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  • Imagine a place where your neighbors greet your children by name;

    想像一下有個地方, 你的鄰居叫得出你孩子的名字;

  • a place with splendid vistas;

    景觀超好;

  • a place where you can drive just 20 minutes

    你只要開車 20 分鐘

  • and put your sailboat on the water.

    就能下水駕船。

  • It's a seductive place, isn't it?

    很誘人的地方,對吧?

  • I don't live there.

    我不住在那裡。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But I did journey on a 27,000-mile trip

    但是我的確踏上 近四萬四千公里的旅程,

  • for two years, to the fastest-growing and whitest counties in America.

    在兩年間,到美國幾個快速成長 且居民很白的幾個縣走走。

  • What is a Whitopia?

    什麼是白色烏托邦?

  • I define Whitopia in three ways:

    我以三點定義白色烏托邦:

  • First, a Whitopia has posted at least six percent population growth since 2000.

    第一,白色烏托邦自 2000 年起 至少有 6% 的人口成長。

  • Secondly, the majority of that growth comes from white migrants.

    第二,人口成長 主要是因為白種人移入。

  • And third, the Whitopia has an ineffable charm,

    第三,白色烏托邦 有著難以言喻的魅力,

  • a pleasant look and feel,

    舒適的景觀和感覺,

  • a je Ne sais quoi.

    不知其所以然也。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • To learn how and why Whitopias are ticking,

    要瞭解白色烏托邦如何 又為何會發展起來,

  • I immersed myself for several months apiece in three of them:

    我花了幾個月 讓自己深入其中三個地方:

  • first, St. George, Utah;

    第一,猶他州聖喬治;

  • second, Coeur d'Alene, Idaho;

    第二,愛達荷州科達倫;

  • and third, Forsyth County, Georgia.

    及第三,喬治亞州福賽斯郡。

  • First stop, St. George -- a beautiful town of red rock landscapes.

    第一站,聖喬治, 是個有著紅岩景色的美麗小鎮,

  • In the 1850s, Brigham Young dispatched families to St. George

    1850 年代,摩門教的楊百翰 差派數個家庭到聖喬治種植棉花,

  • to grow cotton because of the hot, arid climate.

    因為那裡的炎熱乾燥氣候很適合。

  • And so they called it Utah's Dixie, and the name sticks to this day.

    因此他們稱這裡為猶他之南, 而且這個名字延用至今。

  • I approached my time in each Whitopia like an anthropologist.

    我以人類學者之姿 前進每一座白色烏托邦。

  • I made detailed spreadsheets of all the power brokers in the communities,

    我在試算表上列出社區裡 所有的權力掮客,

  • who I needed to meet, where I needed to be,

    什麼人一定要見, 需要出現在什麼地方,

  • and I threw myself with gusto in these communities.

    而且我興致勃勃的 去參與社區活動。

  • I went to zoning board meetings,

    我去都市計畫委員會,

  • I went to Democratic clubs and Republican clubs.

    我去民主黨及共和黨的黨會,

  • I went to poker nights.

    我還去跟人打撲克牌。

  • In St. George, I rented a home at the Entrada,

    我在聖喬治的 「怡家」社區租了一棟房子,

  • one of the town's premier gated communities.

    這是城裡數一數二 有警衛管理的豪宅區。

  • There were no Motel 6's or Howard Johnsons for me.

    我可不能住在廉價的 汽車旅館或連鎖飯店。

  • I lived in Whitopia as a resident, and not like a visitor.

    我要在白色烏托邦裡當居民, 而不是觀光客。

  • I rented myself this home by phone.

    我是打電話租屋的。 (譯注:不用顯示自己是黑人)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Golf is the perfect seductive symbol of Whitopia.

    高爾夫是白色烏托邦的 完美誘惑代表。

  • When I went on my journey,

    我開始這趟旅程時,

  • I had barely ever held a golf club.

    連高爾夫球桿都沒拿過。

  • By the time I left, I was golfing at least three times a week.

    但在我結束時, 我每星期至少要打三次。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Golf helps people bond.

    打高爾夫促進人的情誼。

  • Some of the best interviews I ever scored during my trip were on the golf courses.

    這趟旅程中我最好的訪談 都是在高爾夫球場上聊來的。

  • One venture capitalist, for example, invited me to golf in his private club

    舉個例子,有位創投業者 邀我去他私人的高爾夫俱樂部,

  • that had no minority members.

    那裡沒有少數族裔會員。

  • I also went fishing.

    我還去釣魚。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Because I had never fished, this fellow had to teach me

    因為我從來沒釣過魚, 這傢伙還得教我

  • how to cast my line and what bait to use.

    如何揮竿、如何選餌。

  • I also played poker every weekend.

    我每個週末還玩撲克。

  • It was Texas Hold 'em with a $10 buy-in.

    玩德州撲克,參賽金十美元。

  • My poker mates may have been bluffing about the hands that they drew,

    雖然我的撲克牌友每次 都虛張聲勢說自己有一手好牌,

  • but they weren't bluffing about their social beliefs.

    但他們對於自己的 社會信念可一點都不假。

  • Some of the most raw, salty conversations I ever had

    旅程中有好些尖酸辛辣的對話

  • during my journey were at the poker table.

    都在撲克牌桌上產生。

  • I'm a gung ho entertainer.

    我是個很賣力的主人。

  • I love to cook, I hosted many dinner parties, and in return,

    我很愛烹飪,開了很多晚餐趴,

  • people invited me to their dinner parties,

    他們也回邀我去他們的晚餐趴,

  • and to their barbecues, and to their pool parties,

    還有他們的烤肉趴、泳池趴、

  • and to their birthday parties.

    生日趴。

  • But it wasn't all fun.

    但不是每件事都很好玩。

  • Immigration turned out to be a big issue in this Whitopia.

    事實證明移民在這座 白色烏托邦是個大議題。

  • The St. George's Citizens Council on Illegal Immigration

    聖喬治的「整治非法移民市民委員會」

  • held regular and active protests against immigration,

    定期舉行抗議活動, 積極反對外來移民,

  • and so what I gleaned from this Whitopia is what a hot debate this would become.

    所以我在這座 白色烏托邦搜集到的情報,

  • It was a real-time preview, and so it has become.

    就是這可能會成為 非常激烈的辯論。

  • Next stop: Almost Heaven, a cabin I rented for myself

    這是當時的即時預覽, 而現在的確也變成如此。

  • in Coeur d'Alene, in the beautiful North Idaho panhandle.

    下一站:科達倫的「人間天堂」 是我給我自己租的小木屋,

  • I rented this place for myself, also by phone.

    位於美麗的愛達荷州, 狹長的那一塊。

  • (Laughter)

    我自己租下這個地方, 也是用電話。

  • The book "A Thousand Places To See Before You Die" lists Coeur d'Alene --

    (笑聲)

  • it's a gorgeous paradise for huntsmen, boatmen and fishermen.

    《1000 個死前必遊勝地》 柯達倫名列其一。

  • My growing golf skills came in handy in Coeur d'Alene.

    那真的是獵人、船友 及漁友的美麗天堂。

  • I golfed with retired LAPD cops.

    我愈來愈好的高爾夫技巧 在柯達倫派上用場。

  • In 1993, around 11,000 families and cops

    我與退休的洛杉磯警察 一起打高爾夫。

  • fled Los Angeles after the L.A. racial unrest,

    1993 年,約有 一萬一千個家庭及警察,

  • for North Idaho, and they've built an expatriated community.

    在洛杉磯種族暴動後,

  • Given the conservatism of these cops,

    從洛杉磯逃到北愛達荷, 在此建造了一個流放社區。

  • there's no surprise that North Idaho has a strong gun culture.

    鑑於這些警察的保守主義,

  • In fact, it is said, North Idaho has more gun dealers than gas stations.

    北愛達荷有很強烈的 擁槍文化一點也不意外。

  • So what's a resident to do to fit in?

    事實上,大家都說, 北愛達荷的槍枝業者比加油站還多。

  • I hit the gun club.

    所以,居民要做什麼才能融入呢?

  • When I rented a gun, the gentleman behind the counter

    我跑去槍枝俱樂部。

  • was perfectly pleasant and kind,

    我去租槍的時候,

  • until I showed him my New York City driver's license.

    櫃檯的先生非常和藹可親,

  • That's when he got nervous.

    直到我給他紐約市的駕照。

  • I'm not as bad a shot as I thought I might have been.

    那時他就開始緊張了。

  • What I learned from North Idaho is the peculiar brand of paranoia

    我以為我是個糟糕的射手, 但是其實還好。

  • that can permeate a community when so many cops and guns are around.

    我在北愛達荷學到的是, 有這麼多警察及槍枝在四周,

  • In North Idaho, in my red pickup truck,

    的確會有某種 奇特的妄想深植社區之中。

  • I kept a notepad.

    在北愛達荷時, 我在我的小紅載卡多內

  • And in that notepad I counted more Confederate flags than black people.

    放著一本記事簿。

  • In North Idaho, I found Confederate flags

    那本記事簿上我算到的 南軍聯盟國旗比黑人還多。

  • on key chains, on cellphone paraphernalia,

    在北愛達荷, 我發現南軍聯盟國旗

  • and on cars.

    不但做成鑰匙圈、手機吊飾,

  • About a seven-minute drive from my hidden lake cabin

    還掛在車上。

  • was the compound of Aryan Nations,

    離我海登湖畔小屋開車 七分鐘就會到的地方,

  • the white supremacist group.

    是「亞利安國」的聚會營地,

  • America's Promise Ministries, the religious arm of Aryan Nations,

    他們是白人至上主義團體。

  • happened to have a three-day retreat during my visit.

    「美國的承諾事工」 為亞利安國的宗教部門,

  • So I decided to crash it.

    剛好在我暫住的時候 舉行三天的退修會。

  • (Laughter)

    所以我決定當個不速之客。

  • I'm the only non-Aryan journalist I'm aware of ever to have done so.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    我是我所知道唯一做過這種事的 非亞利安(白人)記者,

  • Among the many memorable episodes of that retreat...

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    那場退修會上演了 許多難以忘懷的情節,

  • ...is when Abe, an Aryan, sidled up next to me.

    (笑聲)

  • He slapped my knee, and he said, "Hey Rich, I just want you to know one thing.

    其中之一是亞伯,也是名亞利安, 悄悄的走到我身邊。

  • We are not white supremacists. We are white separatists.

    他拍拍我的膝蓋,他說: 「嘿,李其,我想讓你瞭解一件事。

  • We don't think we're better than you,

    我們不是白人至上主義者, 我們是白人分離主義者。

  • we just want to be away from you."

    我們不認為我們比你好。

  • (Laughter)

    我們只是想離你遠遠的。」

  • Indeed, most white people in Whitopia are neither white supremacists

    (笑聲)

  • or white separatists;

    確實,在白色烏托邦的白人 並非白人至上主義者,

  • in fact, they're not there for explicitly racial reasons at all.

    也不是白人分離主義者;

  • Rather, they emigrate there

    事實上,他們根本就不是因為 種族原因而聚集在那裡。

  • for friendliness, comfort, security, safety --

    相反的,他們移居那裡,

  • reasons that they implicitly associate to whiteness in itself.

    是因為那裡親切、舒適、 有安全感而且也很安全。

  • Next stop was Georgia.

    他們很隱晦的將這些原因 與白人本身連結在一起。

  • In Georgia, I stayed in an exurb north of Atlanta.

    下一站是喬治亞。

  • In Utah, I found poker;

    在喬治亞, 我住在北亞特蘭大遠郊區。

  • in Idaho, I found guns;

    在猶他,我找到撲克;

  • in Georgia, I found God.

    在愛達荷,我找到槍枝;

  • (Laughter)

    在喬治亞,我找到神。

  • The way that I immersed myself in this Whitopia

    (笑聲)

  • was to become active at First Redeemer Church,

    我將自己融入 這座白色烏托邦的方法,

  • a megachurch that's so huge that it has golf carts

    是積極參與「第一救贖主教會」,

  • to escort the congregants around its many parking lots on campus.

    這是一座超級巨型教會, 大到甚至有高爾夫球車

  • I was active in the youth ministry.

    載著會眾穿梭在園區內 眾多的停車場間。

  • And for me, personally, I was more comfortable in this Whitopia

    我很積極參與青年事工。

  • than say, in a Colorado, or an Idaho, or even a suburban Boston.

    對我個人而言, 我在這座白色烏托邦感覺更自在,

  • That is because [there], in Georgia,

    比在科羅拉多或愛達荷, 或波士頓近郊都還自在。

  • white people and black people are more historically familiar to one another.

    這是因為在喬治亞,

  • I was less exotic in this Whitopia.

    白人和黑人在歷史上更熟悉彼此。

  • (Laughter)

    我在這座白色烏托邦裡 沒有那麼奇特。

  • But what does it all mean?

    (笑聲)

  • Whitopian dreaming, Whitopia migration, is a push-pull phenomenon,

    但是這一切意味著什麼?

  • full of alarming pushes and alluring pulls,

    白色烏托邦夢想, 白色烏托邦遷徙,

  • and Whitopia operates at the level of conscious and unconscious bias.

    是一種「推拉」現象,

  • It's possible for people to be in Whitopia not for racist reasons,

    充滿了可怕的推力 及誘人的拉力。

  • though it has racist outcomes.

    白色烏托邦以有意識 及無意識的偏見運作著。

  • Many Whitopians feel pushed by illegals,

    大家會移居白色烏托邦 很可能不是因為種族主義,

  • social welfare abuse, minorities, density, crowded schools.

    卻產生種族主義的結果。

  • Many Whitopians feel pulled by merit,

    許多白色烏托邦的人 覺得被非法移民、

  • freedom, the allure of privatism -- privatized places, privatized people,

    社會福利濫用、少數族裔、 稠密人口,及擁擠的學校推出去。

  • privatized things.

    許多白色烏托邦的人覺得被好處、

  • And I learned in Whitopia how a country can have racism

    被自由拉進去,個人主義的誘惑── 私有化的地方、私有化的人民、

  • without racists.

    私有化的東西。

  • Many of my smug urban liberal friends

    我在白色烏托邦也學到, 一個國家如何有種族主義,

  • couldn't believe I would go on such a venture.

    卻沒有種族主義者。

  • The reality is that many white Americans are affable and kind.

    我有許多自以為是的 都會自由派朋友,

  • Interpersonal race relations -- how we treat each other as human beings --

    都不敢相信 我會踏上這趟冒險之旅。

  • are vastly better than in my parents' generation.

    現實的情況是許多 白種美國人都很和藹善良。

  • Can you imagine me going to Whitopia 40 years ago?

    個人之間的種族關係── 我們以人類的身分如何對待他人──

  • What a journey that would have been.

    都比我父母的年代好太多。

  • (Laughter)

    你能想像如果 40 年前 我去白色烏托邦會是什麼樣子嗎?

  • And yet, some things haven't changed.

    會是多棒的旅程啊!

  • America is as residentially and educationally segregated today

    (笑聲)

  • as it was in 1970.

    然而,某些事情仍然不變。

  • As Americans, we often find ways to cook for each other,

    今天,美國在 居住及教育方面的隔離

  • to dance with each other,

    與 1970 年仍然相同。

  • to host with each other,

    身為美國人, 我們常找方法給彼此做點菜,

  • but why can't that translate into how we treat each other as communities?

    和彼此跳跳舞,

  • It's a devastating irony,

    招待彼此。

  • how we have gone forward as individuals,

    但是為什麼我們不能 以族群的身分這樣對待彼此?

  • and backwards as communities.

    這是極大的諷刺,

  • One of the Whitopian outlooks that really hit me

    我們怎麼會在個人方面進步,

  • was a proverbial saying:

    卻在族群方面退步?

  • "One black man is a delightful dinner guest;

    白色烏托邦存在一個看法 對我產生極大震撼,

  • 50 black men is a ghetto."

    就是一句俗話說:

  • One of the big contexts animating my Whitopian journey was the year 2042.

    「一名黑人是令人愉快的晚宴客人,

  • By 2042, white people will no longer be the American majority.

    50 名黑人就變成貧民窟。」

  • As such, will there be more Whitopias?

    驅動我踏上白色烏托邦之旅的 一項大環境背景是 2042 年。

  • In looking at this,

    到了 2042 年, 白人不再佔美國的多數。

  • the danger of Whitopia is that the more segregation we have,

    如此一來,會有更多的 白色烏托邦出現嗎?

  • the less we can look at and confront conscious and unconscious bias.

    從這點來看,

  • I ventured on my two-year, 27,000 mile journey

    白色烏托邦的危險是 我們愈隔離,

  • to learn where, why, and how white people are fleeing,

    我們就愈不能正視及面對 有意識及無意識的偏見。

  • but I didn't expect to have so much fun on my journey.

    我大膽花了兩年 踏上四萬四千公里的旅程,

  • (Laughter)

    去學習白人逃到哪裡, 為什麼要逃,又怎麼逃,

  • I didn't expect to learn so much about myself.

    但我沒想到這趟旅程會這麼好玩。

  • I don't expect I'll be living in a Whitopia --

    (笑聲)

  • or a Blacktopia, for that matter.

    我沒想到我會更瞭解自己。

  • I do plan to continue golfing every chance I get.

    我沒想到我會住在白色烏托邦──

  • (Laughter)

    或應該說,黑色烏托邦。

  • And I'll just have to leave the guns and megachurches back in Whitopia.

    我的確想過一有機會 就要繼續打高爾夫。

  • Thank you.

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    但我得把槍枝及超級巨型教會 留在白色烏托邦。

Imagine a place where your neighbors greet your children by name;

想像一下有個地方, 你的鄰居叫得出你孩子的名字;

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 TED 烏托邦 白色 白人 笑聲 主義

【TED】裡奇-本傑明:我的美國最白小鎮之路(我的美國最白小鎮之路|裡奇-本傑明)。 (【TED】Rich Benjamin: My road trip through the whitest towns in America (My road trip through the whitest towns in America | Rich Benjamin))

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    Max Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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