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There's a quote usually attributed to the writer Mark Twain that goes,
"A lie can travel halfway around the world
while the truth is putting on its shoes."
Funny thing about that.
There's reason to doubt that Mark Twain ever said this at all,
thus, ironically, proving the point.
And today, the quote, whoever said it, is truer than ever before.
In previous decades, most media with global reach
consisted of several major newspapers and networks
which had the resources to gather information directly.
Outlets like Reuters and the Associated Press
that aggregate or rereport stories were relatively rare compared to today.
The speed with which information spreads now
has created the ideal conditions for a phenomenon known as circular reporting.
This is when publication A publishes misinformation,
publication B reprints it,
and publication A then cites B as the source for the information.
It's also considered a form of circular reporting
when multiple publications
report on the same initial piece of false information,
which then appears to another author as having been verified by multiple sources.
For instance, the 1998 publication of a single pseudoscientific paper
arguing that routine vaccination of children causes autism
inspired an entire antivaccination movement,
despite the fact that the original paper has repeatedly been discredited
by the scientific community.
deliberately unvaccinated children are now contracting contagious diseases
that had been virtually eradicated in the United States,
with some infections proving fatal.
In a slightly less dire example,
satirical articles that are formatted to resemble real ones
can also be picked up by outlets not in on the joke.
For example, a joke article in the reputable British Medical Journal entitled
"Energy Expenditure in Adolescents Playing New Generation Computer Games,"
has been referenced in serious science publications over 400 times.
User-generated content, such as wikis,
are also a common contributor to circular reporting.
As more writers come to rely on such pages for quick information,
an unverified fact in a wiki page can make its way into a published article
that may later be added as a citation for the very same wiki information,
making it much harder to debunk.
Recent advances in communication technology
have had immeasurable benefits
in breaking down the barriers between information and people.
But our desire for quick answers
may overpower the desire to be certain of their validity.
And when this bias can be multiplied by billions of people around the world,
nearly instantaneously, more caution is in order.
Avoiding sensationalist media,
searching for criticisms of suspicious information,
and tracing the original source of a report can help slow down a lie,
giving the truth more time to put on its shoes.
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【Ted-Ed】錯誤訊息是如何散播的?How false news can spread

21739 分類 收藏
SylviaQQ 發佈於 2016 年 1 月 12 日   詹欣蓉 翻譯   James 審核

影片簡介

在世界各地,許多媒體常常為人詬病報導誇大不實,或者冷飯熱炒。不知道大家怎麼看這件事,但小編認為媒體應當是具有導正社會風氣、負有社會責任的機構。然而錯誤的資訊傳播的速度之快、範圍之廣,往往使真相難以被揭露,以致以訛傳訛,造就「集體的無知」。現在讓我們來看看錯誤訊息是如何傳遍大街小巷,並一起來思考怎麼解決這個嚴肅的議題。

1
outlet0:43
outlet 是指事物的出口,這裡是指出版商(新聞的出口)。
Reuters is a news outlet founded in 1851.
路透社是1851年創立的媒體通訊社。


此外,outlet 亦可指電源插座、(感情、精力等)宣洩的出口,以及商店或大型折扣購物商場。
I chose the seat in the back of the classroom because I need the outlet to charge my laptop.
我選擇教室後排的位子,因為我需要給我的筆電充電。

Playing table tennis is an outlet for Felix's pressure.
打桌球是 Felix 宣洩壓力的方式。

There are a lot of high-end products on sale in that outlet.
那間商場很多高端產品正在促銷。


*同場加映:
第31課:如何選擇新聞


2
phenomenon0:57
phenomenon 指現象、稀有現象,也可以指傑出的人。要注意 phenomenon 是單數,複數則是 phenomena。
With the invention of smartphones, "phubbers" have become a worldwide phenomenon.
隨著智慧型手機的發明,「低頭族」已經成為一個全球現象。

Steve Jobs was recognized as a phenomenon in the IT industry.
賈伯斯被視為 IT 產業介的傑出人才。


3
debunk2:47
首先,bunk 是指有上下舖的床,通常是倚著牆或是釘在牆上。debunk 則是指揭露、掀開錯誤或騙局,像是掀開床上的棉被將真相暴露出來。同義字包括 disclose、unveil。
We should debunk the stereotype that muslims are all warlike radicals.
我們應該破除穆斯林都是好戰激進分子的刻板印象。


*同場加映:
8個電影教你的錯誤知識!(8 Common Movie Myths Debunked!)


4
break down2:53
break down 可指破壞、分解、(關係)瓦解、(交通工具)拋錨,或是(人)崩潰。
Only by breaking down misunderstandings between you and Julie can you two really work together.
唯有打破你跟 Julie 之間的誤會,你們才能真正合作。

Our jeep broke down in the middle of nowhere. What’s even worse, our phones died at the same time.
我們的吉普車在不毛之地拋錨,更慘的是我們的手機還同時沒電。

She broke down after learning that her dad died from the car accident.
在得知父親死於那場車禍後她徹底崩潰。


此外, break up 則是指分手,be breaking up 指講電話時聲音斷斷續續。
Please say that again. You’re breaking up.
請重述一次,您的聲音斷斷續續的。


*同場加映:
【生活英文】為什麼喝咖啡會想大便?你也這樣過嗎? Why Does Coffee Make You Poop?


5
be in order3:10
in order 是指按照順序、一切按照適當的流程,也可以解釋為正確的、適當的。
Make sure everything is in order before we start our performance.
在我們開始表演前請確保一切安排就緒。

Stricter laws should be in order to combat random shootings.
應對濫殺無辜我們必須要有更嚴格的法律。


錯誤的資訊很容易透過循環報導的方式傳遞,輕則混淆大眾視聽,重則可能如影片所說,因為錯誤地以為接踵疫苗會導致自閉症,導致許多孩童死於很容易抑制的傳染病。小編認為每個人都應該追尋資訊源頭,培養媒體識讀的能力,至於媒體在報導時更應該要負起社會責任,使真相得以傳播,謠言徹底被終結。

*Pronunciation Challenge
每日口說挑戰從這部影片節錄一句英文,配上主持人詳細的講解,讓你輕鬆搞懂英文發音!

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  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔