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  • What has the War on Drugs done to the world?

    禁毒戰爭對世界帶來了什麼影響?

  • Look at the murder and mayhem in Mexico,

    看看在墨西哥、中美州和

  • Central America, so many other parts of the planet,

    世界各地的謀殺和打鬥;

  • the global black market estimated

    看看全球每年總值

  • at 300 billion dollars a year,

    約三千億的黑市;

  • prisons packed in the United States and elsewhere,

    看看美國和其他地方那些人滿為患的監獄;

  • police and military drawn into an unwinnable war

    警察和軍隊被牽扯進入一場打不贏、

  • that violates basic rights, and ordinary citizens

    並且侵犯基本人權的戰爭,

  • just hope they don't get caught in the crossfire,

    還有一班無辜的平民 祈求著不要被捲入搏火中。

  • and meanwhile, more people using

    但與此同時, 吸毒的人

  • more drugs than ever.

    卻是前所未有的多。

  • It's my country's history with alcohol prohibition

    這像是我的國家的禁酒令

  • and Al Capone, times 50.

    和打黑的五十倍。

  • Which is why it's particularly galling to me

    令我感到很難堪的是,

  • as an American that we've been the driving force

    我們美國人正正就是這個

  • behind this global drug war.

    環球反毒戰背後的推手。

  • Ask why so many countries criminalize

    問問那些國家為什麼把

  • drugs they'd never heard of,

    他們連聽都沒聽過的藥物列為違法?

  • why the U.N. drug treaties emphasize

    為什麼聯合國的藥物條約會注重

  • criminalization over health,

    刑事定罪多於人民的健康?

  • even why most of the money worldwide

    甚至為什麼全世界大部分對付濫用藥物的資金

  • for dealing with drug abuse goes not

    都去了懲治濫藥的機構而不是

  • to helping agencies but those that punish,

    幫助改善濫藥的機構?

  • and you'll find the good old U.S. of A.

    你會發現美利堅大國就是背後的答案。

  • Why did we do this?

    我們為什麼要這樣做?

  • Some people, especially in Latin America,

    有些人,特別是在拉丁美洲的人,

  • think it's not really about drugs.

    認為這並非真正關乎毒品

  • It's just a subterfuge for advancing

    事實上, 這只不過是一個推進

  • the realpolitik interests of the U.S.

    美國政治利益的托詞。

  • But by and large, that's not it.

    但總的來說,又不僅如此。

  • We don't want gangsters and guerrillas

    我們不想黑幫和游擊隊

  • funded with illegal drug money

    有來自非法毒品的資金支持

  • terrorizing and taking over other nations.

    去恐嚇和接管其他國家。

  • No, the fact is, America really is crazy

    不,事實是,當涉及到毒品,

  • when it comes to drugs.

    美國真是瘋的。

  • I mean, don't forget, we're the ones who thought

    我的意思是,不要忘了, 我們就是那些認為自己

  • that we could prohibit alcohol.

    可以禁酒的人。

  • So think about our global drug war

    所以,不要把全球反毒品戰爭想成

  • not as any sort of rational policy,

    任何一種理性的政策,

  • but as the international projection

    要把它想成一個國家精神病

  • of a domestic psychosis.

    延伸到了國際。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • But here's the good news.

    但這裡有個好消息。

  • Now it's the Russians leading the Drug War and not us.

    現在是俄羅斯在領導反毒戰爭,而不是我們。

  • Most politicians in my country

    大多數在我國政治家現在

  • want to roll back the Drug War now,

    想在反毒戰爭上退一步,

  • put fewer people behind bars, not more,

    判更少的人入獄,而不是更多,

  • and I'm proud to say as an American

    我可以很自豪地說,作為一個美國人

  • that we now lead the world

    我們現在正領導世界

  • in reforming marijuana policies.

    改革大麻政策。

  • It's now legal for medical purposes

    現在,只要是在合法的醫療目的下,

  • in almost half our 50 states,

    幾在乎美國50個州中的一半,

  • millions of people can purchase their marijuana,

    數以百萬計的人都可以從政府許可的藥店購買

  • their medicine, in government- licensed dispensaries,

    他們的大麻──他們的藥物,

  • and over half my fellow citizens now say it's time

    還有超過一半的同胞們說,現在是時候

  • to legally regulate and tax marijuana

    立法規範大麻和收取稅項,

  • more or less like alcohol.

    就跟酒精一樣。

  • That's what Colorado and Washington are doing,

    這就是科羅拉多州和華盛頓正在做的,

  • and Uruguay, and others are sure to follow.

    還有烏拉圭,其他地方也肯定會跟隨。

  • So that's what I do:

    所以,這就是我做的事:

  • work to end the Drug War.

    致力結束反毒品戰爭。

  • I think it all started growing up

    我想這一切始於成長在

  • in a fairly religious, moral family,

    一個比較篤信宗教的和注重道德的家庭,

  • eldest son of a rabbi,

    和作為一個猶太教教士的長子,

  • going off to university where I

    我去上大學時,

  • smoked some marijuana

    抽了一些大麻

  • and I liked it. (Laughter)

    而且很喜歡。 (笑聲)

  • And I liked drinking too, but it was obvious

    我也很喜歡喝酒,但很明顯

  • that alcohol was really the more dangerous of the two,

    酒精在兩者中真的比較危險,

  • but my friends and I could get busted

    可是我和我的朋友是有可能會

  • for smoking a joint.

    因為吸大麻而被抓的。

  • Now, that hypocrisy kept bugging me,

    這個表裡不一的概念不停地纏著我,

  • so I wrote my Ph.D dissertation on international drug control.

    所以我寫了有關國際藥物管制的博士論文。

  • I talked my way into the State Department.

    我找方法進入了國務院。

  • I got a security clearance.

    我得到了安全許可。

  • I interviewed hundreds of DEA and other law enforcement agents

    我採訪了數百名在歐洲和美洲等地的

  • all around Europe and the Americas,

    藥品管制局(DEA)以及執法人員,

  • and I'd ask them,

    我會問他們,

  • "What do you think the answer is?"

    “你認為答案是什麼?”

  • Well, in Latin America, they'd say to me,

    好吧,在拉丁美洲,他們會跟我說,

  • "You can't really cut off the supply.

    "你真的沒法切斷供應。

  • The answer lies back in the U.S.,

    答案在於美國,

  • in cutting off the demand."

    在於切斷需求。"

  • So then I go back home and I talk to people

    於是我回到家鄉,我問在那裡

  • involved in anti-drug efforts there, and they'd say,

    參與禁毒工作的人,他們卻說,

  • "You know, Ethan, you can't really cut off the demand.

    "你知道嗎,伊森,您真的無法切斷需求。

  • The answer lies over there. You've got to cut off the supply."

    答案在那邊。你一定要切斷供應。"

  • Then I'd go and talk to the guys in customs

    然後,我去跟海關那邊的傢伙聊,

  • trying to stop drugs at the borders,

    試圖在邊境阻止毒品進入。

  • and they'd say, "You're not going to stop it here.

    他們說,“你不可能在這裡把它停止堵住的。

  • The answer lies over there,

    答案在於在那邊,

  • in cutting off supply and demand."

    在於切斷供給和需求。

  • And it hit me:

    在那一刻,我終於明白了。

  • Everybody involved in this

    每個參與的人

  • thought the answer lay in that area

    都認為答案在另一個領域,

  • about which they knew the least.

    一個他們了解得最少的領域。

  • So that's when I started reading everything I could

    於是我開始閱讀一切關於

  • about psychoactive drugs: the history, the science,

    精神藥品的資料: 它的歷史、科學、

  • the politics, all of it,

    政治,所有的一切。

  • and the more one read,

    而讀得越多,

  • the more it hit you how a thoughtful,

    你就會越明白到,一個周到、

  • enlightened, intelligent approach took you over here,

    開明、聰明的方法會把你帶到這裡,

  • whereas the politics and laws of my country

    而我國的政治和法律

  • were taking you over here.

    則會帶你到這裡。

  • And that disparity struck me as this incredible

    這個差異讓我很吃驚, 這實在是個令人難以置信的

  • intellectual and moral puzzle.

    智力和道德難題。

  • There's probably never been

    可能從來就沒有過

  • a drug-free society.

    一個沒有毒品的社會。

  • Virtually every society

    幾乎每一個社會

  • has ingested psychoactive substances

    都有在用精神藥物,

  • to deal with pain, increase our energy, socialize,

    有的用來對付疼痛,增加精力,社交應酬,

  • even commune with God.

    有的甚至是用來與神溝通。

  • Our desire to alter our consciousness

    我們追求改變自我意識的慾望,

  • may be as fundamental as our desires

    可能是就追求温飽、

  • for food, companionship and sex.

    陪伴和性一樣基本。

  • So our true challenge

    因此,我們真正的挑戰

  • is to learn how to live with drugs

    是學習如何和藥物共存,

  • so they cause the least possible harm

    使它引起盡可能少的危害,

  • and in some cases the greatest possible benefit.

    並且在某些情況下帶來最大的益處。

  • I'll tell you something else I learned,

    讓我告訴你們我所學到的另一件事,

  • that the reason some drugs are legal and others not

    之所以有些藥物是合法,有些則不是的原因,

  • has almost nothing to do with science or health

    跟科學、健康或藥物的相對風險

  • or the relative risk of drugs,

    幾乎沒有任何關係;

  • and almost everything to do with who uses

    而是跟誰在使用,

  • and who is perceived to use particular drugs.

    或是誰被認為在使用某種藥物有關。

  • In the late 19th century,

    在19世紀後期,

  • when most of the drugs that are now illegal were legal,

    當大多數現在是非法藥物還是合法的時候,

  • the principal consumers of opiates in my country

    在我國和其他國家的鴉片的主要消費者

  • and others were middle-aged white women,

    是中年的白人婦女,

  • using them to alleviate aches and pains

    她們用鴉片來緩解疼痛,

  • when few other analgesics were available.

    當時很少有其他的止痛藥可用。

  • And nobody thought about criminalizing it back then

    當時沒有人想過把它定為刑事犯罪,

  • because nobody wanted to put Grandma behind bars.

    因為沒有人希望把奶奶關在監牢裡。

  • But when hundreds of thousands of Chinese

    但是,當成千上萬的中國人

  • started showing up in my country,

    開始出現在我的國家,

  • working hard on the railroads and the mines

    在鐵路和礦山上打拼,

  • and then kicking back in the evening

    然後晚上放鬆一下,

  • just like they had in the old country

    就像他們在故鄉時那樣

  • with a few puffs on that opium pipe,

    吸上幾口大煙的時候,

  • that's when you saw the first drug prohibition laws

    你看到在加利福尼亞州和內華達州的

  • in California and Nevada,

    第一條禁毒法出現了。

  • driven by racist fears of Chinese

    因為那些有種族歧視的人擔心

  • transforming white women

    中國人會把白人婦女變成

  • into opium-addicted sex slaves.

    鴉片成癮的性奴隸。

  • The first cocaine prohibition laws, similarly prompted

    而第一條禁止可卡因的法律, 也是由那些有種族歧視

  • by racist fears of black men sniffing that white powder

    的人所提倡的, 他們怕黑人嗅了那白色粉末以後,

  • and forgetting their proper place

    會忘記自己在南方社會的

  • in Southern society.

    適當位置。

  • And the first marijuana prohibition laws,

    還有第一條禁止大麻的法律,

  • all about fears of Mexican migrants

    同樣是和在西部和西南地區

  • in the West and the Southwest.

    對墨西哥移民的恐懼有關。

  • And what was true in my country,

    而這些在我的國家的真相,

  • is true in so many others as well,

    在別的地方也如是,

  • with both the origins of these laws

    那些法律的起源和

  • and their implementation.

    執行都是這樣的。

  • Put it this way,

    這樣說好了,

  • and I exaggerate only slightly:

    我就誇張一點說,

  • If the principal smokers of cocaine

    如果可卡因的主要吸食者,

  • were affluent older white men

    都是一些有錢的白人老頭,

  • and the principal consumers of Viagra

    而偉哥的主要消費者,

  • were poor young black men,

    都是貧窮的年輕黑人男子,

  • then smokable cocaine would be easy to get with a prescription from your doctor

    那麼, 拿到煙用可卡因將會比 得到你醫生的處方更容易

  • and selling Viagra would get you five to 10 years behind bars.

    而出售偉哥將會讓你坐5到10年的牢。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • I used to be a professor teaching about this.

    我曾經是一個教這方面的教授。

  • Now I'm an activist, a human rights activist,

    現在,我是一個積極分子, 一名人權運動積極分子,

  • and what drives me is my shame

    而背後驅使我的動力是慚愧,

  • at living in an otherwise great nation

    我生活在一個原本很偉大的國家,

  • that has less than five percent of the world's population

    我國家的人口占不到世界人口的5%,