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  • this is a story about a world obsessed with stuff

    這是個關於沈溺於物質的世界的故事

  • it's a story about a system in crisis.

    一個岌岌可危的系統的故事

  • we're trashing the planet

    我們糟蹋這個地球

  • we're trashing each other

    我們還互相糟蹋

  • and we're not even having fun

    卻一點都不覺得快樂

  • the good thing is that when we start to understand the system

    好消息是當我們開始瞭解這個制度時

  • we can see lots of places to step in and turn these problems into solutions

    就開始看到許多可以介入之處,把問題變成解決方法

  • [music]

    [music]

  • one the problems with trying to use less stuff

    當我們要減少東西的消耗時,可能會遇到一個問題

  • is that sometimes we feel like we really need it

    就是有時候我們覺得不能沒有那樣東西

  • what if you live in a city like, say cleveland, and you want a glass of water

    如果你住在像是克里夫蘭這種城市,想喝水的時候

  • are you going to take your chances and get it from the city tap?

    你會冒險喝一口自來水

  • or should you reach for a bottle of water that comes from the pristine rainforests of Fiji?

    還是會買一罐從斐濟原始雨林裡來的瓶裝水?

  • Well, Fiji brand water thought the answer to this question was obvious

    斐濟牌瓶裝水以為這個問題的答案再明顯不過了

  • So they built a whole ad campaign around it

    所以就拿它大作廣告

  • it turned out to be one of the dumbest moves

    結果成了廣告史上

  • in advertising history

    最愚蠢的案例之一

  • the city of cleveland it like being the butt

    克里夫蘭市覺得這個廣告開的玩笑

  • of fiji jokes

    一點也不好笑

  • so they did some tests and guess what?

    於是就做了一些水質檢驗,結果呢?

  • These tests showed a glass of Fiji water is lower quality

    檢驗結果顯示,斐濟牌瓶裝水水質反而比較差

  • it loses taste tests against Cleveland tap

    比克里夫蘭市的自來水難喝

  • and costs thousands of times more

    而且比自來水貴幾千倍

  • this story is typical of what happens when

    這個故事非常經典,如果你拿瓶裝水和自來水來檢測比較,

  • you test bottled water against tap water

    可能結果就是這樣

  • is it cleaner?

    瓶裝水真的比較乾淨嗎?

  • sometimes, sometimes not

    有時候是,有時候不是

  • in many ways bottled water is less regulated

    在許多方面,瓶裝水的管制

  • than tap

    不如自來水嚴格

  • Is it tastier?

    瓶裝水真的比較好喝嗎?

  • In taste tests across the country, people consistently

    根據全國「品水」調查

  • choose tap over bottled water.

    受試者往往覺得自來水比較好喝

  • These bottled water companies say theyre just meeting consumer demand

    瓶裝水的業者都說, 他們只是在滿足消費者的需求

  • but who would demand a less sustainable

    問題是誰需要這種比較不永續

  • less tasty, way more expensive product

    比較不好喝,又貴得要命的商品啊?

  • especially one you can get almost free in your kitchen

    更何況家裡的廚房就有幾乎免費的水可喝

  • bottled water costs that two thousand times more than tap water

    瓶裝水的價格大概是自來水的兩千倍

  • Can you imagine paying 2000 times the price of anything else?

    如果其他東西也貴個兩千倍,你要買嗎?

  • how about a $10,000 sandwich?

    好比說買個一萬塊的三明治?

  • yet people in the US by more than half a billion

    可是在美國,一個禮拜就賣出

  • gallons of water every week

    超過5億罐瓶裝水

  • that is enough to circle the globe more than five times

    瓶身多到可以繞地球五圈

  • how did this come to be?

    怎麼會這樣?

  • well it all goes back to how our materials economy works

    這得從我們的物質經濟如何運作說起

  • and one of its key drivers which is known is manufactured demand

    而推動這個系統運作的重要動力之一就是所謂的「營造出來的需求」。

  • if companies want to keep growing

    企業若要持續成長獲利

  • they have to keep selling more and more stuff

    就得賣出更多更多東西

  • in the 1970s giant soft drink companies

    1970年代,各大碳酸飲料公司

  • got worried as they saw their growth projections

    都很不安,因為他們的業績

  • starting to level off

    不像以前成長得那麼快了

  • there's only so much soda that a person can drink

    一個人畢竟喝不下太多汽水

  • Plus it wouldn't be long before people began

    再說很快大家就會覺得

  • realizing that soda is not that healthy

    喝汽水不健康

  • and turned back to drinking tap water.

    所以又回去喝自來水

  • well the companies found their next big idea

    這些公司於是有了新主意

  • in a silly designer product that most people laughed off

    只是很多人覺得賣水這個笨想法很可笑

  • as a passing yuppie fad

    只是一時的雅痞風

  • "Water is free," people said back then.

    水是免費的啊,那時候大家這麼說

  • "what will they sell us next, air?"

    「那他們接下來還想賣什麼?賣空氣嗎?」

  • so how do you get people to buy this fringe product?

    那要怎麼讓大家來買這種不被看好的商品呢?

  • Simple. You manufacture demand

    很簡單:就是幫顧客營造需求

  • How do you do that?

    怎麼做啊?

  • Well, imagine you're in charge of the bottled water

    假裝你是一家瓶裝水

  • company

    公司的老闆

  • Since people aren't lining up to trade their hard-earned money

    既然大家不想花血汗錢

  • for you unnecessary product

    買你那沒用的商品

  • you make them feel scared and insecure if the don’t have it

    你就想辦法讓他們覺得沒買這個東西真是太可怕、太沒有安全感了

  • and that's exactly what the bottled water industry did

    這正是瓶裝水業者做的好事

  • one of their first marketing tactics was to

    他們的首要行銷策略之一

  • scare people about tap water

    就是讓大家覺得自來水很恐怖

  • with ads like Fiji's Cleveland campaign.

    方法是利用像斐濟牌的克里夫蘭廣告

  • ""When were done," one top water exec said,

    「我們的廣告成功後,」有個頂尖的瓶裝水公司經理說

  • "tap water will be relegated to showers and washing dishes."

    「自來水就只會被用來洗澡和洗碗了。」

  • Next, you hide the reality of your product behind

    接下來,你得用美好的幻覺

  • images of pure fantasy

    包裝商品的真相

  • Have you ever noticed how bottled water tries to seduce us

    不知道你有沒有注意到

  • with pictures of mountains streams and pristine nature?

    瓶裝水總是用山間小溪和原始自然的圖片誘惑我們?

  • But guess where a third of all bottled water in the U.S. actually

    但是你猜美國三分之一的瓶裝水

  • comes from?

    來自哪裡?

  • The tap!

    正是自來水!

  • Pepsi’s Aquafina and Coke’s Dasani

    百事的Aquafina和可口可樂的Dasani就是其中之二

  • are two of the many brands that are really filtered tap water

    他們的水其實是過濾後的自來水

  • But the pristine nature lie goes much deeper.

    這個美好大自然的謊言還有更誇張的

  • In a recent full page ad, Nestlé said:

    雀巢公司最近登了一則全頁廣告

  • Bottled water is the most environmentally

    「瓶裝水是世界上

  • responsible consumer product in the world.”

    最負環境責任的消費商品」

  • What!?

    什麼啊!?

  • They are trashing the environment all along the product’s life cycle.

    瓶裝水的整個生命週期都對環境有害

  • Exactly how is that environmentally responsible?

    到底哪裡負起環境責任了?

  • The problems start here with extraction and production

    問題從開採和生產的階段就開始了

  • where oil is used to make water bottles

    因為我們用石油來製造塑膠水瓶

  • Each year, making the plastic water bottles

    每年,為了製造

  • used in the U.S. takes enough oil and energy

    在美國使用的塑膠水瓶所用的石油和能源

  • to fuel a million cars.

    足以供應一百萬輛汽車

  • All that energy spent to make the bottle

    用來生產水瓶的能源甚至比把瓶裝水

  • even more to ship it around the planet

    運送到世界各地所需的能源還多

  • and then we drink it in about 2 minutes?

    而我們把水喝完只不過兩分鐘吧?

  • That brings us to the big problem at the other end of the life cycle

    然後又出現一個大問題也就是生命週期的最後階段—廢棄處理

  • Disposal. What happens to all these bottles when were done?

    水喝完後,這些瓶子會怎麼樣?

  • Eighty percent end up in landfills,

    80%進了掩埋場

  • where they will sit for thousands of years,

    從此千年不爛

  • or in incinerators, where they are burned, releasing

    或是進了焚化爐,燒一燒以後

  • toxic pollution.

    排放有毒物質

  • The rest gets collected for recycling.

    其他的則被拿去資源回收

  • I was curious about where the plastic bottles

    我很好奇我丟到回收桶裡的塑膠瓶

  • that I put in recycling bins go.

    被送到哪去了

  • I found out that shiploads were being sent

    後來發現原來是海運到

  • to India.

    印度

  • So, I went there.

    所以我就跑到印度去

  • I’ll never forget riding over a hill outside Madras

    我永遠不會忘記

  • where I came face to face with a mountain

    在馬德拉斯郊外看到的景象

  • of plastic bottles from California.

    一座來自加州的塑膠瓶山

  • Real recycling would turn these bottles

    真正的回收應該是將這些塑膠瓶

  • back into bottles.

    再製成新瓶子

  • But that wasn’t what was happening here.

    但在這裡卻不是這樣

  • Instead these bottles were slated to be downcycled,

    這些塑膠瓶會被降級回收

  • which means turning them into lower quality

    也就是會變成其他品質較差的產品

  • products that would just be chucked later.

    最後一樣要丟掉

  • The parts that couldn’t be downcycled were thrown away there

    不能再降級回收的部分就被丟在印度

  • shipped all the way to India just to be dumped in

    所以遠渡重洋送到這裡

  • someone else’s backyard.

    只是為了把垃圾丟到別人家

  • If bottled water companies want to use mountains

    如果瓶裝水公司真的想用山岳

  • on their labels,

    做為商標

  • it’d be more accurate to show one of these

    應該用一座塑膠垃圾山

  • mountains of plastic waste.

    會比較貼切

  • Scaring us, seducing us, and misleading us

    嚇唬我們、誘惑我們、誤導我們

  • these strategies are all core parts of manufacturing demand

    一旦需求被營造出來

  • Once theyve manufactured all this demand,

    這些手段就這麼營造了需求

  • creating a new multibillion dollar market,

    多了一個價值數十億美元的市場

  • they defend it by beating out the competition.

    這些企業就要剷除對市場的威脅

  • But in this case,

    但是以瓶裝水來說

  • the competition is our basic human right to

    威脅市場的正是我們的基本人權:

  • clean, safe drinking water.

    飲用乾淨、安全的水

  • Pepsi’s Vice Chairman publicly said,

    百事公司的副總裁曾公開表示

  • The biggest enemy is tap water!”

    「最大的敵人就是自來水!」

  • They want us to think it’s dirty and bottled

    他們希望我們覺得自來水很髒

  • water is the best alternative.

    而瓶裝水才是最好的選擇

  • In many places, public water is polluted

    很多地方的自來水確實受到污染

  • thanks to polluting industries like

    而污染源之一

  • the plastic bottle industry!

    就是塑膠瓶工業!

  • And these bottled water guys are all too happy

    然後這些瓶裝水公司眉開眼笑的

  • to offer their expensive solutions

    送上昂貴的替代水

  • which keep us hooked on their products.

    讓我們就這麼上鉤

  • It’s time we took back the tap.

    該是回去喝自來水的時候了

  • That starts with making a personal commitment

    可以從自我約束開始

  • to not buy or drink bottled water unless the water

    不買或不喝瓶裝水

  • in your community is truly unhealthy.

    除非你家的自來水真的很髒

  • Yes, it takes a bit of foresight to grab a

    是的,帶一個很俗的環保水壺

  • reusable bottle on the way out, but I think we can handle it

    的確需要遠見,不過我相信我們做得到

  • Then take the next step

    接下來要採取的第二步

  • join a campaign that’s working for real solutions.

    加入真正可以解決問題的行動

  • Like demanding investment in clean tap water for all

    像是要求政府撥款,提供所有人都可以喝的乾淨自來水

  • In the US, tap water is underfunded by $24 billion

    在美國,自來水的經費短缺240億美元

  • partly because people believe drinking water

    部分原因是人們都相信

  • only comes from a bottle!

    只有瓶裝水才能喝!

  • Around the world, a billion people don’t

    現在全世界有十億人

  • have access to clean water right now.

    喝不到乾淨的水

  • Yet cities all over are spending millions of dollars to deal with all

    但許多城市卻要花上百萬處理我們丟掉的塑膠瓶

  • the plastic bottles we throw out.

    處理我們丟掉的塑膠瓶

  • What if that money were spent improving our water systems

    為什麼我們不用這些錢來加強自來水系統?

  • or better yet, preventing pollution to begin with?

    或更好的,用來防止污染?

  • There are many more things we can do to solve this problem.

    我們可以做的還很多。

  • Lobby your city officials to bring back drinking fountains

    要求市政府恢復自動飲水機

  • Work to ban the purchase of bottled water

    要求你的學校、公司或整個城市

  • by your school, organization or entire city

    禁止購買瓶裝水

  • This is a huge opportunity for millions of people to wake up

    這個大好機會將讓百萬人站出來

  • and protect our wallets,

    保護我們的荷包、

  • our health

    我們的健康

  • and the planet.

    和這個地球

  • The good news is: it’s already started.

    好消息是:行動已經開始了。

  • Bottled water sales have begun to drop while business is booming

    瓶裝水的銷售量已開始下降

  • for safe refillable water bottles. Yay!

    而可重複使用的安全水壺卻開始大賣,耶!

  • Restaurants are proudly servingtap

    餐廳開始大大方方的呈上自來水

  • and people are choosing to pocket the hundred of thousands

    大家也決定把鈔票收好,

  • of dollars they would otherwise be wasting

    別再浪費錢

  • on bottled water

    買瓶裝水了

  • Carrying bottled water is on its way to being

    喝瓶裝水就快變得跟

  • as cool as smoking while pregnant.

    孕婦抽煙一樣噁心

  • We know better now.

    我們現在更清楚了

  • The bottled water industry is getting worried

    瓶裝水企業很憂心

  • because the jig is up.

    因為他們快要玩完了

  • We are not buying into their

    我們不會再為

  • manufactured demand anymore.

    營造出來的需求而買東西

  • We will choose our own demands,

    我們會選擇真正需要的,

  • thank you very much, and were demanding clean, safe water for all

    感謝你,現在我們要的就是讓所有人都能喝,乾淨又安全的水

this is a story about a world obsessed with stuff

這是個關於沈溺於物質的世界的故事

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 自來水 瓶裝水 公司 需求 商品 乾淨

寶特瓶的故事 The Story of Bottled Water (2010)

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