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Consider, my dear viewers, a world.
A world without money, without class divisions, where everyone gives according to their abilities and takes according to their needs.
Sounds pretty sweet, no?
To German poet and philosopher Karl Marx, such a Communist utopia was not only possible,
it was inevitable, or what he called “the march of history”
Though deeply influenced by Hegel, who proposed that history develops through the abstract concept of “World Spirit"
Marx believed that it is not conflict of ideas that propels history,
but rather, conflict arising out of our relation to material goods, that will bring history to its end - specifically, our working conditions.
Marx calls this historical process “Dialectical Materialism.”
Initially, humanity was concerned only with the most basic acts of our species - producing for personal survival.
But as the population multiplied, “economic systems” were established to address the needs of all.
And with economics, an individual’s relationship to the products they create changes -
for one is no longer producing for their immediate needs.
They are producing for others.
Fast forward to the Industrial Revolution where mankind created mechanisms to fulfill the needs of many with unprecedented efficiency.
These mechanisms, or “capital,” are owned by individuals leading to enormous concentrations of wealth.
And for the tired worker who must operate these machines, there is no getting ahead.
For in order for the capitalist to maximize profit, he must pay the workers little more than is necessary to survive.
To Marx, this economic system of capitalism thrives on exploitation
and creates widespread unhappiness through what he calls “alienation."
For starters, I am alienated from the fruits of my labor.
If I create a turnip, it will be sold to another,
and in exchange I will be paid a wage and become as much of a commodity as the thing I produce.
Thus, I am removed from my work. I do not see myself in my labor.
Capitalism also alienates us from each other.
For the worker to produce efficiently,
the capitalist tells them they are in constant competition for their job,
thereby turning our fellow man in to an adversary, rather than an ally.
Furthermore, capitalism alienates us from our very nature.
Creating is a great source of satisfaction for our species.
But because we are forced to make things that we have no personal investment in, our lives become a burden.
As time goes on, and industrial powers become increasingly concentrated among a select elite,
the gap between the working class and the capitalist will only become wider.
To Marx, this gap will eventually become so pronounced that the workers,
in their profound frustration, will rise up and overthrow the oppression of the few and usher in a new society
a society in which there is no private property, there are no class divisions,
where people's labor is held for the common good and where all work according to their ability.
And that, my friends, is Communism.
Even today, Marxism is one of the most powerful ideologies in the world.
And to some, the ushering in of the Marxist utopia still lies in the not-too-distant future.
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【看電玩學哲學】何謂馬克思主義? (What is Marxism? (Karl Marx + Super Mario Bros.) – 8-Bit Philosophy)

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Jacky Avocado Tao 發佈於 2016 年 10 月 28 日   Jacky Avocado Tao 翻譯   James 審核

影片簡介

共產主義這個詞彙在現今許多社會中被視為「不合時宜的思想」,但是,你了解德國哲學家馬克思的政治思想嗎?共產主義從何而來?來看看影片長知識吧!

1multiply1:10
我們最早聽到 multiply 時應該是在學數學的時候,這時候 multiply 的意思是「乘,使相乘」,例如 multiply 2 by 3(2乘以3)。但 multiply 也有別的意思喔!在影片中的 as the population multiplied,它是「增加」的意思。
She moved out of her parents' house, and soon her difficulties multiplied.
她搬出父母家,不久後遇到的困難越來越多。


multiply 也有「繁殖導致數目增加」的意思。
These bacteria were able to multiply in very low temperatures.
這些細菌能夠在極低溫繁殖。


2fast-forward1:27
fast-forward 是「快轉」,而它的相反,「倒轉」,就是 rewind
I don't want to watch the whole video. Fast-forward to the important parts.
我不想看完整部影片。快轉到重要的部分。

Henry and Rita met in college and fell in love. Fast-forward a decade and they're both successful lawyers with two beautiful children.
亨利和莉塔在大學相遇並且墜入愛河。快轉十年,他們已是成功的律師而且生了兩個可愛的小孩。


*同場加映:
【TED】Sherry Turkle:網路連結我們,還是孤立我們? Connected, but alone?


3get ahead1:47
get ahead 的意思是「(在學業、事業上)成功」。
I work hard every day, but I can't seem to get ahead in my job.
我每天認真工作,但仍沒辦法在事業上取得成功。

Most people can get ahead in life as long as they try really hard.
只要怒力嘗試,多數人都能出人頭地。


*同場加映:
柯林頓演講 美國國情咨文 State of the Union Address: Speech by President Clinton (1995)


4pronounced3:05
pronounce 作為動詞時,意思是「發音」,如 pronounce this word(發這個字的音),或「宣判」,如 pronounce life sentence(宣判死刑),但 pronounced 當作形容詞用時,則是「明顯的,顯著的」。
My mother used to have a pronounced Italian accent, but after living in the States for 30 years, it has significantly weakened.
我母親的義大利口音曾經非常重,但在她居住在美國三十年之後淡化了許多。

The old beggar walks with a pronounced limp.
年老的乞丐明顯地一瘸一拐地走。


5usher3:12
Usher 就是 R&B 天王亞瑟小子沒錯,但作為動詞時,usher 是「迎接」、「創始」。
Railroads ushered in an era of cheap mass travel.
鐵路開啟了廉價大眾運輸的時代。

IKEA ushers in a new era of corporate sustainability by serving vegan meatballs.
IKEA 推出純素肉丸,開創企業永續的新時代。


*同場加映:
【TED】曼理希: 什麼讓我們生病?看看上游吧!Rishi Manchanda: What makes us get sick? Look upstream.


有人曾說過現代社會是由三位猶太人所建立:物理學界的愛因斯坦、心理學界的佛洛伊德、以及思想界的馬克思。馬克思預言共產主義將於革命後誕生,無階級、無私人產權的社會將以各盡所能、各取所需的模式運作。你對於這部影片有什麼看法呢?

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