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  • Oliver was an extremely dashing,

    奧利佛是超級瀟灑、

  • handsome, charming and largely unstable male

    帥氣、有魅力,

  • that I completely lost my heart to.

    卻又「不安於室」的男性,

  • (Laughter)

    讓我深深著迷。

  • He was a Bernese mountain dog,

    牠是隻「伯恩山犬」。

  • and my ex-husband and I adopted him,

    我和我前夫收養牠。

  • and about six months in,

    但在不到6個月的相處,

  • we realized that he was a mess.

    我們就發現牠大有問題,

  • He had such paralyzing separation anxiety

    牠有非常嚴重的「分離焦慮症」,

  • that we couldn't leave him alone.

    我們不能讓牠獨處。

  • Once, he jumped out of our third floor apartment.

    牠有一次從3樓的家直接往下跳。

  • He ate fabric. He ate things, recyclables.

    牠會吃布料、或是其他回收物,

  • He hunted flies that didn't exist.

    牠會去撲不存在的蒼蠅,

  • He suffered from hallucinations.

    深受幻覺困擾。

  • He was diagnosed with a canine compulsive disorder

    牠最後被診斷出「犬類強迫症」,

  • and that's really just the tip of the iceberg.

    但這只是牠問題的冰山一角。

  • But like with humans,

    當問題出現在人身上,

  • sometimes it's six months in

    不用花6個月

  • before you realize that

    你就會發現,

  • the person that you love has some issues.

    你愛著的這個人有問題。

  • (Laughter)

  • And most of us do not take the person we're dating

    我們通常不會把那個人,

  • back to the bar where we met them

    丟回當初認識的酒吧;

  • or give them back to the friend that introduced us,

    或是叫介紹你們的朋友把他帶走,

  • or sign them back up on Match.com.

    或幫他重新登相親網站。

  • (Laughter)

  • We love them anyway,

    我們會愛他

  • and we stick to it,

    而且繼續愛著他。

  • and that is what I did with my dog.

    我對我的狗也是這樣

  • And I was a — I'd studied biology.

    我是念生物的,

  • I have a Ph.D. in history of science

    我是MIT的科學史博士。

  • from MIT,

    科學史博士,

  • and had you asked me 10 years ago

    若你10年前問我,

  • if a dog I loved, or just dogs generally,

    我愛的狗或者就一般狗而言

  • had emotions, I would have said yes,

    牠們會不會有情緒,我的答案是「會」。

  • but I'm not sure that I would have told you

    但那時候的我可能不知道,

  • that they can also wind up with an anxiety disorder,

    他們會變成有焦慮症,

  • a Prozac prescription and a therapist.

    還要靠吃藥和醫生幫忙。

  • But then, I fell in love, and I realized that they can,

    但我墜入愛河,而且知道原來會變這樣,

  • and actually trying to help my own dog

    然後我想幫牠

  • overcome his panic and his anxiety,

    克服牠的恐慌和焦慮。

  • it just changed my life.

    我的人生因此改變,

  • It cracked open my world.

    視野因此開闊。

  • And I spent the last seven years, actually,

    在過去的七年,我開始

  • looking into this topic of mental illness in other animals.

    研究動物的精神疾病。

  • Can they be mentally ill like people,

    那些病跟人類的一樣嗎?

  • and if so, what does it mean about us?

    如果是,對我們又有什麼意義?

  • And what I discovered is that I do believe

    我發現到的是我相信

  • they can suffer from mental illness,

    動物也深受精神疾病所苦。

  • and actually looking and trying to identify mental illness in them

    去試著理解牠們的這些病痛,

  • often helps us be better friends to them

    讓人類成為牠們更稱職的朋友,

  • and also can help us better understand ourselves.

    也幫助我們更加了解自己。

  • So let's talk about diagnosis for a minute.

    簡單講一下診斷過程。

  • Many of us think that we can't know

    我們大多認為我們不知道

  • what another animal is thinking,

    其他動物在想什麼。

  • and that is true,

    是這樣沒錯,

  • but any of you in relationships

    但無論友情愛情親情,

  • at least this is my case

    至少我的體會是,

  • just because you ask someone that you're with

    不會只因為你問另一半、

  • or your parent or your child how they feel

    你爸媽或小孩他們的感覺,

  • doesn't mean that they can tell you.

    他們就跟你說。

  • They may not have words to explain

    他們可能自己也不知道怎麼表達自己的感覺

  • what it is that they're feeling,

    或根本沒察覺到

  • and they may not know.

    也不知道那些情緒

  • It's actually a pretty recent phenomenon

    這其實是最近才開始,

  • that we feel that we have to talk to someone

    覺得我們必須要溝通

  • to understand their emotional distress.

    才會發覺情緒低落的傾向。

  • Before the early 20th century,

    在20世紀早期以前,

  • physicians often diagnosed emotional distress

    心理醫生診斷精神疾病,

  • in their patients just by observation.

    都只靠觀察。

  • It also turns out that thinking about

    而且另一方面有人認為,

  • mental illness in other animals

    動物的精神問題

  • isn't actually that much of a stretch.

    也不見得是壞事。

  • Most mental disorders in the United States

    在美國大部分人罹患的精神病,

  • are fear and anxiety disorders,

    是恐慌或是焦慮症。

  • and when you think about it, fear and anxiety

    但「恐慌」和「焦慮」,

  • are actually really extremely helpful animal emotions.

    其實是非常重要的動物本能。

  • Usually we feel fear and anxiety in situations that are dangerous,

    通常我們在感到危險的時候,才會有這種情緒反應。

  • and once we feel them,

    而一旦有這種反應,

  • we then are motivated to move away

    我們會想要遠離

  • from whatever is dangerous.

    任何讓我們感到危險的東西。

  • The problem is when we begin to feel fear and anxiety in situations that don't call for it.

    問題是在沒有危險的時候,我們也恐慌焦慮。

  • Mood disorders, too, may actually just be

    「情緒障礙」也可能是

  • the unfortunate downside of being a feeling animal,

    有感覺的動物很麻煩的一點。

  • and obsessive compulsive disorders also

    強迫症換個角度想,

  • are often manifestations of a really healthy animal thing

    其實是一種健康的表徵,

  • which is keeping yourself clean and groomed.

    因為想讓自己乾淨整潔。

  • This tips into the territory of mental illness

    但從精神疾病的角度看,

  • when you do things like

    只會看到你

  • compulsively over-wash your hands or paws,

    一直重複洗手,

  • or you develop a ritual that's so extreme

    或是重複某個儀式,

  • that you can't sit down to a bowl of food

    直到你覺得心滿意足,

  • unless you engage in that ritual.

    才有辦法好好坐下來吃飯。

  • So for humans, we have the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual,"

    所以我們有一本人類的「診斷與統計手冊」,

  • which is basically an atlas

    基本上是一本

  • of the currently agreed-upon mental disorders.

    集合現有精神疾病的手冊。

  • In other animals, we have YouTube.

    那其他動物呢,我們有「YouTube」。

  • (Laughter)

  • This is just one search I did for "OCD dog"

    這是我輸入「強迫症 狗」的畫面,

  • but I encourage all of you

    但我比較推薦,

  • to look at "OCD cat."

    去看「強迫症 貓」。

  • You will be shocked by what you see.

    保證驚奇不斷。

  • I'm going to show you just a couple examples.

    這邊分享幾個例子:

  • This is an example of shadow-chasing.

    這隻狗在和影子「玩」。

  • I know, and it's funny and in some ways it's cute.

    雖然很有趣而且還蠻可愛的,

  • The issue, though, is that dogs can develop compulsions like this

    但狗狗若有強迫症,

  • that they then engage in all day.

    就可能整天追著自己的影子。

  • So they won't go for a walk,

    牠們會不想散步、

  • they won't hang out with their friends,

    不和朋友玩、

  • they won't eat.

    不吃不喝,

  • They'll develop fixations

    最後產生「固著」行為,

  • like chasing their tails compulsively.

    比如追著尾巴一直轉。

  • Here's an example of a cat named Gizmo.

    這是隻叫「吉斯莫」貓,

  • He looks like he's on a stakeout

    看起來牠在監視鄰居,

  • but he does this for many, many, many hours a day.

    但牠一天會花上幾個小時這樣。

  • He just sits there and he will paw and paw and paw

    牠就坐在那,用前掌反覆地

  • at the screen.

    撥弄窗簾。

  • This is another example of what's considered

    這個也是被視為

  • a stereotypic behavior.

    理所當然的行為,

  • This is a sun bear at the Oakland Zoo named Ting Ting.

    這隻是在奧克蘭動物園,叫做「丁丁」的馬來熊。

  • And if you just sort of happened upon this scene,

    如果你剛好看到這個畫面,

  • you might think that Ting Ting

    可能會覺得丁丁

  • is just playing with a stick,

    只是在玩樹枝吧。

  • but Ting Ting does this all day,

    但牠會玩一整天。

  • and if you pay close attention

    如果你們更仔細一點看,

  • and if I showed you guys the full half-hour of this clip,

    如果你們願意,我可以播半個小時的錄影,

  • you'd see that he does the exact same thing

    你會發現牠真的在做一樣的事,

  • in the exact same order, and he spins the stick

    一樣的步驟,和一樣的方式

  • in the exact same way every time.

    去轉那些樹枝。

  • Other super common behaviors that you may see,

    另一個也很常見,

  • particularly in captive animals,

    通常是受困動物,

  • are pacing stereotypies or swaying stereotypies,

    用固定方式走或晃來晃去。

  • and actually, humans do this too,

    其實人也會這樣,

  • and in us, we'll sway,

    我們會動來動去、

  • we'll move from side to side.

    從這邊晃到那邊。

  • Many of us do this, and sometimes

    我們大多是

  • it's an effort to soothe ourselves,

    為了放鬆一下。

  • and I think in other animals that is often the case too.

    對大部分的動物也是如此。

  • But it's not just stereotypic behaviors

    但牠們做的,

  • that other animals engage in.

    不只是這些重複的行為。

  • This is Gigi. She's a gorilla that lives

    這是「琪琪」,住在

  • at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston.

    波士頓富蘭克林動物公園的黑猩猩。

  • She actually has a Harvard psychiatrist,

    牠有一個哈佛大學的精神醫師,

  • and she's been treated for a mood disorder

    幫牠治療情緒障礙

  • among other things.

    和其他問題。

  • Many animals develop mood disorders.

    很多動物都有情緒障礙。

  • Lots of creatures

    有很多生物...

  • this horse is just one example

    比如說這隻馬,

  • develop self-destructive behaviors.

    就有自我毀滅的行為。

  • They'll gnaw on things

    牠會去亂啃東西,

  • or do other things that may also soothe them,

    或做一些能舒緩情緒的事,

  • even if they're self-destructive,

    就算這些事是在自我毀滅,

  • which could be considered similar

    就和

  • to the ways that some humans cut themselves.

    有些人會想要割手臂、手腕的道理一樣。

  • Plucking.

    還有拔毛!

  • Turns out, if you have fur or feathers or skin,

    如果你有皮毛、羽毛或皮膚,

  • you can pluck yourself compulsively,

    你可能會一直去拔毛,

  • and some parrots actually have been studied

    有些針對鸚鵡的研究,

  • to better understand trichotillomania, or compulsive plucking in humans,

    試圖找出人類的「拔毛癖」或拔毛強迫症

  • something that affects

    的原因。

  • 20 million Americans right now.

    因為現在有2千萬的美國人,正在受這個病症折磨。

  • Lab rats pluck themselves too.

    實驗室的老鼠也拔自己的毛,

  • In them, it's called barbering.

    但那比較是在梳理。

  • Canine veterans of conflicts of Iraq and Afghanistan

    從「以阿衝突」退役的軍犬,

  • are coming back with what's considered canine PTSD,

    回來之後被發現患有「創傷後症候群」。

  • and they're having a hard time reentering civilian life

    對牠們從戰場融入普通生活,

  • when they come back from deployments.

    是一大障礙。

  • They can be too scared to approach men with beards

    牠們會害怕接近有鬍子的人,

  • or to hop into cars.

    或不敢跳上車。

  • I want to be careful and be clear, though.

    但在這邊我要強調,

  • I do not think that canine PTSD

    我不認為狗的創傷後症候群,

  • is the same as human PTSD.

    跟人的一樣;

  • But I also do not think that my PTSD

    我也不覺得我的創傷後症候群,

  • is like your PTSD,

    會跟你的一樣。

  • or that my anxiety or that my sadness is like yours.

    或說我的焦慮或低潮跟你的一樣。

  • We are all different.

    我們是不同的。

  • We also all have very different susceptibilities.

    我們對每件事的感受也不同。

  • So two dogs, raised in the same household,

    所以就算兩隻養在一起的狗,

  • exposed to the very same things,

    接觸到相同的刺激,

  • one may develop, say, a debilitating fear of motorcycles,

    有一隻可能會怕機車

  • or a phobia of the beep of the microwave,

    或微波爐的嗶嗶聲,

  • and another one is going to be just fine.

    但另一隻就不會。

  • So one thing that people ask me pretty frequently:

    所以我很常被問:

  • Is this just an instance of humans

    會不會是因為主人

  • driving other animals crazy?

    把他們的寵物逼瘋?

  • Or, is animal mental illness just a result of mistreatment or abuse?

    或問動物的精神疾病是不是只是主人虐待、飼養方式有問題?

  • And it turns out we're actually

    其實我們的角色,

  • so much more complicated than that.

    比這些問題還要複雜許多。

  • So one great thing that has happened to me

    最近我出版了一本

  • is recently I published a book on this,

    跟這些問題有關的書。

  • and every day now that I open my email

    然後從那之後,我每天打開信箱、

  • or when I go to a reading

    去演講、

  • or even when I go to a cocktail party,

    甚至只是去一個酒會,

  • people tell me their stories

    都會有人跟我分享,

  • of the animals that they have met.

    他們知道的動物故事。

  • And recently, I did a reading in California,

    上次我在加州演講的時候,

  • and a woman raised her hand after the talk and she said,

    有一個女生在會後舉手說:

  • "Dr. Braitman, I think my cat has PTSD."

    「布雷特曼博士,我覺得我的貓有創傷後症候群。」

  • And I said, "Well, why? Tell me a little bit about it."

    所以我說,「怎麼說?再多講一點。」

  • So, Ping is her cat. She was a rescue,

    她的貓「萍」,是被救出來的。

  • and she used to live with an elderly man,

    牠之前的主人是一位老先生。

  • and one day the man was vacuuming

    有一天老先生在吸地板,

  • and he suffered a heart attack, and he died.

    結果突然心臟病發過世了。

  • A week later, Ping was discovered in the apartment

    一個禮拜之後才有人發現,

  • alongside the body of her owner,

    萍就在遺體旁邊,

  • and the vacuum had been running the entire time.

    而且吸塵器一直開著。

  • For many months, up to I think two years after that incident,

    好幾個月後,可能持續有2年之久,

  • she was so scared she couldn't be in the house when anyone was cleaning.

    牠都還在怕,牠不能待在打掃中的房間。

  • She was quite literally a scaredy cat.

    牠完全是一隻被嚇壞的貓。

  • She would hide in the closet.

    牠會躲進衣櫃,

  • She was un-self-confident and shaky,

    非常沒自信又一直顫抖。

  • but with the loving support of her family,

    但還好家人的愛與支持,

  • a lot of a time, and their patience,

    大量的時間和耐心,

  • now, three years later,

    3年後的現在,

  • she's actually a happy, confident cat.

    萍變成開心有自信的貓。

  • Another story of trauma and recovery that I came across

    另一個我遇到的創傷和復原的故事,

  • was actually a few years ago.

    是幾年前,

  • I was in Thailand to do some research.

    我在泰國做研究時,

  • I met a monkey named Boonlua,

    遇到一隻叫「布魯瓦」的猴子。

  • and when Boonlua was a baby,

    布魯瓦很小的時候,

  • he was attacked by a pack of dogs,

    被一群狗攻擊。

  • and they ripped off both of his legs and one arm,

    牠的雙腳還有一隻手臂被扯斷,

  • and Boonlua dragged himself to a monastery,

    但牠拖著自己到一間佛寺,

  • where the monks took him in.

    結果和尚就收留牠。

  • They called in a veterinarian, who treated his wounds.

    他們幫牠找來獸醫,讓牠接受治療。

  • Eventually, Boonlua wound up

    最後布魯瓦

  • at an elephant facility,

    到了一間大象的收容所。

  • and the keepers really decided to take him under their wing,

    所長決定要收留布魯瓦。

  • and they figured out what he liked,

    然後他們還發現牠喜歡

  • which, it turned out, was mint Mentos

    薄荷曼陀珠、

  • and Rhinoceros beetles and eggs.

    獨角仙還有蛋。

  • But they worried, because he was social, that he was lonely,

    但他們很擔心牠,因為牠是群居動物卻很寂寞。

  • and they didn't want to put him in with another monkey,

    他們不想把牠跟其他猴子放在一起,

  • because they thought with just one arm,

    因為他們擔心只有一隻手臂,

  • he wouldn't be able to defend himself or even play.

    沒辦法保護自己或跟同伴玩。

  • And so they gave him a rabbit,

    所以他們送牠一隻兔子朋友,

  • and Boonlua was immediately a different monkey.

    結果布魯瓦完全變了個樣。

  • He was extremely happy to be with this rabbit.

    牠好喜歡跟兔子膩在一起,

  • They groomed each other, they become close friends,

    牠們會互相梳理、變成很好的朋友。

  • and then the rabbit had bunnies,

    之後兔子生了兔寶寶,

  • and Boonlua was even happier than he was before,

    布魯瓦比之前更開心。

  • and it had in a way given him

    這讓牠有理由

  • a reason to wake up in the morning,

    每天很早起床,

  • and in fact it gave him such a reason to wake up

    甚至因為太想起床,

  • that he decided not to sleep.

    結果牠根本沒睡。

  • He became extremely protective of these bunnies,

    牠超級照顧這些兔寶寶,

  • and he stopped sleeping,

    不眠不休,

  • and he would sort of nod off

    還會在照顧寶寶的時候

  • while trying to take care of them.

    打瞌睡。

  • In fact, he was so</