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  • I'm going to give you four specific examples,

    我要告訴你們四個具體的例子,我將會留到最後說明。

  • I'm going to cover at the end

    一家名為Silk的公司,如何用一件事創造了三倍的銷售業績。

  • about how a company called Silk tripled their sales,

    藝術家傑夫‧昆斯,如何從無名小卒

  • how an artist named Jeff Koons went from being a nobody

    變成賺進大把鈔票和具有影響力的人,

  • to making a whole bunch of money and having a lot of impact,

    還有法蘭克‧蓋瑞,如何重新定義建築師,

  • to how Frank Gehry redefined what it meant to be an architect.

    以及過去幾年,我身為行銷專員的最大敗筆之一,

  • And one of my biggest failures as a marketer in the last few years,

    就是創立一個唱片品牌,並出了一張大碟叫「醬汁」。

  • a record label I started that had a CD called "Sauce."

    但在那之前我想跟你談談切片麵包及歐土‧羅威德的故事。

  • Before I can do that I've got to tell you about sliced bread,

    在1910年代切片麵包被發明之前,

  • and a guy named Otto Rohwedder.

    我很好奇當時人們說了什麼?

  • Now, before sliced bread was invented in the 1910s

    像是繼電報之後最偉大的發明之類的。

  • I wonder what they said?

    有個人叫歐土‧羅威德發明了切片麵包,

  • Like the greatest invention since the telegraph or something.

    他像許多發明家一樣,專注於專利和製造的部分。

  • But this guy named Otto Rohwedder invented sliced bread,

    切片麵包這項發明有趣的一點是,

  • and he focused, like most inventors did, on the patent part and the making part.

    在最初發明的15年,

  • And the thing about the invention of sliced bread is this --

    沒有人要買它,也沒有人知道,完全是個徹底的失敗。

  • that for the first 15 years after sliced bread was available

    直到「奇異麵包」出現,

  • no one bought it; no one knew about it;

    找出如何散播切片麵包這個想法,才開始有人要買。

  • it was a complete and total failure.

    切片麵包的成功,

  • And the reason is that until Wonder came along

    就像所有我們在這座談會上談論的成功例子,

  • and figured out how to spread the idea of sliced bread,

    並非總是關於專利或工廠的規模,

  • no one wanted it.

    而是關於你是否能夠散播你的想法。

  • That the success of sliced bread,

    我認為要獲得你所想要的東西,

  • like the success of almost everything we've talked about at this conference,

    或是實踐你想要創造的改變,

  • is not always about what the patent is like, or what the factory is like --

    就是你必須找出辦法散播你的想法。

  • it's about can you get your idea to spread, or not.

    對我而言無論你是在經營咖啡店,

  • And I think that the way you're going to get what you want,

    或你是學者,或是商人,或是你駕駛熱氣球,

  • or cause the change that you want to change, to happen,

    我認為這個觀念對每個人都有用,不管我們從事什麼工作。

  • is to figure out a way to get your ideas to spread.

    我們所處的是一個觀念傳播的世紀,

  • And it doesn't matter to me whether you're running a coffee shop

    有能力傳播觀念的人,無論傳播的是什麼觀念,都會是贏家。

  • or you're an intellectual, or you're in business,

    我常拿商業來當例子,

  • or you're flying hot air balloons.

    因為他們有最棒的照片讓你做簡報 ,

  • I think that all this stuff applies to everybody regardless of what we do.

    也是保留記錄最簡單的方法。

  • That what we are living in is a century of idea diffusion.

    但是請包容我使用這些例子 ,

  • That people who can spread ideas, regardless of what those ideas are, win.

    因為這些都可能是你想花時間做的事。

  • When I talk about it I usually pick business,

    傳播觀念的核心就是電視及類似的媒體,

  • because they make the best pictures that you can put in your presentation,

    電視和大眾媒體,以特定的方式,使傳播觀念變得容易。

  • and because it's the easiest sort of way to keep score.

    我稱它為「電視工業綜合體」。

  • But I want you to forgive me when I use these examples

    運作的方式是你購買廣告時段,

  • because I'm talking about anything that you decide to spend your time to do.

    打擾一些人,讓你散佈訊息,

  • At the heart of spreading ideas is TV and stuff like TV.

    利用這訊息的傳播賣出更多商品。

  • TV and mass media made it really easy to spread ideas in a certain way.

    你再利用銷售的盈利,來購買更多的廣告。

  • I call it the "TV-industrial complex."

    這模式一直不斷的循環重複,

  • The way the TV-industrial complex works, is you buy some ads,

    跟多年前軍隊和工業綜合體的運作方式一樣,

  • interrupt some people, that gets you distribution.

    那個模式也就是我們昨天聽到的。

  • You use the distribution you get to sell more products.

    如果我們能登上Google的首頁,

  • You take the profit from that to buy more ads.

    如果我們懂得如何在那上面行銷,

  • And it goes around and around and around,

    如果我們懂得如何抓住人的注意力,

  • the same way that the military-industrial complex worked a long time ago.

    然後告訴他們我們想做的事。

  • That model of, and we heard it yesterday --

    如果我們做得到每個人就會注意到,我們就贏了。

  • if we could only get onto the homepage of Google,

    電視工業綜合體在我和你的童年散播資訊,

  • if we could only figure out how to get promoted there,

    這些商品會成功,是因為

  • or grab that person by the throat,

    有人知道了如何,以驚喜的方式觸動人心,

  • and tell them about what we want to do.

    或是以人們不希望的方式,

  • If we did that then everyone would pay attention, and we would win.

    持續廣告直到人們買下它為止。

  • Well, this TV-industrial complex informed my entire childhood and probably yours.

    接下來發生的是,他們取消了電視工業綜合體,

  • I mean, all of these products succeeded because someone figured out

    就在過去幾年,

  • how to touch people in a way they weren't expecting,

    任何做行銷的專員都發現到,

  • in a way they didn't necessarily want, with an ad,

    電視工業綜合體已經失去以往的效果了。

  • over and over again until they bought it.

    我很抱歉這張照片很模糊,因為當時我感冒很嚴重。

  • And the thing that's happened is, they canceled the TV-industrial complex.

    但是在中央的那個藍色產品,就是我要說的範例。

  • That just over the last few years,

    我到熟食店去我生病了,我需要買藥。

  • what anybody who markets anything has discovered

    那藍色產品的品牌經理花了一億美金,

  • is that it's not working the way that it used to.

    嘗試在一年內讓我停下來看。

  • This picture is really fuzzy, I apologize; I had a bad cold when I took it.

    用一億元打電視和雜誌廣告,嘗試用垃圾、郵件、

  • (Laughter)

    優待券、空架子和包裝來吸引我,

  • But the product in the blue box in the center is my poster child.

    好讓我可以漠視所有的訊息。

  • I go to the deli; I'm sick; I need to buy some medicine.

    我漠視所有訊息,因為我沒有止痛的需要。

  • The brand manager for that blue product spent 100 million dollars

    我買黃色包裝的東西,因為習慣了。

  • trying to interrupt me in one year.

    而我不會花任何時間來解決她的問題,

  • 100 million dollars interrupting me with TV commercials

    因為我沒興趣。

  • and magazine ads and Spam

    這是一本叫「水合物」的雜誌,有180頁關於水的報導。

  • and coupons and shelving allowances and spiff --

    (笑聲)

  • all so I could ignore every single message.

    關於水的報導,關於水的廣告,

  • And I ignored every message

    想像一下40年前的世界,

  • because I don't have a pain reliever problem.

    當時只有星期六晚郵時代雜誌、商業週刊,

  • I buy the stuff in the yellow box because I always have.

    現在則有關於水的雜誌。

  • And I'm not going to invest a minute of my time to solve her problem,

    日本可口可樂的新產品:水沙拉,

  • because I don't care.

    (笑聲)

  • Here's a magazine called "Hydrate." It's 180 pages about water.

    每三個星期,日本可口可樂就推出一個新產品。

  • (Laughter)

    因為他們根本不知道,什麼產品會賣,什麼不會。

  • Articles about water, ads about water.

    我自己都無法寫得更好,這是四天前推出的。

  • Imagine what the world was like 40 years ago,

    我將重要的部分圈起來,好讓你們看清楚。

  • with just the Saturday Evening Post and Time and Newsweek.

    出現了。阿比斯將花八千五百萬推銷一個烤箱手套,

  • Now there are magazines about water.

    用湯姆‧阿諾特的聲音做廣告,

  • New product from Coke Japan: water salad.

    期待人們會到阿比斯速食店,買烤牛肉三明治。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Coke Japan comes out with a new product every three weeks,

    我嘗試想像電視上的動畫廣告

  • because they have no idea what's going to work and what's not.

    會如何利用湯姆‧阿諾特的聲音,使你想跳進車子,

  • I couldn't have written this better myself.

    開進城裡買一個烤牛肉三明治。

  • It came out four days ago --

    (笑聲)

  • I circled the important parts so you can see them here.

    這是哥白尼,而他說對了。

  • They've come out...

    當他跟一個想聽別人意見的人說話時,他說:

  • Arby's is going to spend 85 million dollars promoting an oven mitt

    他說:世界繞著我旋轉,我、我、我、我、我。我最愛的人:我。

  • with the voice of Tom Arnold,

    我不想收到別人寄的電子郵件,我想要收到「我的郵件」。

  • hoping that that will get people to go to Arby's and buy a roast beef sandwich.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    消費者,我不只是指在Safeway超市買東西的人,

  • Now, I had tried to imagine what could possibly be in an animated TV commercial

    我指的是在國防部工作且想買東西的人,

  • featuring Tom Arnold, that would get you to get in your car,

    或是在紐約客雜誌幫你印文章的那些人。

  • drive across town and buy a roast beef sandwich.

    消費者根本不管你死活,他們不在乎你。

  • (Laughter)

    其中一個原因是,現在他們比以前擁有更多的選擇,

  • Now, this is Copernicus, and he was right,

    卻擁有更少的時間。

  • when he was talking to anyone who needs to hear your idea.

    在這個擁有太多選擇,

  • "The world revolves around me."

    卻太少時間的世界,最明顯的事情就是忽視。

  • Me, me, me, me. My favorite person -- me.

    我打個比喻,你正在路上開車 ,

  • I don't want to get email from anybody; I want to get "memail."

    看到一隻牛,然後又繼續向前開,

  • (Laughter)

    因為你已經看過牛了。

  • So consumers, and I don't just mean people who buy stuff at the Safeway;

    牛是透明的、無聊的。

  • I mean people at the Defense Department who might buy something,

    誰會停到路邊然後指著牛說:看!有一隻牛耶!沒人會這樣做。

  • or people at, you know, the New Yorker who might print your article.

    (笑聲)

  • Consumers don't care about you at all; they just don't care.

    但是,如果那隻牛是紫色的--這是一個很棒的特效,對吧?

  • Part of the reason is -- they've got way more choices than they used to,

    如果你想看我可以再做一次。

  • and way less time.

    如果牛是紫色的,你會注意一下。

  • And in a world where we have too many choices and too little time,

    因為如果牛全部都是紫色的,你就又會感到無聊了。

  • the obvious thing to do is just ignore stuff.

    被決定成為話題的、

  • And my parable here is you're driving down the road

    被完成的、被改變的、

  • and you see a cow, and you keep driving because you've seen cows before.

    被購買的、被建蓋的、

  • Cows are invisible. Cows are boring.

    其關鍵就是:那是否與眾不同?

  • Who's going to stop and pull over and say -- "Oh, look, a cow."

    與眾不同是一個酷字,我們常覺得與眾不同只是代表很棒,

  • Nobody.

    但也代表值得被談論,

  • (Laughter)

    而這就是觀念傳播未來的主要方向。

  • But if the cow was purple -- isn't that a great special effect?

    在美國最熱門的兩部車就是,一輛55000美金的巨型車,

  • I could do that again if you want.

    大到可以載一輛MINI奧斯汀在後車廂內。

  • If the cow was purple, you'd notice it for a while.

    人們付全價買這兩部車,而這兩部車唯一的共同點,

  • I mean, if all cows were purple you'd get bored with those, too.

    就是它們沒有共同點。

  • The thing that's going to decide what gets talked about,

    (笑聲)

  • what gets done, what gets changed,

    每個星期,美國暢銷第一的DVD都在改變,

  • what gets purchased, what gets built,

    永遠不是「教父」或「大國民」。

  • is: "Is it remarkable?"

    永遠都是一些二級演員演的三級電影。

  • And "remarkable" is a really cool word,

    它成為第一的原因是,那週剛好是它上架的時間。

  • because we think it just means "neat,"

    因為它是新的、沒人看過的。

  • but it also means "worth making a remark about."

    因為人們看到會說:啊!我不知道有這個,

  • And that is the essence of where idea diffusion is going.

    然後就注意到了。

  • That two of the hottest cars in the United States

    過去20年來最成功的兩個零售商--

  • is a 55,000-dollar giant car,

    其中一個用藍盒子賣,超貴的東西;

  • big enough to hold a Mini in its trunk.

    另一個則是賣跟製作成本一樣便宜的東西。

  • People are paying full price for both,

    它們唯一的共同點就是它們是不同的,

  • and the only thing they have in common

    我們做的是流行商業,無論我們以什麼謀生,

  • is that they don't have anything in common.

    我們都在流行產業裡。

  • (Laughter)

    而在流行產業裡的人,

  • Every week, the number one best-selling DVD in America changes.

    知道在流行產業裡的狀況,因為習慣了。

  • It's never "The Godfather," it's never "Citizen Kane,"

    剩下的我們則必須發掘,

  • it's always some third-rate movie with some second-rate star.

    如何跟他們想的一樣,了解到這不是用全面廣告去打擾消費者,

  • But the reason it's number one is because that's the week it came out.

    或強調要跟人面對面。

  • Because it's new, because it's fresh.

    這是一個全然不同的運作方式,來決定哪些觀念,傳播得出去,

  • People saw it and said "I didn't know that was there"

    而哪些不行。

  • and they noticed it.

    這張椅子,銷售額高達十億的Aeron椅子,

  • Two of the big success stories of the last 20 years in retail --

    靠的就是重新創造販賣椅子所代表的意義。

  • one sells things that are super-expensive in a blue box,

    他們把採購部門所購買的椅子,

  • and one sells things that are as cheap as they can make them.

    變成地位象徵,代表你在職場的位置。

  • The only thing they have in common is that they're different.

    這位是萊尼爾‧普蘭,世界上最有名的麵包師--

  • We're now in the fashion business, no matter what we do for a living,

    他在兩個半月前去逝了,

  • we're in the fashion business.

    他既是我的英雄,也是我的好友。

  • And people in the fashion business

    他住在巴黎,去年他賣法國麵包的營業額高達一千萬元,

  • know what it's like to be in the fashion business -- they're used to it.

    他所擁有的每家麵包店所烤出的每一條麵包,都是一次由一位麵包師傅,用木柴烤爐烤出來的。

  • The rest of us have to figure out how to think that way.

    萊尼爾剛創業的時候,法國人嘲笑他,

  • How to understand

    法國人不想買他做的麵包,因為看起來不像法國麵包。

  • that it's not about interrupting people with big full-page ads,

    這並不是人們所期待的。

  • or insisting on meetings with people.

    但是,那麵包很棒且與眾不同,慢慢地一個傳一個地傳播了出去。

  • But it's a totally different sort of process

    直到最後,那麵包成了巴黎三星餐廳的指定麵包 。

  • that determines which ideas spread, and which ones don't.

    現在倫敦也有分店,靠著聯邦快遞運送到全球。

  • They sold a billion dollars' worth of Aeron chairs

    行銷專員過去做的是,為普通人製造普通的產品。

  • by reinventing what it meant to sell a chair.

    這就是所謂的大眾行銷。

  • They turned a chair from something the purchasing department bought,

    磨平兩端,取中間的那段,

  • to something that was a status symbol about where you sat at work.

    就是大市場。

  • This guy, Lionel Poilâne, the most famous baker in the world --

    他們會忽略那些怪客

  • he died two and a half months ago,

    及老天保佑、那些落後者,

  • and he was a hero of mine and a dear friend.

    全都只鎖定中間那塊大餅。

  • He lived in Paris.

    但是在電視工業綜合體瓦解的世界裡,

  • Last year, he sold 10 million dollars' worth of French bread.

    我不認為這是我們想要繼續使用的策略。

  • Every loaf baked in a bakery he owned,

    我認為我們想要用的策略是,不再鎖定那些人做行銷,

  • by one baker at a time, in a wood-fired oven.

    因為他們太會忽略你了 。

  • And when Lionel started his bakery, the French pooh-pooh-ed it.

    但是針對這些人做行銷,因為他們關心。

  • They didn't want to buy his bread.

    這些是對某些東西著迷的人,

  • It didn't look like "French bread."

    當你跟他們說話時他們會聽,

  • It wasn't what they expected.

    因為他們喜歡聽,這些跟他們有關。

  • It was neat; it was remarkable;

    如果你幸運的話,他們會告訴

  • and slowly, it spread from one person to another person

    在其餘曲線上的朋友,然後傳播出去。

  • until finally, it became the official bread of three-star restaurants in Paris.

    傳播到整個曲線上。

  • Now he's in London, and he ships by FedEx all around the world.

    這被稱為「御宅」,一個很棒的日本字。

  • What marketers used to do is make average products for average people.

    形容有人對某種東西的渴望,

  • That's what mass marketing is.

    讓人著迷到開車橫跨東京去嘗試新的拉麵。

  • Smooth out the edges; go for the center; that's the big market.

    這就是御宅族會做的事情,他們沉迷於自己有興趣的東西。

  • They would ignore the geeks, and God forbid, the laggards.

    製造一樣產品,行銷一個觀念,

  • It was all about going for the center.

    解決你想解決的問題。

  • But in a world where the TV-industrial complex is broken,

    如果當中沒有一個御宅族的顧客,

  • I don't think that's a strategy we want to use any more.

    那將不可能成功。

  • I think the strategy we want to use is to not market to these people

    你必須找到一個族群,真心

  • because they're really good at ignoring you.

    且迫切想知道你想說的事情,

  • But market to these people because they care.

    跟那些人說,並讓他們能夠很容易地傳達給朋友。

  • These are the people who are obsessed with something.

    現在有辣椒醬的御宅族,卻沒有芥末醬的御宅族。

  • And when you talk to them, they'll listen,

    這就是為什麼有許許多多不同的辣椒醬,

  • because they like listening -- it's about them.

    卻沒有很多種的芥末醬。

  • And if you're lucky, they'll tell their friends on the rest of the curve,

    並不是因為很難做出有趣的芥末醬

  • and it'll spread.

    --你可以做出有趣的芥末醬--

  • It'll spread to the entire curve.

    而是因為沒有人著迷所以人們不會去做,

  • They have something I call "otaku" -- it's a great Japanese word.

    也因此沒人會告訴他們的朋友。

  • It describes the desire of someone who's obsessed to say,

    Krispy Kreme甜甜圈完全搞懂了這回事,

  • drive across Tokyo to try a new ramen noodle place,

    Krispy Kreme有一個策略就是,

  • because that's what they do: they get obsessed with it.

    它進入一個城市跟御宅族對話,

  • To make a product, to market an idea,

    接著散播到整個城市,

  • to come up with any problem you want to solve

    甚至是對街的人。

  • that doesn't have a constituency with an otaku,

    這個溜溜球價值112元美金,但是需要睡12分鐘,

  • is almost impossible.

    並不是每個人都想買,可是廠商不在乎。

  • Instead, you have to find a group that really, desperately cares

    廠商想跟有興趣的人溝通,也許這會散播開來。

  • about what it is you have to say.

    這些人製造全世界最大聲的汽車音響。

  • Talk to them and make it easy for them to tell their friends.

    (笑聲)

  • There's a hot sauce otaku, but there's no mustard otaku.

    簡直跟747噴射機一樣大聲,你無法搶東西,因為車子有防彈玻璃

  • That's why there's lots and lots of kinds of hot sauces,

    因為車子有防彈玻璃,

  • and not so many kinds of mustard.

    否則那音量就會炸碎擋風板。

  • Not because it's hard to make interesting mustard --

    但事實就是,當有人

  • you could make interesting mustard --

    想在車裡放兩個音箱。

  • but people don't, because no one's obsessed with it,

    如果他們剛好是御宅族,

  • and thus no one tells their friends.

    或是從御宅族身上得到消息,

  • Krispy Kreme has figured this whole thing out.

    他們就會自然選擇這些,

  • It has a strategy, and what they do is,

    這很簡單--你就是把東西賣給想聽的人,

  • they enter a city, they talk to the people, with the otaku,

    而也許那些人就會告訴其他朋友。

  • and then they spread through the city

    所以當史蒂夫‧賈伯斯用Keynote對著五萬人演講時,

  • to the people who've just crossed the street.

    那些人從130個國家飛來,

  • This yoyo right here cost 112 dollars, but it sleeps for 12 minutes.

    觀賞他兩個小時的廣告--

  • Not everybody wants it but they don't care.

    那是唯一讓蘋果繼續經營下去的原因--

  • They want to talk to the people who do, and maybe it'll spread.

    那五萬人的興趣多得足以

  • These guys make the loudest car stereo in the world.

    有耐心看完兩個小時的廣告,並且告訴他們的朋友。

  • (Laughter)

    珍珠果醬在過去兩年發行了96張大碟,

  • It's as loud as a 747 jet.

    每張都賺錢,怎麼辦到的?

  • You can't get in, the car's got bulletproof glass,

    他們只在官網上賣。

  • because it'll blow out the windshield otherwise.

    在那些消費者當中有御宅族,

  • But the fact remains

    然後就告訴其他朋友,接著就傳播得更多更遠了。

  • that when someone wants to put a couple of speakers in their car,

    這個醫院嬰兒床要價一萬美金,是標準床的十倍價格。

  • if they've got the otaku or they've heard from someone who does,

    可是醫院搶買的速度比其他款式都快。

  • they go ahead and they pick this.

    「硬糖指甲油」並非人人喜愛,

  • It's really simple -- you sell to the people who are listening,

    可是對喜歡的人來說,他們瘋狂地討論著。

  • and just maybe, those people tell their friends.

    這個油漆桶,保住了「荷蘭男孩」油漆公司。

  • So when Steve Jobs talks to 50,000 people at his keynote,

    讓他們大賺一筆,比起一般油漆桶高出35%的成本。

  • who are all tuned in from 130 countries

    但是荷蘭男孩製造了一個,大家會討論的油漆桶,因為這油漆桶與眾不同。

  • watching his two-hour commercial --

    他們並不是只是貼了一張新的廣告,

  • that's the only thing keeping his company in business --

    而是改變了製造油漆產品的意義。

  • it's that those 50,000 people care desperately enough

    「我辣不辣」網站每天有25萬人訪客,