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  • Humans have very complex, deep, and nuanced emotions.

    人類有非常複雜、深刻又細膩的情緒。

  • Bummer! our face doesn't show them at all.

    該死!我們的臉根本沒辦法把所有都呈現出來!

  • Anthony Carboni here for DNews and you can usually tell how someone is feeling by their facial expression.

    這裡是 DNEws 的 Anthony Carboni。你通常可以用臉部表情來判斷某人的情緒。

  • There's a commonly held theory that across all cultures, humans actually only have six different emotional facial expressions.

    有個廣泛承認的理論指出,綜觀所有文化,人類事實上只有六種不同的情緒:

  • Happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust.

    快樂、悲傷、害怕、生氣、驚訝與厭惡。

  • All this is based on some research by a psychologist named Paul Ekman based on a theory by Charles Darwin.

    這些都是基於心理學家 Paul Ekman 的研究,而其又源於達爾文的學說。

  • Darwin thought that people worldwide must manifest emotions in the same way,

    達爾文認為全世界的人類一定會用相同的方式表達情緒。

  • And Ekman traveled around the world asking people from all types of cultures to show him those emotions.

    而 Ekman 周遊世界各地,請不同文化背景的人展示那些情緒。

  • And the expressions always matched.

    而那些表達方式總是對得上。

  • He called it the Basic Emotion model, and he said that he could even use it to recognize a liar by the difference between an actual expression and the microexpressions made by someone attempting to mimic them without the actual feeling behind them.

    他稱這為基本情緒模型,而他甚至稱這能夠用在辨識說謊者,只要利用有感受到而表達,和沒有感受到卻試圖模仿間細微的表情差異。

  • He even consulted with the CIA about it in the 70s to help their interrogators.

    他甚至在七零年代和 CIA 商討以協助他們偵訊。

  • The research has been pretty widely accepted since it debuted in 1969, but certain studies have shown otherwise.

    自它於 1969 年首次發表,這份研究就頗為廣泛流傳,但某些研究卻指向別種結論。

  • One showed people pictures of two scowling faces and said "Hey, do these people feel the same way?"

    其中一個展示給人多張兩兩一組的皺眉照片,並問他們:「嘿!你覺得這兩個人感受是一樣的嗎?」

  • And the answer was not always yes.

    而大家不見得都回答「是」。

  • Another showed people an angry face, but didn't give them "angry" as a choice.

    另一個則秀給受試者一張生氣的臉,但卻沒有給他們「生氣」的選項。

  • Those people were perfectly happy to choose "disgust" or "contempt" instead.

    大家卻也很樂意改選「厭惡」或「鄙視」。

  • So, it sounds like we might be too complex to fit into a model.

    所以,聽起來我們相較於理論還是太複雜了。

  • But what if the model is actually too complex for our faces?

    但會不會是理論相較於人的表情才是複雜的那個呢?

  • New research by the University of Glasgow says that we've actually got four emotions that we universally express.

    University of Glasgow 新的研究指出全世界共通的情緒其實只有四種。

  • Happiness and sadness are two of them, but fear and surprise are the same, and anger and disgust are the same.

    快樂和悲傷是其中兩種,但害怕和驚訝是一樣的,而生氣和厭惡是一樣的。

  • The study says that all humans begin with the same simple expressions of biologically-rooted signals.

    研究指出人類情緒從共同源自生物基礎訊號的簡單情緒開始發展。

  • All the other details are added depending on the culture and society we live in.

    所有其他細節則因我們身處的文化和社會不同而額外加入。

  • Smiling is always happy, frowning is always sad, scrunching our nose is the beginning of anger and disgust, though.

    笑都代表快樂、皺眉都代表難過、不過嗤之以鼻則可以代表要開始生氣或是厭惡。

  • And that comes from a basic need to show something displeasing or dangerous is happening, and it also stops us from inhaling harmful particles.

    而那表情來自於我們對於表達令人不快或危險事物正在發生的基本需求,而且也能阻止我們吸入有害粒子。

  • Fear and surprise start the same too, with widening eyes - you take in more visual information, you assess your situation, you look for a potential escape.

    害怕和驚訝首先都會張大眼睛 —— 你會接受更多視覺訊息、研判身處情況、並尋找潛在的逃脫方式。

  • After those four basic emotions, everything else is actually cultural.

    這四種基本反應除外,剩下的一切都是由文化決定的。

  • As we spread out across the world, we created much more nuanced expressions to fit our societies.

    隨著我們擴散到世界各地,我們也因應社會而跟著產生更細緻的表情。

  • Studies show that Asian cultures use the eyes much more to identify emotion, while Europeans use their mouths much more.

    研究顯示亞洲文化下多用眼睛去判別情緒,而歐洲人則更在意嘴巴。

  • I went to Russia last year and people told me that I was smiling too much, and that it looked fake.

    我去年去俄羅斯的時候,那裡的人跟我說我太常笑,因此看起來假假的。

  • I don't know if that's because I'm American or because they see me for the shame that I really am.

    我不知道這是因為我是美國人,還是因為他們看到我真實而感到羞恥的那一面。

  • You know what else I'm wondering?

    你知道我還有在想什麼嗎?

  • I've got a dog at home, and I feel like I could read his expressions, too.

    我在家養了一條狗,我總覺得我也能夠讀出他的表情。

  • I wonder if they use the same emotions.

    我懷疑狗狗們是不是也有同樣的情緒。

Humans have very complex, deep, and nuanced emotions.

人類有非常複雜、深刻又細膩的情緒。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 表情 生氣 文化 表達 研究 達爾文

我們只有四個面部表情! (We Only Have Four Facial Expressions!)

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    TeacherJennifer Bryne 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 06 日
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