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  • Returning from the Memorial Day weekend,

    從紀念日回歸囉~

  • we`ll recap the holiday for you today on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

    我們 CNN STUDENT NEWS 等等會幫各位做摘要

  • First up, wide areas of the South Central U.S.

    首先,美國中南部有很大一部分

  • were under a flood watch or warning last night.

    昨天處於洪水警報期

  • After tremendous amounts of rain over the weekend,

    在一周大量的降雨量下

  • 24 counties in Texas were declared emergency disaster areas.

    24個Texas州的市鎮發布為緊急災難地區

  • That helps fast track money and recovery resources to affected areas,

    這讓救災的資金還有物資能夠盡快輸入當地

  • places like Hays County near Austin.

    像在Austin附近的Hays郡

  • As many as 400 homes there were washed away.

    大約有400個家被沖走

  • In some cases, only the slabs they were built on were left.

    部份情況是,只有一些水泥牆板還留著

  • Two main bridges were lost, more than 1,000 homes were damaged.

    兩個主要橋梁被沖毀,超過1000個家被損毀

  • In hours, the Blanco River went from being about five feet deep to more than 40.

    Blanco河在幾個小時內從5英尺暴漲到超過40英尺

  • It was one of several rivers to overflow.

    這只是其中一個氾濫的河川

  • During severe weather,

    在嚴峻的氣候下

  • officials warn people not to drive on to a flooded roadway or through flowing water.

    政府警告民眾不要在洪水氾濫的道路上行車

  • This is why -- fortunately, the man whose car got caught in this survived.

    這就是為什麼─幸運地,這男人車被水流卡住了但人活了下來

  • Parts of Oklahoma also flooded.

    部分的Oklahoma州也是洪水成災

  • Oklahoma City set an all-time rainfall record for a single month.

    Oklahoma州設立了24小時的降雨監控並持續了一個月

  • More severe weather is in this week`s forecast for the region.

    更多嚴峻的氣候可以在本周的各地區天氣預報中看到

  • It`s a three-day weekend -- the unofficial start to summer,

    這是個三天連假的周末,也就是非正式的夏天開始

  • a time for family get-togethers and road trips.

    家人們能夠團聚然後出遊

  • But there`s a solemn aspect to Memorial Day

    但紀念日是有嚴肅的意義的

  • that distinguishes it from the Fourth of July and other U.S. holidays.

    這使得紀念日有別於獨立紀念日以及其他節日

  • It`s a day of remembrance for all American servicemen

    這是一個紀念所有美國軍人、將士的日子

  • and women who gave their lives in conflict.

    還有那些在衝突紛爭中喪命的女子

  • The nation`s president takes part in a wreath-laying ceremony

    美國總統參與了冠花環的儀式

  • at the Tomb of the Unknowns.

    在Tomb of the Unknowns(直譯為無名塚,美國的某個地區)

  • And families gather at Arlington National Cemetery in tribute

    許多家庭聚集在Arlington National Cemetery

  • and memory of their lost loved ones,

    來向他們喪失的愛人致敬

  • a decade`s old tradition called Flags In is when the 3rd U.S.

    Flags In是十年來的習俗

  • Infantry Regiment places flags at the grave sites.

    意指 Infantry Regiment第三軍團將國旗放在墓碑前的儀式

  • Next today, we`re reporting on the Patriot Act.

    接下來,我們將報導關於美國愛國者法案

  • This is a U.S. government program

    這是美國政府的計畫

  • that expanded the powers of America`s intelligence

    為了要延伸美國中央情報局

  • and law enforcement agencies. The goal: to prevent terrorism.

    還有執法單位的力量。目的是:防範恐怖主義

  • The Patriot Act is controversial.

    美國愛國者法案很具爭議

  • Supporters say it`s critical to America`s national security.

    爭持者說這對美國的國安很重要

  • Opponents say parts of it go too far, threatening Americans` privacy.

    反對者說有些地方太超過了,會威脅到美國人的隱私權

  • It expires on June 1st.

    美國愛國者法案的效力將會在6月1號到期

  • The House of Representatives has passed a bill that keep in place

    美國眾議院已經通過了一筆支出來維持這個法案

  • and President Obama has pushed for the program to be renewed.

    總統歐巴馬也敦促這個法案來更新、繼續執行

  • But its extension was blocked in the Senate on Saturday.

    但效力延續這件事在星期六被美國眾議院擋了下來

  • And if the Senate doesn`t pass it on May 31, the law could expire.

    如果眾議院在5月31仍然反對通過此效力延續,這個法律將會到期

  • It took just one month after the events of 9/11 for the Patriot Act

    在911事件之後的一個月

  • to zoom through Congress and get signed into law by President George W. Bush,

    美國愛國者法案就通過議會的審核,然後由總統布希頒布為法律

  • giving law enforcement and intelligence agencies sweeping powers

    讓中央情報局還有執法單位擁有極大的權力

  • to thwart terrorist plots.

    來阻撓恐怖陰謀

  • It will improve our nation`s security,

    這可以強化我國的國安

  • while we safeguard the civil liberties of our people.

    當我們保衛人民的公民自由

  • It would do much more. Americans didn`t know it at that time,

    好處還不只這些。美國人那時還不知

  • but the law would give the NSA

    但這法律會使美國國家安全局

  • access to the private information of millions of U.S. citizens.

    得以接觸上百萬美國人民的私人資料

  • I think it`s unconstitutional. The courts have not held that,

    我覺得這違背憲法。法院並不這麼認為

  • but I think this is exactly why the Constitution

    但我認為這就是為何憲法

  • and the Fourth Amendment was written to prevent that.

    還有美國憲法第四條修正案是寫來阻止這件事情的發生

  • But it was former NSA contractor Edward Snowden

    但前美國國家安全局承辦人Edward Snowden

  • who blew the debate wide open in 2013,

    他將這爭論在2013年大肆宣揚

  • when he leaked a trove of classified documents

    當他洩漏了機密資料中的重要部份

  • that revealed the extent of the NSA`s dragnet surveillance programs.

    這些部分揭露了美國國安局的dragnet surveillance計畫(撒網盯哨)

  • Under Section 215 of the Patriot Act,

    在美國愛國者法案的中的第215條

  • the NSA collects cellphone data on every single cellphone in America.

    美國國安局蒐集每一支美國手機的資訊

  • Who you called, when you called, what phone number you called from,

    你打給誰、什麼時間、你用哪支電話撥打

  • what phone number you called, how long you were on the phone.

    你撥打了哪一支電話、你講多久

  • You can take pieces of information and piece together a lot of information about somebody.

    你可以透過每一小片段的資訊來拼湊出龐大的資料

  • They can discern their age, their sex, their religion,

    他們可以辨別某人的年齡、性別、宗教

  • their level of political activity, their political leanings and so forth.

    參政程度、政治傾向等等

  • They can know, for example, whether an American called a psychiatrist

    他們能知道,譬如說,一個美國人去找精神科醫生

  • three times in 36 hours twice after midnight.

    三次,在短短36小時內,兩次是半夜以後

  • That is a lot of private information.

    那可是一筆巨量的個人資料

  • How does it work? By petitioning a secret court known as FISA,

    這怎麼做到的?申請一個秘密判決稱為FISA

  • the NSA can access the records of large phone companies such as Verizon.

    美國國安局能夠得到像Verizon這種大型通訊公司的紀錄

  • Revelations sparked public outrage,

    這件事情的公開造成了眾怒

  • setting off efforts to rein in the government`s broad power.

    因而採取行動以阻擋政府權力無限上綱

  • When I asked that one of our rare open sessions,

    當時我問了我們其中一個很罕見的開庭

  • whether the government collected any type of data at all,

    政府是否有取得任何的人民資料

  • the director answered falsely.

    那位高層給了一個很糟的答案

  • Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions

    國安局是否取得

  • or hundreds of millions of Americans?

    任何一個美國人民的任何一筆資料

  • No, sir. It does not. Not willingly.

    不,並沒有,這並不是我們情願的

  • President Obama pledged to reform the agency

    總統歐巴馬誓言要改組這個組織

  • but has stopped short of ending the NSA`s collection of bulk data.

    但突然停止中止國安局收集大量個資的這個決定

  • And for our intelligence community to be effective over the long haul,

    至於我們的情報局長期以來一直都很具影響力

  • we must maintain the trust of the American people and people around the world.

    我們需要維持美國人民、還有全世界人的信任

  • Instead, he passed the buck to Congress, where reform efforts are stalling.

    但取而代之的是,他將這通過到議會,讓這改革仍然無限延期

  • The House overwhelmingly passed a bipartisan reform bill,

    白宮壓倒性第通過了兩黨改組的支出

  • but Senate opponents are citing terror threats to keep the Patriot Act intact.

    但參議院反對方透過提醒恐怖威脅的存在,試圖維持愛國者法案

  • The expiring provisions of FISA are ideally suited for the terrorist threat we face in 2015.

    FISA的持續效力適用於我們在2015面對的恐怖威脅

  • That`s despite the fact that multiple reviews haven`t found any instance

    儘管目前還沒有任何實證

  • where that program alone thwarted a terror plot.

    這個法案對嚇阻恐怖陰謀有幫助

  • Well, now, the tug of war between national security and civil liberties continues.

    好,現在,在國安還有公民自由權的拔河戰將繼續下去

  • State nickname trivia.

    有個州暱稱為trivia

  • What is known as Old Dominion and the Mother of Presidents?

    哪個州又被稱為Old Dominion 和 Mother of Presidents?

  • It`s Virginia. And in Manassas, the Raiders kept Stonewall Jackson High School.

    是Virginia州。在Manassas州,the Raider位於Stonewall Jackson高中

  • Nearby in the Diamond State of Delaware, we`ve got the Senators online.

    在Diamond州的Delaware,我們有參議院在線上

  • They`re at Central Middle School in the state capital, Dover.

    他們在Central 中學,在市中心Dover

  • And in the Golden State, at the city of Oceanside,

    而在Golden州,在Oceanside市

  • hello to all the Wildcats watching from El Camino High School in California.

    各位觀看El Camino High School in California的Wildcat(野貓)大家好

  • Can animals predict earthquakes?

    動物能預測地震嗎?

  • Anecdotal evidence like dogs barking,

    民間傳言像是狗會吠叫

  • or rats deserting cities, chickens not laying eggs,

    或是老鼠會竄逃,雞不生蛋

  • that`s all been reported for centuries.

    好幾世紀以來都是這麼說

  • Scientific evidence is harder to come by.

    科學證明卻很難得到

  • Still, one researcher studying elephant says

    不過仍然有個研究大象的學家說

  • they do have the ability to pick up the signals to the ground,

    大象確實是可以從地面的資訊中得到訊息

  • signals for day to day communication.

    這些每天溝通的訊息

  • Have you guys seen the elephants?

    你們看過大象嗎?

  • A behavioral ecologist looks for patters in nature

    一個行為環境學家觀察大自然的現象

  • that are explained by environmental influences or social influences.

    那些可以被環境、社會影響解釋的現象

  • I was hired by the Namibian government to understand

    我被Namibian政府錄用來弄清楚

  • how they use the environment and how they move.

    他們如何利用環境、他們如何移動

  • When I`m in the field, most of that action happens at night after dark,

    當我在草原中,大部分的活動都在晚上

  • when there`s no win.

    這是個沒有人會贏的時候

  • The air is cool. So, it`s perfect environment for sound propagation.

    空氣很冷。所以這是聲音散播的好場所

  • Seismic communication is the study about animal communication

    地震溝通是一門關於動物溝通的研究

  • with vibrations through the ground.

    透過地面的震動

  • This is the first time that we`ve been able to show a large mammal

    這是第一次我們能夠顯示

  • actually communicates seismically.

    大型哺乳類能夠透過地震溝通

  • Over the course of the studies that I`ve done on elephants,

    透過我在大象身上的研究

  • we`ve been able to show that elephants

    我們能夠顯示

  • can detect their own vocalizations on the ground.

    大象們能夠偵測他們踩在地面時的震動

  • I started to see patterns to this freezing behavior that they would do.

    我開始在這些看似一成不變的行為中找到模式

  • They would lean forward and press their front feet into the ground

    他們會向前傾、將前掌壓向地面

  • and then press their trunk on the ground.

    然後將象鼻靠近地面

  • Then I realize that they were doing it just before the arrival of another family group.

    然後我發現,在其他家庭抵達前,他們會做這個動作

  • These vocalizations are in the ground

    這些震動在地面

  • and elephants are equipped to detect them in the ground.

    而大象具有偵測這些震動的能力

  • But could they actually interpret them as meaningful signals?

    但他們能夠將這些翻成有意義的訊號嗎?

  • So, we did a whole series of playbacks of anti- predatory

    所以我們做了很多系列的重播,這些動作與獵捕無關

  • calls and familiar calls, unfamiliar calls.

    呼叫、家族間的呼叫、陌生大象間的呼叫、

  • I`ve run all of my sounds placed out near the water hole.

    我播放了所有在水塘旁錄下的聲音

  • They, in fact, not only detected a meaningful signal,

    他們實際上不只偵測到單一訊號

  • but discriminated between one individual

    實際上這些訊號因個體不同而不同

  • that they know versus the individual that they didn`t recognize.

    他們能夠辨別他們不認識的個體

  • The risk of being attacked by kangaroo is pretty low.

    被袋鼠攻擊的機率是很低的

  • Even in Australia where there are kangaroos.

    即使是在充滿袋鼠的澳洲

  • But folks in an Australian suburb don`t want to tangle with this fella.

    但是在澳洲郊區的人們不想要跟這傢伙攪和

  • He`s six feet six inches tall, 209 pounds.

    他六英尺六英寸高,重209磅

  • He`s also swore and has a distinctive tear in his left ear.

    他也被詛咒,而有個分岔的左耳

  • It hasn`t really caused any trouble yet besides

    不過這不是任何意外造成的

  • maybe intimidating some folks and smaller kangaroos.

    但這確實嚇到了許多人還有小袋鼠

  • Most say they aren`t afraid of him but if he crosses their path,

    大部分人說他們不怕它,但如果它跳到人們面前

  • they should probably give him kanga-room and they want to hop to it.

    他們說會給它一個袋鼠走路的空間,然後想要立刻跳走

  • Animal that size can pack a pouch, and you wouldn`t want to roo the day,

    這種體型的動物是可以把人撞飛的,你可不會想要毀了美好的一天。

Returning from the Memorial Day weekend,

從紀念日回歸囉~

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May 26, 2015 - CNN Student News with subtitle

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