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It's proven to be one of the most divisive issues in modern science.
in one stroke, thousands of textbooks were out of date.
In my role as Public Astronomer here in Greenwich, I'm always being asked about Pluto.
Why was it reclassified?
And if it's not a planet anymore, then what on earth can it be?
Right from its discovery, Pluto seemed different from the other planets.
Here at the Royal Observatory, we have records going back for hundreds of years,
and somewhere, we should have a record of the discovery of Pluto.
1917, that's too early... 1987, much too late.
Clyde Tombaugh had been set the specific task of finding a planet,
so when he saw his moving point of light in 1930, what else was he going to think he'd found?
Here we have the President, Council, and Fellows at the Royal Astronomical Society sending the Lowell Observatory
their heartiest congratulations on the great discovery of the Trans-Neptunian planet.
But trouble was brewing from the word go.
Within weeks, Pluto's status was being called into question.
Its eccentric orbit and small mass set it apart from the other planets.
More importantly, some scientists argued that Pluto might not be alone.
Over the decades, our ideas about the formation of the Solar System developed.
It was suggested that the edge of the dust and gas cloud from which our planets formed
would have been too spread out to condense into planets.
Instead, they could be something very different.
Scientists reasoned that there could be hundreds of thousands of icy objects on the edge of the solar system
that had failed to be incorporated into one of the major planets.
They called this region the Kuiper Belt,
and Pluto's status as a planet started to be called into question.
On the fifth of January, 2005, came the fatal blow.
Scientists in California discovered another small moving point of light.
This was Eris, a world they believed was bigger than Pluto.
This was huge news.
The likelihood was, there could be many more large objects out there.
Scientists were faced with a choice: either open the doors to potentially hundreds of new planets,
or Pluto was for the chop.
In 2006, the International Astronomical Union put it to the vote,
and it wasn't good news for Pluto.
The IAU decided that a planet had to be an object in orbit around the sun,
that was massive enough for gravity to squeeze it into a spherical shape,
but also it had to be gravitationally dominant,
and that meant it must have cleared its surrounding region of other similarly sized objects,
but with everything else out there in the Kuiper Belt, this was Pluto's downfall.
So where did this leave Pluto?
The IAU decided to classify it as a dwarf planet.
To many, this would seem as a demotion, but I'm not so sure.
As a planet, it was the last gasp on the edge of the Solar System,
but now it's an exciting example of a brand new class of objects.
Whatever we learn from it will change the way we think about our corner of the galaxy.
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冥王星為什麼不是行星?(Why is Pluto not a planet? - Sky at Night: Pluto Revealed Preview - BBC Four)

19909 分類 收藏
Joyce Lee 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 10 日   鍾昀倫 翻譯   James 審核

影片簡介

小時候的自然課中一定有提過九大行星,而冥王星也是其中之一。然而在 2006 年,國際天文聯合會卻將冥王星從九大行星名單中踢除,這到底是為什麼呢?那我們一起來看看是什麼原因改寫九大行星的名單!

1in one stroke0:10
in one stroke 這個片語是指某個行動將事情完全改變,可翻譯為「一下子」或「一眨眼間」。而 in one stroke 也可以寫成 in one blow,和它具有相同意思的有 at one strokeat one blow
The financial crisis in 2008 resulted in the collapse of economy and thus thousands lost their jobs in one stroke.
2008 年的金融危機造成經濟崩盤,也因此使數千人一下子失去他們的工作。

The earthquake destroyed their houses and took away their family's life all in one blow.
地震在一瞬間摧毀了他們家並奪去他們家人的生命。


*同場加映:
台球規則解釋! (The Rules of Snooker - EXPLAINED!)


2on earth0:25
這個片語有「到底」或「究竟」的意思,它經常被使用在疑問句中,通常用來加強句子的語氣。但要注意的是,當疑問詞為 How much、How many 或 What color 等類型時,就不能使用 on earth 來加強語氣,而是要使用 exactly。
What on earth are you talking about?
你到底在講什麼?

Who on earth will believe this story?
到底誰會相信這個故事?


*同場加映:
Rory Sutherland: 看法決定一切 (Perspective is everything)


3brew1:16
這個動詞有「釀酒」或「醞釀」的意思,而在影片中,它是指醞釀即將發生的意思。當意思是「醞釀」時,通常表示不好的情況將要發生。
The war between North Korea and the United States is brewing.
北韓和美國間的戰爭正在醞釀中。

A storm is brewing in North America.
北美正醞釀著一場暴風雨。


4call into question1:22
call someone or something into question 這個片語的意思是「引起對某人或某事的質疑」或「使懷疑某人或某事」的意思。
The scandal of the new presidential candidate has called his presidential qualification into question.
新總統候選人的醜聞使他的總統資格一直遭到質疑。

Her honesty has been called into question.
她的誠信一直受到質疑。


同樣的意思也可以用以下的片語表示:

bring into question
The authenticity of the data brings the whole report into question.
這份數據的真實性使整份報告受到質疑。


cast doubt on
The new evidence they found cast doubt on the conviction.
他們找到的新證據使判決受到質疑。


*同場加映:
哲學速成班:知識的意義 (The Meaning of Knowledge: Crash Course Philosophy #7)


5set apart1:26
這個片語有兩種呈現形式,不同形式和介系詞表示不同意思。
set something/someone apart from someone/something
當介系詞是 from 時,這個片語的意思是使某人或某事相較與其他人或其他事來得更為突出,更為與眾不同。
The unique product will set your company apart from your competitors.
獨一無二的產品會讓你的公司比其他競爭者更突出。


類似的意思也可以用 mark something/someone out as something/someone,但與前述不同的是 set apart from 後面是加被比較的對象,但 mark out as 後面是加要成為的對象或要達成的目標。
Her composition has marked her out as one of the greatest composer of all time.
她的作曲使她被視為有史以來最傑出的作曲家。


set something apart for something 將...留下將來使用
Once you have your own children, you must spend your money wisely and set some apart for the future.
一旦你有了自己的小孩,你必須要精打細算並準備一些錢以備將來之用。


*同場加映:
每天都要好好睡覺的另一個原因 Jeff Iliff: One more reason to get a good night's sleep


6be for the chop2:44
這個片語有兩種意思。當主詞是人時,它指這個人將失去工作 ; 而當主詞是物時,它指的是這件事情無法繼續下去或這個東西無法保留。
Several people are for the chop due to the company's downsizing.
因為人事裁減的關係,好幾個人將失去工作。

The increasingly tight budget means that several programmes are now for the chop.
逐漸緊縮的預算代表有好幾個計劃無法繼續。


看完影片後,你暸解冥王星被除名的原因了嗎?這是因為它不符合對行星所做的新定義,也就是必須要環繞恆星運行、質量足以使天體本身收縮成球狀且足以清空軌道周圍,使該範圍內沒有其他大小相當的天體。九大行星變成八大行星已好幾年,但 NASA 最近提出關於真正的第九大行星的證據。難道說九大行星的封號又要重現江湖了嗎?讓我們拭目以待吧!

文/ Sunny Yang

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