初級 81628 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
【1. Priming】 If I talk to you about food and then I show you this
you'll put the letter "U" in there. If I talk to you about cleanliness first
and then I show you this, you'll put the letter "A" in there.
This is what is called priming. By simply priming people, you can significantly affect their decisions.
There was a study where a wine store played French music on some days and German music on others,
and the customers of course would never think that this would affect anything,
but they tended to buy more French wines on the days when French music was played, and
more German wines on the days when German music was played.
This is also one of the reasons why when you walk into a store that promotes health and
freshness like Whole Foods, you'll probably be greeted with fresh flowers and fruit.
It primes you for freshness. The first thing you see will never be canned tuna,
even though you can definitely buy plenty of canned stuff in there.
【2. The halo effect.】If we really like someone, we tend to really
like everything they do and say. If they say something average, we might think that it's
the best thing we've ever heard, and if they say something stupid, we tend to just
go along with it anyway. And you probably have someone you really admire and if they
do something stupid you'll say, "Oh whatever… Everyone makes mistakes…" But then if
someone you didn't like did the exact same thing, you'd be outraged.
And the attractiveness of a person along with other irrelevant factors plays a huge role
in how much we like what they say and do. If we're presented with two women who committed
the same crime, we're much more likely to give a lighter punishment to the more attractive
one. And of course, that doesn't make sense! They committed the same crime! But that is
the halo effect. So next time an attractive person or someone you've put on a pedestal
is trying to give you advice, ask yourself, "Is this advice valuable because it's
it's actually valuable, or am I blinded by how he looks, or how big his house is, or how much I like him?
【3. The Hindsight Bias.】You probably know people who constantly feel
the need to say, "Well, I knew that was going to happen…", "I knew that stock
was going to fall…", "I knew that we were going to lose that war…", "I knew
that stock was going to rise…". This is called the hindsight bias. We tend to be experts
at events after they have already occurred. It's really weird how you know exactly which
stock is going to rise and which stock is going to fall because you're completely broke
If you actually knew that information, you'd be a really rich person by now.
And the hindsight bias can go from just annoying to simply dangerous when we start to blame
other people for not being able to see something so obvious. You blame the government for
making a certain decision and think, "How could they not see that?' Your girlfriend hits
a pothole and you get a flat tire and you get all pissed off, "How did she not see
that pothole? "Well… Because if you were in government, you might have thought that
the decision was actually a good decision at the time it was made, and if you were driving
and looking in the mirror so you could make a turn, you might have not seen the pothole yourself.
So don't be that annoying person
who feels the need to tell everyone how you knew exactly who was going to win the finals and how the
stock was obviously going to rise. And definitely don't blame others for something that seems
so obvious just because it's already happened. Of course it's obvious now, but it wasn't
obvious before it actually happened.
So the 3 big ideas are… 1. Priming. Realize the power of even the
simplest suggestions and what that does to people's behavior.
2. The halo effect. Stop thinking everything someone says is pure gold just because you
really like them. Chances are everything they say isn't that flawless.
3. And the hindsight bias. Realize that anyone can be an expert after an event has already occurred.
    您必須登入才有此功能
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

載入中…

別被自己騙了!三個常見的思考偏誤一次學懂! (PRIMING, HALO EFFECT, HINDSIGHT BIAS - THINKING, FAST AND SLOW (PART 3))

81628 分類 收藏
羅紹桀 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 25 日   沒事兒 翻譯   James 審核

影片簡介

展開內容
在我們思考及決策的過程中,常有一些潛在因子或謬誤導致了想法的偏差,今天的主編精選影片點出三個常見的思考偏誤,讓我們一起來看看自己是否也犯了相同的缺失?

1outrage1:34
outrage 文中為動詞(被動語態),表示「被激怒」
The public were outraged by the miscarriage of justice.
社會大眾因司法判決不公而群情激憤。


可以將 outrage 想成 out + rage,比憤怒還多的,就是盛怒啦!

同樣以 out 為字首的詞還有:
outnumber 在數量上勝出
There are more USDP members in urban wards and the NLD outnumber the USDP in rural areas.
聯邦鞏固與發展黨的成員在都市選區較多,然而全國民主聯盟在鄉村地區的成員數量勝過聯邦鞏固與發展黨。


outgrow 長得比...(大、高)
By the time he graduated from junior high school, he had outgrown all of his family members.
當他從國中畢業時,他已長得比家族所有成員都高大。


outsmart / outwit 以智取勝
The general outsmarted his rival with brilliant tactics.
這位將軍以精彩絕倫的戰術智取其競爭對手。


而作名詞可表「憤慨」或「激起憤慨情緒的行為」。
Claire’s voice trembled with outrage.
Claire的聲音因憤怒而顫抖。


outrage 的形容詞是 outrageous,這個憤怒的程度已經是「令人吃驚的」、「無法無天」、甚至是「無恥的」!
ISIS will be punished for their outrageous behavior.
伊斯蘭國將會因他們令人不齒的行為遭到懲罰。


同義詞:anger, fury, indignation

*同場加映:
【TED】Bryan Stevenson:我們需要談談不正義 We need to talk about an injustice



2attractiveness1:36
attractiveness 為名詞,代表「吸引力」。
This promotion could enhance the attractiveness of this new brand.
此宣傳可以增強這個新品牌的吸引力。


同義詞:allure, captivation, charisma, fascination

3commit1:45
to commit (vt.) 為一重要用法,通常指做出負面行為:
to commit a crime (= to perpetrate a crime) 犯罪
to commit a murder 謀殺
to commit suicide 自殺
to commit a blunder 犯錯,等同 to make an errorto make a mistake.

在運動比賽中,如有選手犯規了,也是用 commit a foul 表示:
Rookies have to learn not to commit stupid fouls in order to prevent themselves from sitting on bench for the whole season.
新秀球員們必須學會不要愚蠢地犯規,以避免整季在板凳席坐壁上觀。


4pedestal2:00
pedestal 有「雕像的座臺」之意,故影片中 put someone on a pedestal 「把某人放上座臺」用以比喻「對某人特別崇拜」。
Sports fans often put their favorite players on a pedestal.
運動迷們常把自己喜愛的球員當成偶像來崇拜。


反之,come down off the pedestal 「從座臺上下來」則比喻為「不再受人尊崇」。
The actor came down off his pedestal and admitted the blunder he made.
那位演員卸下其偶像光環,並承認自己犯下的大錯。


類似的片語還有 fall from grace,亦有不再受喜愛的意思。
Oliver fell from grace when the professor found out that he’s been cheating the whole time.
當教授發現 Oliver 一直作弊之後,便不再偏愛他了。


5hindsight4:09
hindsight 為名詞,表「後見之明」,或俗稱的「事後諸葛」。將此單字拆成兩部分來看便能領會,因前半部 hind 為形容詞,指「後面的」,而 sight 則有「見解」、「眼光」、「視野」之意,所以後面的見解引申為「後見之明」。

至於「先見之明」呢?不要懷疑,就是 foresight
Does this government have the wisdom and foresight to fight against corruption?
這個政府有打擊貪污的智慧與遠見嗎?


最後,希望大家看完這部小短片後,日後在評判任何人事物時,能想到影片中的三項謬誤:提示、光環效應以及事後諸葛,進而以更客觀的立場思考。

*Pronunciation Challenge
每日口說挑戰從這部影片節錄一句英文,配上主持人詳細的講解,讓你輕鬆搞懂英文發音!

影片學習單字重點

loading
看更多推薦影片

影片討論

載入中…
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔