Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I was here four years ago,

    我四年前也來過這裡演講

  • and I remember, at the time,

    我記得那個時候

  • that the talks weren't put online.

    TED演講都還沒上線

  • I think they were given to TEDsters in a box,

    演講錄好後大概都裝在盒子裡,發送給TED觀眾

  • a box set of DVDs,

    可能是一盒DVD

  • which they put on their shelves, where they are now.

    大家拿回家就放在架上,擺到現在都沒動過

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • And actually, Chris called me a week after I'd given my talk, and said,

    其實後來克里斯有打電話給我

  • "We're going to start putting them online. Can we put yours online?"

    那時大概是演講過後一星期

  • And I said, "Sure."

    他說:「我們會開始把演講錄影放到網上」

  • And four years later,

    「可以把你的也放上去嗎?」我立刻就答應了

  • it's been downloaded four million times.

    現在過了四年

  • So I suppose you could multiply that by 20 or something

    我剛有說,看過演講的有...

  • to get the number of people who've seen it.

    應該說演講下載次數達到400萬

  • And, as Chris says, there is a hunger for videos of me.

    我猜把這個數字乘上20左右

  • (Laughter)

    大概就是看過演講的人數

  • (Applause)

    克里斯跟我說,有很多人

  • Don't you feel?

    渴望看到我的影片

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • So, this whole event has been an elaborate build-up

    [觀眾掌聲]

  • to me doing another one for you, so here it is.

    果然非常渴望

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • Al Gore spoke at the TED conference I spoke at four years ago

    所以一切就在因緣際會之下

  • and talked about the climate crisis.

    我又回到這裡演講,要開始囉

  • And I referenced that at the end of my last talk.

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • So I want to pick up from there

    高爾跟我一樣

  • because I only had 18 minutes, frankly.

    四年前在同個TED論壇發表演講

  • (Laughter)

    他那次談氣候危機

  • So, as I was saying --

    我上回有提到他的演講

  • (Laughter)

    用來為我的演講作結

  • You see, he's right.

    所以我想從上回的結語說起

  • I mean, there is a major climate crisis, obviously,

    畢竟我那時只有18分鐘的時間

  • and I think if people don't believe it, they should get out more.

    好,我演講最後提到...

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • But I believe there is a second climate crisis,

    的確,他說的沒錯

  • which is as severe,

    也就是說,氣候面臨相當大的危機

  • which has the same origins,

    那些不相信的人,應該多到戶外走走

  • and that we have to deal with with the same urgency.

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • And you may say, by the way,

    但我認為還有另一個危機

  • "Look, I'm good.

    跟氣候危機同樣嚴重

  • I have one climate crisis, I don't really need the second one."

    有同樣的起因

  • (Laughter)

    而且同樣需要我們立即因應

  • But this is a crisis of, not natural resources --

    我所謂的危機...

  • though I believe that's true --

    對了,各位可能會說「喂!可以了吧」

  • but a crisis of human resources.

    「有一個氣候危機就夠了」

  • I believe fundamentally,

    「誰還想要另一個危機」

  • as many speakers have said during the past few days,

    但這個危機跟自然資源無關

  • that we make very poor use of our talents.

    雖然我相信自然資源也有危機

  • Very many people go through their whole lives

    我要說的是人力資源的危機

  • having no real sense of what their talents may be,

    基本上我的看法

  • or if they have any to speak of.

    跟過去幾天其他講者說的一樣

  • I meet all kinds of people

    就是我們並沒有善用

  • who don't think they're really good at anything.

    自己的才能

  • Actually, I kind of divide the world into two groups now.

    很多人終其一生

  • Jeremy Bentham, the great utilitarian philosopher,

    都不太清楚自己潛在的才能

  • once spiked this argument.

    或不知道自己有沒有才能可言

  • He said, "There are two types of people in this world:

    我碰過各式各樣的人

  • those who divide the world into two types

    覺得自己沒什麼長處

  • and those who do not."

    其實我覺得全世界大概分為兩種人

  • (Laughter)

    功利主義哲學大師邊沁

  • Well, I do.

    詮釋得很有意思

  • (Laughter)

    他說:「全世界可分為兩種人」

  • I meet all kinds of people who don't enjoy what they do.

    「把世界一分為二的人」

  • They simply go through their lives getting on with it.

    「和不把世界一分為二的人」

  • They get no great pleasure from what they do.

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • They endure it rather than enjoy it,

    我就是會分的那種

  • and wait for the weekend.

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • But I also meet people

    但我也遇過其他人

  • who love what they do and couldn't imagine doing anything else.

    說自己不喜歡目前的工作

  • If you said, "Don't do this anymore,"

    他們過著單調的生活

  • they'd wonder what you're talking about.

    日復一日

  • It isn't what they do, it's who they are.

    他們在工作上得不到快樂

  • They say, "But this is me, you know.

    只是在忍受,而不是在享受

  • It would be foolish to abandon this,

    等待著週末來臨

  • because it speaks to my most authentic self."

    但我也碰過一些人

  • And it's not true of enough people.

    說自己熱愛現有的工作

  • In fact, on the contrary, I think it's still true of a minority of people.

    對工作死心塌地

  • And I think there are many possible explanations for it.

    叫他們不要做,他們會一臉納悶

  • And high among them is education,

    因為重點不是工作本身,而是天性如此

  • because education, in a way,

    他們會說:「但這就是我啊」

  • dislocates very many people from their natural talents.

    「我才不會笨到放棄」

  • And human resources are like natural resources;

    「因為這工作讓我找到真正的自己」

  • they're often buried deep.

    對大部份人來說,並非如此

  • You have to go looking for them,

    我覺得正好相反

  • they're not just lying around on the surface.

    熱愛工作的人絕對是少數

  • You have to create the circumstances where they show themselves.

    我想有許多原因

  • And you might imagine education would be the way that happens,

    可以用來解釋這件事

  • but too often, it's not.

    一大原因

  • Every education system in the world is being reformed at the moment

    出在教育

  • and it's not enough.

    因為教育可說是

  • Reform is no use anymore,

    剝奪了許多人

  • because that's simply improving a broken model.

    與生俱來的才能

  • What we need --

    而且人力資源跟天然資源一樣

  • and the word's been used many times in the past few days --

    往往「深藏不露」

  • is not evolution,

    我們必須去挖掘

  • but a revolution in education.

    不是光看表面就會發現

  • This has to be transformed into something else.

    我們必須營造良好的環境,幫助他們發展

  • (Applause)

    各位可能覺得

  • One of the real challenges is to innovate fundamentally in education.

    只有教育可以做到這件事

  • Innovation is hard,

    但往往並非如此

  • because it means doing something that people don't find very easy,

    世界各國的教育體制

  • for the most part.

    目前都處於改革的階段

  • It means challenging what we take for granted,

    但光這樣是不夠的

  • things that we think are obvious.

    改革是沒有用的

  • The great problem for reform or transformation

    因為那只是改良舊有的制度

  • is the tyranny of common sense.

    我們需要的...

  • Things that people think,

    其實這幾天一直都有提到...

  • "It can't be done differently, that's how it's done."

    不是緩慢的教改

  • I came across a great quote recently from Abraham Lincoln,

    是教育根本的革命

  • who I thought you'd be pleased to have quoted at this point.

    教育一定要轉型

  • (Laughter)

    完完全全的改變

  • He said this in December 1862 to the second annual meeting of Congress.

    [觀眾掌聲]

  • I ought to explain that I have no idea what was happening at the time.

    當前一大難題

  • We don't teach American history in Britain.

    就是要徹底

  • (Laughter)

    創新教育

  • We suppress it. You know, this is our policy.

    創新是很困難的

  • (Laughter)

    因為創新所要做的事

  • No doubt, something fascinating was happening then,

    都相當的不容易

  • which the Americans among us will be aware of.

    創新是要去挑戰我們固有的思維

  • But he said this:

    那些我們視為理所當然的事

  • "The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present.

    改革的一大問題

  • The occasion is piled high with difficulty,

    或是轉型

  • and we must rise with the occasion."

    是常識的宰制

  • I love that.

    就像一般人常會覺得

  • Not rise to it, rise with it.

    做事不按規矩來是會失敗的

  • "As our case is new,

    最近讀到一句林肯的話,我覺得很有道理

  • so we must think anew and act anew.

    這時候想必各位很高興聽到林肯的話

  • We must disenthrall ourselves,

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • and then we shall save our country."

    1862年的12月

  • I love that word, "disenthrall."

    他向國會致詞時說了這句話

  • You know what it means?

    我該先跟各位說明,我完全不知那年有什麼大事

  • That there are ideas that all of us are enthralled to,

    畢竟我們在英國是不學美國歷史的

  • which we simply take for granted as the natural order of things,

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • the way things are.

    我們向來都加以打壓,政策就是這樣

  • And many of our ideas have been formed,

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • not to meet the circumstances of this century,

    反正那年12月一定有發生什麼有趣的事

  • but to cope with the circumstances of previous centuries.

    在座的美國人

  • But our minds are still hypnotized by them,

    想必知道

  • and we have to disenthrall ourselves of some of them.

    總之林肯說

  • Now, doing this is easier said than done.

    「那些屬於」

  • It's very hard to know, by the way, what it is you take for granted.

    「寧靜往日的教條」

  • And the reason is that you take it for granted.

    「已不足以因應今日的風雨」

  • (Laughter)

    「情勢」

  • Let me ask you something you may take for granted.

    「已然升高,愈發困難」

  • How many of you here are over the age of 25?

    「我們得順勢而起」

  • That's not what you take for granted, I'm sure you're familiar with that.

    說的真好

  • Are there any people here under the age of 25?

    不是加以抗衡,是順勢而起

  • Great. Now, those over 25,

    「由於我們面臨新的問題」

  • could you put your hands up if you're wearing your wristwatch?

    「故得有新的思維」

  • Now that's a great deal of us, isn't it?

    「新的作為」

  • Ask a room full of teenagers the same thing.

    「我們得掙脫自身的枷鎖」

  • Teenagers do not wear wristwatches.

    「才能拯救我們的國家」

  • I don't mean they can't,

    我很喜歡「掙脫枷鎖」這概念

  • they just often choose not to.

    各位知道什麼意思嗎?

  • And the reason is we were brought up in a pre-digital culture,

    我們被很多觀念的枷鎖綁住

  • those of us over 25.

    覺得這些觀念理應如此

  • And so for us, if you want to know the time,

    好像是天經地義、自然法則

  • you have to wear something to tell it.

    我們有很多觀念

  • Kids now live in a world which is digitized,

    之所以形成,不是要符合當今態勢

  • and the time, for them, is everywhere.

    而是為了因應過去的狀況

  • They see no reason to do this.

    但我們仍然對這些觀念深信不疑

  • And by the way, you don't need either;

    而我們必須要掙脫這些枷鎖

  • it's just that you've always done it and you carry on doing it.

    這事說來容易

  • My daughter never wears a watch, my daughter Kate, who's 20.

    但要釐清何謂理所當然的事,實在很難

  • She doesn't see the point.

    正是因為理所當然,所以不會察覺

  • As she says,

    我來問些各位可能視為理所當然的事

  • "It's a single-function device."

    在場有多少人超過25歲?

  • (Laughter)

    這跟「理所當然」扯不上關係啦

  • "Like, how lame is that?"

    我相信各位都清楚自己幾歲

  • And I say, "No, no, it tells the date as well."

    那在場不到25歲的人呢?

  • (Laughter)

    很好,現在25歲以上的人

  • "It has multiple functions."

    如果戴著手錶的話,請把手舉起來

  • (Laughter)

    看到有很多人舉手對吧?

  • But, you see, there are things we're enthralled to in education.

    如果在場都是青少年,問一樣的問題

  • A couple of examples.

    結果會發現青少年不戴手錶

  • One of them is the idea of linearity:

    並不是他們不會戴或不准戴

  • that it starts here and you go through a track

    他們只是往往選擇不戴

  • and if you do everything right,

    因為各位也知道,我們成長過程中

  • you will end up set for the rest of your life.

    一切都還沒數位化...我指25歲以上的人

  • Everybody who's spoken at TED has told us implicitly,

    對我們來說,想知道現在幾點

  • or sometimes explicitly, a different story:

    一定要戴著手錶才行

  • that life is not linear; it's organic.

    現在的孩子活在數位化的世界

  • We create our lives symbiotically

    對他們來說,到處都看得到時間

  • as we explore our talents

    在我們探索自己的才能的同時

  • in relation to the circumstances they help to create for us.

    而且其實我們也不需要戴錶

  • But, you know, we have become obsessed with this linear narrative.

    只是長期以來都有戴錶,習慣成自然

  • And probably the pinnacle for education is getting you to college.

    我女兒從來不戴錶,她叫凱特,今年20歲

  • I think we are obsessed with getting people to college.

    她覺得戴錶很沒意義

  • Certain sorts of college.

    她說:「錶只有單一功能耶」

  • I don't mean you shouldn't go, but not everybody needs to go,

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • or go now.

    「吼,這會不會太瞎了?」

  • Maybe they go later, not right away.

    我跟她說:「不會呀,錶還會顯示日期耶」

  • And I was up in San Francisco a while ago doing a book signing.

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • There was this guy buying a book, he was in his 30s.

    「應該是多功能才對」

  • I said, "What do you do?"

    就教育來說,我們也有許多枷鎖

  • And he said, "I'm a fireman."

    給各位幾個例子

  • I asked, "How long have you been a fireman?"

    一個是線性思維

  • "Always. I've always been a fireman."

    從起點開始,沿著既定的道路

  • "Well, when did you decide?" He said, "As a kid.

    只要一切都按部就班

  • Actually, it was a problem for me at school,

    就能穩穩當當過完後半輩子

  • because at school, everybody wanted to be a fireman."

    TED請來的講者都用或間接

  • (Laughter)

    或直接的方式,分享新奇的故事

  • He said, "But I wanted to be a fireman."

    告訴我們生命並非直線,而是富有變化

  • And he said, "When I got to the senior year of school,

    生命掌握在自己手中

  • my teachers didn't take it seriously.

    我們探索自己天賦的同時

  • This one teacher didn't take it seriously.

    天賦也引領我們找到自己的一片天

  • He said I was throwing my life away

    但我們一心相信

  • if that's all I chose to do with it;

    線性思維的論述

  • that I should go to college, I should become a professional person,

    還有相信教育的最高成就

  • that I had great potential

    就是上大學

  • and I was wasting my talent to do that."

    我覺得我們太執著上大學這件事

  • He said, "It was humiliating.

    還要特定幾所好大學

  • It was in front of the whole class and I felt dreadful.

    不是說不該上大學,而是不用每個人都上大學

  • But it's what I wanted, and as soon as I left school,

    也不用每個人都一畢業就上大學

  • I applied to the fire service and I was accepted.

    有些人可能想緩一緩,不想那麼急

  • You know, I was thinking about that guy recently,

    我不久前在舊金山

  • just a few minutes ago when you were speaking, about this teacher,

    辦了場簽書會

  • because six months ago, I saved his life."

    有個男的買了書,他大約30多歲

  • (Laughter)

    我問他:「你是做什麼的?」

  • He said, "He was in a car wreck, and I pulled him out, gave him CPR,

    他說:「我是消防員」

  • and I saved his wife's life as well."

    我問:「那你從事這行多久了?」

  • He said, "I think he thinks better of me now."

    他說:「好久了,我一直都是消防員」

  • (Laughter)

    我又問:「那你什麼時候決定當消防員的?」

  • (Applause)

    他說:「小時候就想了,但這在學校就成了問題」

  • You know, to me,

    「因為每個同學都想當消防員」

  • human communities depend upon a diversity of talent,

    「但我真的想當消防員」

  • not a singular conception of ability.

    「升上高年級的時候」

  • And at the heart of our challenges --

    「老師都不當一回事」

  • (Applause)

    「有個老師更是這樣」

  • At the heart of the challenge

    「他說我這樣只是浪費生命」

  • is to reconstitute our sense of ability and of intelligence.

    「最好不要想當消防員」

  • This linearity thing is a problem.

    「說我該讀大學,成為專業人士」

  • When I arrived in L.A. about nine years ago,

    「說我很有潛力」

  • I came across a policy statement --

    「不要白白浪費資質」

  • very well-intentioned --

    「那時我覺得自己好丟臉」

  • which said, "College begins in kindergarten."

    「因為他在全班面前講我,讓人實在很難受」

  • No, it doesn't.

    「但這是我的夢想,」

  • (Laughter)

    「便申請當消防員,後來就錄取了」

  • It doesn't.

    他接著說:「你知道嗎?我剛剛又想到那個老師」

  • If we had time, I could go into this, but we don't.

    「剛剛你還在演講的時候,我正好想到他」

  • (Laughter)

    「因為半年前」

  • Kindergarten begins in kindergarten.

    「我救了他一命」

  • (Laughter)

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • A friend of mine once said,

    「他那時出了車禍」

  • "A three year-old is not half a six year-old."

    「是我把他從車中拖出來,幫他人工呼吸」

  • (Laughter)

    「我還救了他太太一命」

  • (Applause)

    「他現在應該對我刮目相看了吧」

  • They're three.

    [觀眾笑聲]

  • But as we just heard in this last session,

    [觀眾掌聲]

  • there's such competition now to get into kindergarten --

    對我來說