B1 中級 澳洲腔 1081 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
What best explains the motivations of the men who perpetrated the Holcaust? Ideology
– or tribal loyalty?
Christopher Browning’s 1992 book, Ordinary Men considered how the men of German Reserve
Police Battalion 101 were able to carry out instructions to murder thousands of Jews in
Nazi-occupied Poland during 1942 and 1943.
Opinion is split as to whether the Holocaust was part of a long-term plan or a product
of the war administration. The “Intentionalist” school argues that these actions were a culmination
of a long-term plan, with its basis in Nazi ideology, whereas the “functionalists”
believe they emerged as the war developed and were not planned from the outset.
Researching the statements of men tried for war crimes in the 1960s, and taking a ‘moderate
functionalist’ stance, Browning believed the men fulfilled their duties out of obedience
and peer pressure – not because they had a primal hatred for Jewish people. He argued
that people are far more likely to be motivated by human factors such as camerarderie, than
they are by ideologies or belief systems.
To consider why this may be so, let’s image the motivations of a football supporter.
What influences a football fan to support a certain team?
Is his decision based on the belief that one team has a greater ability, higher quality
players or better management than another?
Browning’s theory would suggest that a football fan is more likely to choose because of a
human or relational factor such as a family member or friend supporting the team. Before
you know it, they’re absorbed into a certain way of thinking, influenced by those around
them. A ‘tribal loyalty’ takes over.
For instance, a fan may work or socialise with fans of opposing teams – and have no
problem getting on with them. But put them together at a match and the dynamics change
completely. Tribal loyalty kicks in – and they become rivals.
Surrounded by their own team, a ‘group mentality’ takes over. Rival groups of fans abuse each
other, and may even fight.
Browning’s examination of the forces behind human motivation suggested that far from being
committed Nazis, the sense of loyalty the men of Battalion 101 felt to their colleagues
outweighed all else. They felt a duty to stand by them when on duty. And even though they
were offered the option not to take part in killings, few took this up. They knew that
if they refused to carry out their tasks, a colleague would have to instead.
Browning opened up an important discussion about how ‘ordinary’ everyday people can
be manipulated to commit heinous acts of cruelty, regardless of their beliefs.
A more detailed examination of his ideas can be found in the MACAT analysis.
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

初步 Christopher Browning's Ordinary Men (An Introduction to Christopher Browning's Ordinary Men- A Macat History Analysis)

1081 分類 收藏
周杰 發佈於 2015 年 6 月 29 日
看更多推薦影片
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔