中級 美國腔 57043 分類 收藏
Have you ever been waiting in line at the grocery store,
innocently perusing the magazine rack, when a song pops into your head?
Not the whole song, but a fragment of it that plays and replays
until you find yourself unloading the vegetables in time to the beat.
You've been struck by an earworm, and you're not alone.
Over 90% of people are plagued by earworms at least once a week,
and about a quarter of people experience them several times a day.
They tend to burrow in during tasks that don't require much attention,
say, when waiting on water to boil
or a traffic light to change.
This phenomenon is one of the mind's great mysteries.
Scientists don't know exactly why it's so easy for tunes to get stuck in our heads.
From a psychological perspective,
earworms are an example of mental imagery.
This imagery can be visual,
like when you close your eyes and imagine a red wagon,
or it can be auditory,
like when you imagine the sound of a baby screaming,
or oil sizzling in a pan.
Earworms are a special form of auditory imagery
because they're involuntary.
You don't plug your ears and try to imagine "Who Let the Dogs Out,"
or, well, you probably don't.
It just intrudes onto your mental soundscape
and hangs around like an unwanted house guest.
Earworms tend to be quite vivid
and they're normally made up of a tune, rather than, say, harmonies.
A remarkable feature of earworms is their tendency to get stuck in a loop,
repeating again and again for minutes or hours.
Also remarkable is the role of repetition in sparking earworms.
Songs tend to get stuck when we listen to them recently and repeatedly.
If repetition is such a trigger,
then perhaps we can blame our earworms on modern technology.
The last hundred years have seen an incredible proliferation
of devices that help you listen to the same thing again and again.
Records, cassettes, CDs, or streamed audio files.
Have these technologies bred some kind of unique, contemporary experience,
and are earworms just a product of the late 20th century?
The answer comes from an unlikely source:
Mark Twain.
In 1876, just one year before the phonograph was invented,
he wrote a short story imagining a sinister takeover
of an entire town by a rhyming jingle.
This reference, and others,
show us that earworms seem to be a basic psychological phenomenon,
perhaps exacerbated by recording technology
but not new to this century.
So yes, every great historical figure, from Shakespeare to Sacajawea,
may well have wandered around with a song stuck in their head.
Besides music, it's hard to think of another case of intrusive imagery
that's so widespread.
Why music?
Why don't watercolors get stuck in our heads?
Or the taste of cheesy taquitos?
One theory has to do with the way music is represented in memory.
When we listen to a song we know,
we're constantly hearing forward in time, anticipating the next note.
It's hard for us to think about one particular musical moment in isolation.
If we want to think about the pitch of the word "you" in "Happy Birthday,"
we have to start back at "Happy,"
and sing through until we get to "you."
In this way, a tune is sort of like a habit.
Just like once you start tying your shoe,
you're on automatic until you tighten the bow,
once a tune is suggested
because, for example, someone says, "my umbrella,"
we have to play through until it reaches a natural stopping point,
"ella, ella, ella."
But this is a largely speculation.
The basic fact remains we don't know exactly why we're susceptible to earworms.
But understanding them better could give us important clues
to the workings of the human brain.
Maybe the next time we're plagued
by a Taylor Swift tune that just won't go away,
we'll use it as the starting point for a scientific odyssey
that will unlock important mysteries about basic cognition.
And if not, well, we can just shake it off.



【TED-Ed】那些你腦中揮之不去的歌 (Earworms: Those songs that get stuck in your head - Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis)

57043 分類 收藏
稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 8 月 5 日



pops into0:13
pop 作為名詞可以代表 「流行音樂」,也就是我們常聽到的 pop music.
Let's pop open a bottle of champagne to celebrate!
He popped in when we were about to leave the restaurant. He just came to say hi and left right away.

在影片中 pops into someone’s head 就是指「有一個想法突然浮現在腦中」。
另外,由 pop 組成的詞也有許多,常見的有 pop-up 用來指(機器)有自動跳起裝置或是(書本)有立體圖片的設計,很多時候也會用來形容「視窗跳出來」。
I get very annoyed that an ad just pops up when I’m browsing a website..


find yourself0:19
find yourself 字面上看起來好像是翻譯成「找自己」,但它其實不是這個意思。 find 這個字除了有我們最常見的「找」的意思,也常常用來表示「發現」,而這個「發現」不一定是實際上去發現一樣實質的物體,它可以表示比較抽象的「意識到」。在英文中有另外一個字 realize 和這個字義非常相似。所以在這裡的 find yourself doing someting 意思其實是指「發現或意識到自己在做某件事」。
After taking this class for one year, I’ve finally realized that this is not my field of interest.

earworm 這個字的中文翻譯是「耳蟲」,指的是某一段音樂一直在腦中不斷重複播放,而且研究表示,幾乎每一個人都有經歷過這種現象。這個詞把卡在腦中的曲調比喻成一隻蟲,一隻爬進你耳朵裡不出來的蟲。

image 這個字是我們比較常見的,意思是「形象」或是「影像」。
imagery 這個字指的是「意象」,「比喻」或是「形象化的描述」。跟 image 不一樣的地方是imagery 比較是只在腦中形成的「抽象」畫面。

hangs around1:27
hang around 的意思是「閒蕩」或「徘徊」,他可以用來具體的形容人,也可以表示比較抽象的事物,就像影片中是用來表示「熟悉的旋律在腦中揮之不去」。hang 這個字也組成許多片語:

hang in the air: 形容未解決的的事情
Our group is so inefficient that we have had more that 10 meetings, but the problem is still hanging in the air.

hang in: 堅持下去
This period of time is tough, but just hang in there. If you can fight through it, then the victory belongs to you.

hang out: 和某人在一起閒逛或是花時間和某人在一起(通常是指一起做休閒娛樂的事情)
I haven’t seen you for so long! When can we hang out? I have so much to update you!

hang on: 稍等一下
Hang on, I gotta finish the last sentence of my essay.






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