初級 87081 分類 收藏
【1. Priming】 If I talk to you about food and then I show you this
you'll put the letter "U" in there. If I talk to you about cleanliness first
and then I show you this, you'll put the letter "A" in there.
This is what is called priming. By simply priming people, you can significantly affect their decisions.
There was a study where a wine store played French music on some days and German music on others,
and the customers of course would never think that this would affect anything,
but they tended to buy more French wines on the days when French music was played, and
more German wines on the days when German music was played.
This is also one of the reasons why when you walk into a store that promotes health and
freshness like Whole Foods, you'll probably be greeted with fresh flowers and fruit.
It primes you for freshness. The first thing you see will never be canned tuna,
even though you can definitely buy plenty of canned stuff in there.
【2. The halo effect】If we really like someone, we tend to really
like everything they do and say. If they say something average, we might think that it's
the best thing we've ever heard, and if they say something stupid, we tend to just
go along with it anyway. And you probably have someone you really admire and if they
do something stupid you'll say, "Oh whatever… Everyone makes mistakes…" But then if
someone you didn't like did the exact same thing, you'd be outraged.
And the attractiveness of a person along with other irrelevant factors plays a huge role
in how much we like what they say and do. If we're presented with two women who committed
the same crime, we're much more likely to give a lighter punishment to the more attractive
one. And of course, that doesn't make sense! They committed the same crime! But that is
the halo effect. So next time an attractive person or someone you've put on a pedestal
is trying to give you advice, ask yourself, "Is this advice valuable because it's
it's actually valuable, or am I blinded by how he looks, or how big his house is, or how much I like him?
【3. The Hindsight Bias】You probably know people who constantly feel
the need to say, "Well, I knew that was going to happen…", "I knew that stock
was going to fall…", "I knew that we were going to lose that war…", "I knew
that stock was going to rise…". This is called the hindsight bias. We tend to be experts
at events after they have already occurred. It's really weird how you know exactly which
stock is going to rise and which stock is going to fall because you're completely broke
If you actually knew that information, you'd be a really rich person by now.
And the hindsight bias can go from just annoying to simply dangerous when we start to blame
other people for not being able to see something so obvious. You blame the government for
making a certain decision and think, "How could they not see that?' Your girlfriend hits
a pothole and you get a flat tire and you get all pissed off, "How did she not see
that pothole? "Well… Because if you were in government, you might have thought that
the decision was actually a good decision at the time it was made, and if you were driving
and looking in the mirror so you could make a turn, you might have not seen the pothole yourself.
So don't be that annoying person
who feels the need to tell everyone how you knew exactly who was going to win the finals and how the
stock was obviously going to rise. And definitely don't blame others for something that seems
so obvious just because it's already happened. Of course it's obvious now, but it wasn't
obvious before it actually happened.
So the 3 big ideas are… 1. Priming. Realize the power of even the
simplest suggestions and what that does to people's behavior.
2. The halo effect. Stop thinking everything someone says is pure gold just because you
really like them. Chances are everything they say isn't that flawless.
3. And the hindsight bias. Realize that anyone can be an expert after an event has already occurred.




87081 分類 收藏
羅紹桀 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 25 日    沒事兒 翻譯    James 審核



outrage 文中為動詞(被動語態),表示「被激怒」
The public were outraged by the miscarriage of justice.

可以將 outrage 想成 out + rage,比憤怒還多的,就是盛怒啦!

同樣以 out 為字首的詞還有:
outnumber 在數量上勝出
There are more USDP members in urban wards and the NLD outnumber the USDP in rural areas.

outgrow 長得比...(大、高)
By the time he graduated from junior high school, he had outgrown all of his family members.

outsmart / outwit 以智取勝
The general outsmarted his rival with brilliant tactics.

Claire’s voice trembled with outrage.

outrage 的形容詞是 outrageous,這個憤怒的程度已經是「令人吃驚的」、「無法無天」、甚至是「無恥的」!
ISIS will be punished for their outrageous behavior.

同義詞:anger, fury, indignation

【TED】Bryan Stevenson:我們需要談談不正義 We need to talk about an injustice

attractiveness 為名詞,代表「吸引力」。
This promotion could enhance the attractiveness of this new brand.

同義詞:allure, captivation, charisma, fascination

to commit (vt.) 為一重要用法,通常指做出負面行為:
to commit a crime (= to perpetrate a crime) 犯罪
to commit a murder 謀殺
to commit suicide 自殺
to commit a blunder 犯錯,等同 to make an errorto make a mistake.

在運動比賽中,如有選手犯規了,也是用 commit a foul 表示:
Rookies have to learn not to commit stupid fouls in order to prevent themselves from sitting on bench for the whole season.

pedestal 有「雕像的座臺」之意,故影片中 put someone on a pedestal 「把某人放上座臺」用以比喻「對某人特別崇拜」。
Sports fans often put their favorite players on a pedestal.

反之,come down off the pedestal 「從座臺上下來」則比喻為「不再受人尊崇」。
The actor came down off his pedestal and admitted the blunder he made.

類似的片語還有 fall from grace,亦有不再受喜愛的意思。
Oliver fell from grace when the professor found out that he’s been cheating the whole time.
當教授發現 Oliver 一直作弊之後,便不再偏愛他了。

hindsight 為名詞,表「後見之明」,或俗稱的「事後諸葛」。將此單字拆成兩部分來看便能領會,因前半部 hind 為形容詞,指「後面的」,而 sight 則有「見解」、「眼光」、「視野」之意,所以後面的見解引申為「後見之明」。

至於「先見之明」呢?不要懷疑,就是 foresight
Does this government have the wisdom and foresight to fight against corruption?


*Pronunciation Challenge




  1. 1. 單字查詢


  2. 2. 單句重複播放


  3. 3. 使用快速鍵


  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕


  5. 5. 內嵌播放器


  6. 6. 展開播放器


  1. 英文聽力測驗


  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔