matter was, I had become solemn.

    但關鍵在於,我變得鄭重了

  • I didn't do what I think

    大約有14年的時間,我並沒有

  • was a piece of serious work again for about 14 years.

    照我所想的認真的設計應當的去做

  • I spent most of the '80s being quite solemn,

    80年代大部份時間,我相當鄭重

  • turning out these sorts of designs

    設計出這樣的設計

  • that I was expected to do

    就像我所期望的那樣

  • because that's who I was,

    因為那就是我

  • and I was living in this cycle of going from serious to solemn

    我活在從認真到鄭重的循環裡

  • to hackneyed to dead, and getting rediscovered all over again.

    直到腐敗、直到死亡,然後再重新開始

  • So, here was the second condition

    好,接下來是第二種情況

  • for which I think I accomplished some serious play.

    此時我認為完成了一些很認真的發揮

  • There's a Paul Newman movie

    這是一部我鍾愛的保羅紐曼的電影

  • that I love called "The Verdict."

    片名叫做"大審判"

  • I don't know how many of you have seen it, but it's a beaut.

    我不知道在場你們多少人看過這部片,但這部片相當棒

  • And in the movie, he plays

    在這部電影裡,保羅紐曼飾演

  • a down-and-out lawyer

    一個落魄的律師

  • who's become an ambulance chaser.

    一個專攬車禍官司的律師

  • And he's taken on --

    他承擔...

  • he's given, actually -- a malpractice suit to handle

    事實上,他被指派了一件不法行為的訴訟案件

  • that's sort of an easy deal,

    是件還算容易的一次案子

  • and in the midst of trying to connect the deal,

    在嘗試聯繫的過程中

  • he starts to empathize

    他和客戶開始

  • and identify with his client,

    重視與確認

  • and he regains his morality and purpose,

    他重拾他的道德和目標

  • and he goes on to win the case.

    繼而贏得了此次訴訟

  • And in the depth of despair,

    在絕望的深淵裡,

  • in the midst of the movie, when it looks like he can't pull this thing off,

    在電影中,當他看起來不能夠放下這件事,

  • and he needs this case,

    他需要這場官司,

  • he needs to win this case so badly.

    他極度需要贏得這場官司

  • There's a shot of Paul Newman alone,

    這是保羅紐曼一個人單獨的鏡頭,

  • in his office, saying,

    在他的辦公室,他說,

  • "This is the case. There are no other cases.

    "就是這個案件了, 沒有其他的案件了.

  • This is the case. There are no other cases."

    這就是了, 沒有其他的了."

  • And in that moment of

    在那個時刻

  • desire and focus,

    充滿了渴望及專注

  • he can win.

    他能贏.

  • And that is a wonderful

    那是個絕妙的角色

  • position to be in to create some serious play.

    身在其中並認真的發揮

  • And I had that moment in 1994

    在1994年,我曾有過那樣的時刻

  • when I met a theater director

    當時我遇到一位劇場導演

  • named George Wolfe,

    名叫喬治沃爾夫

  • who was going to have me design

    他打算讓我設計

  • an identity for the New York Shakespeare Festival,

    紐約莎士比亞節的象徵畫,

  • then known,

    後來,

  • and then became the Public Theater.

    成為公共劇場的象徵畫.

  • And I began getting immersed

    我開始沉浸在

  • in this project

    這個案子裡

  • in a way I never was before.

    我從來沒有這樣過

  • This is what theater advertising looked like at that time.

    這就是那時候劇場廣告的樣子

  • This is what was in the newspapers and in the New York Times.

    當時刊登在各大報及紐約時報上

  • So, this is sort of a comment on the time.

    這算是當時的評論

  • And the Public Theater actually had much better advertising than this.

    事實上,公共劇場有比這更好的廣告

  • They had no logo and no identity,

    公共劇場沒有標誌、沒有象徵畫

  • but they had these very iconic posters

    但是他們有這些很具象徵性的海報

  • painted by Paul Davis.

    作者是Paul Davis

  • And George Wolf had taken over from another director

    喬治沃爾夫從另一位導演手中接手劇院

  • and he wanted to change the theater,

    他想要改變劇院

  • and he wanted to make it urban and loud

    他想要讓劇院更城市化、更喧鬧

  • and a place that was inclusive.

    讓劇院更加包羅萬象

  • So, drawing on my love of typography,

    所以,運用我對印刷排版的熱愛

  • I immersed myself into this project.

    我自我陶醉在這個案子裡

  • And what was different about it was the totality of it,

    它不同的地方就是它的藝術總體性

  • was that I really became the voice, the visual voice, of a place

    我真正代表一份聲音,可以看見的聲音

  • in a way I had never done before,

    這是我從未嘗試過的方法

  • where every aspect --

    無論在各個方面

  • the smallest ad, the ticket, whatever it was --

    最小型的廣告、門票,不論是甚麼

  • was designed by me.

    都是由我設計的

  • There was no format.

    沒有制式化的格式

  • There was no in-house department that these things were pushed to.

    沒有來自部門內部的壓力

  • I literally for three years made everything --

    我花了整整三年來完成所有東西

  • every scrap of paper, everything online,

    每張簡報、網站上的一切、

  • that this theater did.

    以及劇場上的一切。

  • And it was the only job,

    這就是我唯一的工作

  • even though I was doing other jobs.

    即便我在做其他的事情

  • I lived and breathed it in a way I haven't

    我處在一個

  • with a client since.

    與客戶從未有過的關係中

  • It enabled me to really express myself and grow.

    它使我真正地表達自我,並成長

  • And I think that you know

    我認為大家知道

  • when you're going to