中級 美國腔 114078 分類 收藏
We hear about calories all the time.
How many calories are in this cookie?
How many are burned by 100 jumping jacks, or long distance running, or fidgeting?
But what is a calorie, really, and how many of them do we actually need?
Calories are a way of keeping track of the body's energy budget.
A healthy balance occurs when we put in about as much energy as we lose.
If we consistently put more energy into our bodies than we burn,
the excess will gradually be stored as fat in our cells,
and we'll gain weight.
If we burn off more energy than we replenish, we'll lose weight.
So we have to be able to measure the energy we consume and use,
and we do so with a unit called the calorie.
One calorie, the kind we measure in food, also called a large calorie,
is defined as the amount of energy
it would take to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius.
Everything we consume has a calorie count,
a measure of how much energy the item stores in its chemical bonds.
The average pizza slice has 272 calories,
there are about 78 in a piece of bread,
and an apple has about 52.
That energy is released during digestion, and stored in other molecules
that can be broken down to provide energy when the body needs it.
It's used in three ways:
about 10% enables digestion,
about 20% fuels physical activity,
and the biggest chunk, around 70%,
supports the basic functions of our organs and tissues.
That third usage corresponds to your basal metabolic rate,
a number of calories you would need to survive if you weren't eating or moving around.
Add in some physical activity and digestion,
and you arrive at the official guidelines
for how many calories the average person requires each day:
2000 for women and 2500 for men.
Those estimates are based on factors like average weight, physical activity and muscle mass.
So does that mean everyone should shoot for around 2000 calories?
Not necessarily.
If you're doing an energy guzzling activity,
like cycling the Tour de France,
your body could use up to 9000 calories per day.
Pregnancy requires slightly more calories than usual,
and elderly people typically have a slower metabolic rate,
energy is burned more gradually, so less is needed.
Here's something else you should know before you start counting calories:
The calorie counts on nutrition labels measure how much energy the food contains,
not how much energy you can actually get out of it.
Fibrous foods like celery and whole wheat take more energy to digest,
so you'd actually wind up with less energy from a 100 calorie serving of celery than a 100 calorie serving of potato chips.
Not to mention the fact that some foods offer nutrients like protein and vitamins,
while others provide far less nutritional value.
Eating too many of those foods could leave you overweight and malnourished.
And even with the exact same food, different people might not get the same number of calories.
Variations in things like enzyme levels, gut bacteria, and even intestine length,
means that every individual's ability to extract energy from food is a little different.
So a calorie is a useful energy measure,
but to work out exactly how many of them each of us requires
we need to factor in things like exercise, food type, and our body's ability to process energy.
Good luck finding all of that on a nutrition label.



【TED-Ed】什麼是卡路里? (What is a calorie? - Emma Bryce)

114078 分類 收藏
Wayne Lin 發佈於 2017 年 9 月 5 日    陳美瑩 翻譯    Sally Hsu 審核



1keep track of something0:22
track 這個字指的是人或動物的行蹤。所以, keep track of something 指的是「對某件事物持續的追蹤」,對象可以是人、物或是資訊等較為抽象的名詞。
The Internet helps us keep track of the latest news.

With an Electro Cardio Gram (ECG), doctors can keep track of patients' vital signs.

digest 在影片裡是指「身體進行消化作用」。這個字後來衍生為「理解」和「消化訊息」的意思。
Foods high in fiber are difficult to digest.

After the lecture, the students often need time to digest the information they have just learned in class.

He needs some time to digest the unexpected news.

digestion(n.) 消化
digestive system 消化系統

digest 作為名詞則是指經過精簡的(也就是被「消化過的」)文章。全球知名的刊物「讀者文摘」的英文名就是 Reader's Digest

發音小提醒!在當「名詞」的時候, digest 的重音會跑到第一音節,發音可以參考下面的同場加映;而當「動詞」時,重音則會跑到第二音節。

跳舞的真理 (The Truth About... Dancing)

3wind up with something3:00
wind up with 這個片語在中文裡面比較難找到一個直接的對應。這個片語通常用來帶出一個結果,表示「以......收場」或是「以.......告結」。注意 wind 這個動詞的動詞變化是屬於不規則變化,它的三態是 wind / wound / wound ,而不是 wind / winded / winded 喔!
In a story from Aesop's Fables, the greedy dog that barked at its own reflection by the water to fight for another bone, wound up with nothing at all.

After two hours of arguing where to have dinner, we wound up with instant noodles and leftover dishes.

同樣的意思另外也可以 wind up doing something 來表達:
When shopping online, we often wind up buying things that we don't really need.

Due to the heavy rain, we wound up staying at home all day.

wind up with 在口語中的用法也常常用來形容男女之間的關係。
I am so surprised that Jamie wound up with Daphne; I thought she wasn't his type!
我非常驚訝 Jamie 最後和 Daphne 在一起了。我以為她不是 Jamie 喜歡的類型呢!

另一個與 wind up (with) 同義且在日常生活對話中更常見的片語為 end up (with)
I thought I would have the most amazing evening ever, but I ended up with an empty stomach and a whole lot of embarrassment as my date stood me up.

I kept having problems with my Wi-Fi last night, and I ended up missing the assignment submission deadline.

【TED】畫出國家的未來 (Parag Khanna maps the future of countries)

4nutrition 3:53
nutrition 的意思是「營養」。影片中提到的 nutrition label 則是我們在食物包裝上一定會看到的營養標示。
Following a nutrition balanced diet is better for your health.

值得注意的是, nutrition 是一個總稱,如果要講某個食物含有哪種特定的養分的話,使用的單字是 nutrient 而不是 nutrition。
Apples are full of nutrients that can promote digestion and prevent vascular diseases.

nutrition 加上代表否定的字首 mal- ,就會變成 malnutrition ,意指「營養不良」。
In Africa, millions of children die of diseases and malnutrition each year.

【TED-Ed】碳水化合物如何影響你的健康? (How do carbohydrates impact your health? - Richard J. Wood)





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