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The international banking system is an enigma.
There are more than 30,000 different banks worldwide
and they hold unbelievable amounts of assets.
The top 10 banks alone account for roughly 25 trillion U.S. dollars.
Today, Banking can seem very complex,
but originally, the idea was to make life simpler.
11th Century Italy was the center of European Trading.
Merchants from all over the continent met to trade their goods.
But there was one problem,
too many currencies in circulation.
In Pisa, merchants had to deal with seven different types of coins
and had to exchange their money constantly.
This exchange business, which commonly took place outdoors on benches,
is where we get the word bank from.
From the word “banco,” Italian for bench.
The dangers of traveling, counterfeit money, and the difficulty of getting a loan
got people thinking.
It was time for a new business model.
Pawn brokers started to give credit to businessmen,
while genoese merchants developed cashless payments.
Networks of banks spread all over Europe handing out credit,
even to the church or european kings.
What about today?
In a nutshell, banks are in the risk management business.
This is a simplified version of the way it works.
People keep their money in banks and receive a small amount of interest.
The bank takes this money and lends it out at much higher interest rates.
It's a calculated risk, because some of the lenders will default on their credit.
This process is essential for our economic system
because it provides resources for people to buy things like houses
or for industry to expand their business and grow.
So banks take funds that are unused by savers
and turn them into funds society can use to do stuff.
Other sources of income for banks include
accepting saving deposits, the credit card business, buying and selling currencies,
custodian business, and cash management services.
The main problem with banks nowadays is
that a lot of them have abandoned their traditional role as
providers of long term financial products in favour of short term gains
that carry much higher risks.
During the financial boom, most major banks adopted financial
constructs that were barely comprehensible and
did their own trading in a bid to make fast money
and earn their executives and traders millions in bonuses.
This was nothing short of gambling
and damaged whole economies and societies.
Like back in 2008,
when banks like Lehman Brothers gave credit to basically anyone who
wanted to buy a house,
and thereby put the bank in an extremely dangerous risk position.
This led to the collapse of the housing market in the US and parts of Europe,
causing stock prices to plummet,
which eventually led to a global banking crisis
and one of the largest financial crises in history.
Hundreds of billions of dollars just evaporated.
Millions of people lost their jobs and lots of money.
Most of the world's major banks had to pay billions in fines
and bankers became some of the least trusted professionals.
The US government and the European Union had to put together huge
bailout packages to purchase bad assets and stop the banks from going bankrupt.
New regulations were put into force to govern the banking business :
Compulsory bank emergency funds were enforced
to absorb shocks in the event of another financial crisis.
But, other pieces of tough new legislation were successfully blocked by the banking lobby.
Today, other models of providing financing are gaining ground fast,
like new investment banks, that charge a yearly fee and do not get commissions on sales,
thus providing the motivation to act in the best interests of their clients.
Or credit unions : Cooperative initiatives that were established in the 19th century
to circumvent credit sharks.
In a nutshell, they provide the same financial services as banks,
but focus on shared value, rather than profit maximization.
The self proclaimed goal is to help members create opportunities like starting small businesses,
expanding farms, or building family homes whilist investing back in to communities.
They are controlled by their members, who also elect the board of directors democratically.
Worldwide, credit union systems vary significantly,
ranging from a handful of members
to organizations worth several billion US dollars
and hundreds of thousands of members.
The focus on benefits for their members
impacts the risk credit unions are willing to take.
Which explains why Credit Unions, although also hurting,
survived the last financial crisis way better than traditional banks.
Not to forget the explosion of crowdfunding in recent years.
Aside from making awesome video games possible,
platforms arose that enabled people to get loans from large groups of small investors,
circumventing the bank as a middle man.
But it also works for industry.
Lots of new technology companies started out on Kickstarter or Indiegogo.
The funding individual gets the satisfaction of being part of a bigger thing,
and can invest in ideas they believe in.
Whilst spreading the risk so widely
that if the project fails, the damage is limited.
And last but not least: Micro Credits.
Lots of very small loans,
mostly handed out in developing countries that help people escape poverty.
People who were previously unable to get access to the money they needed to start a business
because they weren't deemed worth the time.
Nowadays, the granting of Micro Credits has evolved into a multi‐billion dollar business.
So, banking might not be up your street,
But the bank's role of providing funds to people and businesses
is crucial for our society, and has to be done.
Who will do it and how it will be done in the future
is up for us to decide, though.
Subtitles by the Amara.org community
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【金融知識】銀行業務概論--金錢和信用 (Banking Explained – Money and Credit)

3024 分類 收藏
mommy 發佈於 2015 年 8 月 25 日    Yvonne ,Lin 翻譯    Kiara 審核
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