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  • "Hi, Bob."

    「嗨!Bob!」

  • "Morning, Kelly. The tulips looks great."

    「早安,Kelly,那鬱金香看起來真棒。」

  • Have you ever wondered how your dog experiences the world?

    你是否曾經好奇過你的狗狗如何感受這個世界?

  • Here's what she sees.

    這是牠所看到的。

  • Not terribly interesting.

    沒有很有趣。

  • But what she smells, that's a totally different story.

    但牠聞到的卻又是另一回事。

  • And it begins at her wonderfully developed nose.

    這一切都源自於牠靈敏發達的鼻子。

  • As your dog catches the first hints of fresh air, her nose's moist, spongy outside helps capture any scents the breeze carries.

    當狗狗第一時間接觸到新鮮空氣時,牠鼻子外濕潤海綿狀的構造可以幫助牠擷取空氣中攜帶的各種訊息。

  • The ability to smell separately with each nostril, smelling in stereo, helps to determine the direction of the smell's source,

    兩個鼻孔有各自不同的嗅覺能力,以及立體嗅覺幫助牠判斷氣味來源的方向,

  • so that within the first few moments of sniffing, the dog starts to become aware of not just what kinds of things are out there but also where they're located.

    所以當狗狗一聞到東西,牠就可以察覺氣味中所含的物質,同時也能知道那些物質在哪。

  • As air enters the nose, a small fold of tissue divides it into two separate folds, one for breathing and one just for smelling.

    當空氣進入鼻子時,有一個小小的皺褶組織會將空氣分成兩個部分,一部分用來呼吸,另一部分用來聞。

  • This second airflow enters a region filled with highly specialized olfactory receptor cells, several hundred millions of them, compared to our five million.

    用來聞的那部分將會進入一個區域,裡面佈滿高度特化的嗅覺受器細胞,相較於人類只有五百萬個嗅覺細胞,狗狗則有數億個!

  • And unlike our clumsy way of breathing in and out through the same passage, dogs exhale through slits at the side of their nose,

    不同於人類吸氣和吐氣都經由同一個通道的笨拙呼吸方式,狗狗利用位在鼻子側邊的狹縫吐氣,

  • creating swirls of air that help draw in new odor molecules and allow odor concentration to build up over mulitple sniffs.

    使空氣形成漩渦以吸引新的氣味分子,讓氣味分子集中以產生多次的吸氣。

  • But all that impressive nasal architecture wouldn't be much help without something to process the loads of information the nose scoops up.

    但若是缺乏處理鼻子採集的大量訊息的東西,那令人讚歎的鼻腔構造仍然無法運作。

  • And it turns out that the olfactory system dedicated to processing smells takes up many times more relative brain area in dogs than in humans.

    結果表明,專門處理氣味的嗅覺系統在狗中佔據的相對大腦區域比在人類中多得多。

  • All of this allows dogs to distinguish and remember a staggering variety of specific scents at concentrations up to 100 million times less than what our noses can detect.

    這一切讓狗狗在比人類可察覺的氣味濃度低一億倍的狀況下,還可以辨認並記住各式各樣特別的氣味。

  • If you can smell a spritz of perfume in a small room, a dog would have no trouble smelling it in an enclosed stadium and distinguishing its ingredients to boot.

    如果說你可以聞到一間小房間內的一抹香水味,那狗就有辦法在一個室內體育場內聞到那股香水味,並且辨認它的成份。

  • And everything in the street, every passing person or car, any contents of the neighbor's trash, each type of tree,

    街上的任何東西,任何一個路過的人或車、鄰居家垃圾中所有的內容物、各種種類的樹,

  • and all the birds and insects in it has a distinct odor profile telling your dog what it is, where it is, and which direction it's moving in.

    以及樹上所有的鳥和昆蟲都有它獨特的氣味,好讓你的狗狗分辨那是什麼以及它的位置,還有那東西正往哪裡移動。

  • Besides being much more powerful than ours, a dog's sense of smell can pick up things that can't even be seen at all.

    狗的嗅覺不僅比人類的強大,牠的嗅覺甚至可以發現看不見的東西。

  • A whole separate olfactory system, called the vomeronasal organ, above the roof of the mouth, detects the hormones all animals, including humans, naturally release.

    一個叫做犁鼻器的完全獨立嗅覺系統位在口腔頂壁的上方,可以偵測所有動物,包括人類自然散發出的賀爾蒙。

  • It lets dogs identify potential mates, or distinguish between friendly and hostile animals.

    這讓狗狗可以識別潛在的伴侶,或是辨別其他動物是友善還是抱有敵意的。

  • It alerts them to our various emotional states, and it can even tell them when someone is pregnant or sick.

    這可以使狗狗意識到我們的各種情緒狀態,甚至可以讓牠們知道哪個人是懷孕或生病的。

  • Because olfaction is more primal than other senses, bypassing the thalamus to connect directly to the brain structures involving emotion and instinct,

    因為嗅覺比其他感覺更原始,它會繞過視丘直接連接到涉及情緒和本能的大腦結構,

  • we might even say a dog's perception is more immediate and visceral than ours.

    我們甚至可以說狗的感知比我們的感知更直接和更發自內心的。

  • But the most amazing thing about your dog's nose is that it can traverse time.

    但狗的鼻子最驚人的地方在於,它可以跨越時間。

  • The past appears in tracks left by passersby, and by the warmth of a recently parked car or the residue of where you've been and what you've done recently.

    牠們可以聞出來往路人留下的蹤跡,也可以透過剛剛離開的車輛所殘留的氣味知道你去了哪裡和你做的一切。

  • Landmarks like fire hydrants and trees are aromatic bulletin boards carrying messages of who's been by, what they've been eating, and how they're feeling.

    消防栓或樹木等其他地標,是留下氣味的告示牌並告訴發出氣味的人已經通過,他們了什麼或是他們感到了什麼。

  • And the future is in the breeze, alerting them to something or someone approaching long before you see them.

    而在微風中警告他們某人或某事接近牠們多遠 你會看到他。

  • Where we see and hear something at a single moment, a dog smells an entire story from start to finish.

    在那裏我們看到或聽到的東西 在某個單一的時刻狗的氣味 整個故事的開始到結束

  • In some of the best examples of canine-human collaboration, dogs help us by sharing and reacting to those stories.

    在一些最好關於狗跟人合作的例子,狗幫助我們透過分享和反應的故事

  • They can respond with kindness to people in distress, or with aggression to threats because stress and anger manifest as a cloud of hormones recognizable to the dog's nose.

    牠捫會友善地回應深陷痛苦中的人或侵略與威脅因為壓力和憤怒表現為雲激素可以認識到狗的鼻子

  • With the proper training, they can even alert us to invisible threats ranging from bombs to cancer.

    有適當的訓練對於無形的威些 他甚至可以對我們發出警告範圍從炸彈到腫瘤都能辦到

  • As it turns out, humanity's best friend is not one who experiences the same things we do, but one whose incredible nose reveals a whole other world beyond our eyes.

    事實證明狗是人類最好的朋友但狗的鼻子證明了另一個世界超越我們的眼睛

"Hi, Bob."

「嗨!Bob!」

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 氣味 嗅覺 鼻子 狗狗 人類

【TED-Ed】狗是如何用鼻子 "看 "的?- 亞歷山德拉-霍洛維茨 (【TED-Ed】How do dogs "see" with their noses? - Alexandra Horowitz)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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